National Recovery Plan for Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata



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National Recovery Plan for Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata











Prepared by Dr Joe Benshemesh, for the Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia.

This recovery plan was prepared in accordance with the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

ISBN 978-0-9806503-6-5


© Government of South Australia

This publication is copyright. Apart from any use permitted under the copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Government of South Australia. Requests and inquiries regarding reproduction should be addressed to:

Department for Environment and Heritage

GPO Box 1047

ADELAIDE SA 5001

Note: This recovery plan sets out the actions necessary to stop the decline of, and support the recovery of, the listed threatened species.

The plan has been developed with the involvement and cooperation of a broad range of stakeholders, but individual stakeholders have not necessarily committed to undertaking specific actions. The attainment of objectives and the provision of funds may be subject to budgetary and other constraints affecting the parties involved. Proposed actions may be subject to modification over the life of the plan due to changes in knowledge.
This plan should be cited as follows: Benshemesh, J. (2007). National Recovery Plan for Malleefowl. Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia.

Acknowledgments


This plan was prepared with support from DEH (SA) and Natural Heritage Trust funding (Australian Government). Input into the content of the plan was received from DEC (WA), DECC (NSW), DEH (SA), NRETA (NT), MPG (WA), SAM (SA), TSN (SA, VIC), VMRG (VIC). The Malleefowl Recovery Team provided direction and guidance, and I am thankful to Peter Copley, Stephen Davies, Ray Dayman, Jody Gates, Damon Oliver, Julie Kirkwood, Vicki-Jo Russell, Peter Sandell, and Jeff Short for detailed comments.

Cover photograph: Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata by Sharon Gillam


Contents


Acknowledgments 2

Contents 2

Abbreviations and Acronyms 6

Summary 7

Current taxon status 7

Habitat requirements and limiting factors 7


Recovery Plan Objectives 7

Specific Objectives: 7

Estimated cost of recovery 8

Part A Species information and general requirements 10

Species 10

Taxonomy 10

Conservation status 10

International obligations 11

Affected interests 11

Role and interests of Indigenous people 11

Benefits to other species or communities 12

Social and economic impact 12

Part B Distribution and location 14

Distribution 14

Habitat critical for survival 14

Malleefowl habitat and fire 15



Mapping of habitat critical to the survival of the species and identification of important populations 17

Part C Known and potential threats 18

Biology and ecology relevant to threatening processes 18

General ecology 18


Threats 21

Clearing 21

Fragmentation and isolation 22

Grazing 23

Predation 23

Fire (wildfire and intentional burns) 25

Disease, inbreeding and chemical exposure 26

Climate change 26


Populations and areas under threat 26

Existing conservation research and management practices 26

Habitat protection 26

Predator control 28

Recording Malleefowl distribution 30

Monitoring population trends 31

Assessment of longevity and population turnover 34

Determining habitat requirements 34

Captive-breeding 35

Re-introductions and supplementation 35

Rapid survey techniques 36

Education 36

Community Groups 37

Previous National Recovery Plans for Malleefowl 37

Part D Objectives, criteria and actions 39

Recovery objectives and criteria 39

Overall objective 39

Recovery Criteria 39

Specific objectives 39

Performance criteria 39

Recovery Actions 48

A) MANAGING POPULATIONS 48

Objective 1: Reduce permanent habitat loss 48

Objective 2: Reduce the threat of grazing pressure on Malleefowl populations. 50

Objective 3: Reduce fire threats 51

Objective 4: Reduce predation 53

Objective 5: Reduce isolation of fragmented populations 55

Objective 6: Promote Malleefowl-friendly agricultural practices 56

Objective 7: Reduce Malleefowl mortality on roads 56


B) PLANNING, RESEARCH, AND MONITORING 58

Objective 8: Provide information for regional planning 58

Objective 9: Monitor Malleefowl and develop an adaptive management framework at monitoring sites 60

Objective 10: Determine the current distribution of Malleefowl 67

Objective 11: Examine population dynamics: longevity, recruitment and parentage 70

Objective 12: Describe habitat requirements that determine Malleefowl abundance 73

Objective 13: Define appropriate genetic units for management of Malleefowl 74

Objective 14: Assess captive breeding and re-introduction of Malleefowl. 76



General Comments 76

Objective 15: Investigate infertility and agrochemicals 77

C) COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND PROJECT COORDINATION 79

Objective 16: Facilitate communication between groups 79

Objective 17: Raise public awareness through education and publicity 80

Objective 18: Manage the recovery process 81



E Management practices 82

F Duration and costs 83

References 83

Personal Communications 94

Appendix I Aboriginal Names for Malleefowl 95

Appendix II Distribution Tables and Maps 99


Appendix III Some Important Legislation, Policy and Programs 106

Clearing Controls 106

Funding of conservation works 106

Wildlife conservation 106

Clearing controls 106

Conservation covenants 106

Non-binding voluntary conservation agreements 106

Wildlife conservation 107

Clearing controls 107

Covenants 107

Non-binding voluntary conservation agreements 107

Wildlife conservation 107

Clearing controls 107

Covenants and management agreements 107

Non-binding voluntary conservation agreements 108

Wildlife conservation 108

Clearing controls 108

Covenants and management agreements 108

Non-binding voluntary conservation agreements 108

Wildlife conservation 109

Wildlife conservation 109

Appendix IV Contacts 110

Australian Government 110

New South Wales 110

Northern Territory 110

South Australia 110

Victoria 110

Western Australia 110



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