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N
EWARK PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Curriculum Guide:

STRINGS


Grades 4-8




NEWARK PUBLIC SCHOOLS

SCHOOL ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS
2013-2014
Ms. Antoinette Baskerville-Richardson, Chairperson

Mr. Marques-Aquil Lewis, Vice Chairperson
Mr. Rashon K. Hasan

Mr. Alturrick Kenney

Ms. Eliana Pintor Marin

Ms. DeNiqua Matias

Dr. Rashied McCreary

Ms. Ariagna Perello

Mr. Khalil Sabu Rashidi
Mr. Jordan Thomas, Student Representative




NEWARK PUBLIC SCHOOLS ADMINISTRATION
2013-2014
Cami Anderson, State District Superintendent

Chief of Staff & General Counsel: Charlotte Hitchcock
Assistant Superintendent: Mitchell Center

Assistant Superintendent: Brad Haggerty

Assistant Superintendent: Tiffany Hardrick

Assistant Superintendent: Roger Leon

Assistant Superintendent: Aqua Stovall

Assistant Superintendent: Peter Turnamian
Special Assistant, Office of Curriculum and Instruction: Caleb Perkins

School Business Administrator: Valerie Wilson

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Board Members 2

Administration 3

Table of Contents 4

District Mission Statement 5

District Goals and Priorities 6

Curriculum Committee 7

Course Philosophy 8

Course Description 9

Recommended Textbooks 10

Course Proficiencies 11

Curriculum Units 16

Course Pacing 20

Standards, Goals, and Objectives 24

Appendix 30



THE NEWARK PUBLIC SCHOOLS DISTRICT

MISSION STATEMENT
The Newark Public Schools District’s mission is to develop a productive citizen who is distinguished in all aspects of academic endeavors and willing to challenge the status quo in our society.  We are committed to ensuring that our policies and practices will prepare our students for a world that is increasingly diverse and knowledge driven. We expect our schools and classroom environments to be emotionally safe and intellectually challenging. We pledge to partner with parents, groups, and organizations that add support to the mission by changing hearts and minds to value education.

GOALS AND PRIORITIES
Great Expectations: 2009-13 Strategic Plan

OUR SHARED GOAL: PREPARING ALL STUDENTS FOR COLLEGE, WORK, AND CITIZENSHIP

Our youth need to be able to compete in an increasingly complex, competitive, and diverse world. Many of the best new jobs require not just a high school diploma but at least two years of college. We need to raise the bar, and we are. Our goals for 2013 are very challenging. Students need to be:



  • Ready to learn by kindergarten. 80 percent of our students will be ready to learn by kindergarten, up from 64 percent

in 2008–09.



  • Reading and writing at grade level by the end of 3rd grade. 80 percent will be reading and writing by the end of

3rd grade, up from 40 percent in 2008–09.



  • Ready for the middle grades. 80 percent of 5th graders will be proficient or above in language arts literacy and

85 proficient or above in math, up from 40 percent and 59 percent, respectively, in 2008–09.



  • Ready for high school. 80 percent will be “on track for graduation,” up from 38 percent of freshmen who are on track

to begin the 2009–10 school year.



  • Ready for college or work. 80 percent will graduate, and 80 percent of graduates will enroll in college, up from 54 percent and 38 percent, respectively, in 2008–09.

NEWARK PUBLIC SCHOOLS
SCHOOL ADVISORY BOARD



Program and Instruction Committee


Ms. DeNiqua Matias

Dr. Rashied McCreary

Ms. Ariagna Perello

Mr. Khalil Rashidi

Dr. Caleb Perkins, NPS Special Assistant of Curriculum

Valerie Merritt, NPS Director of Board Relations
Newark Public Schools

Strings* – Grades 4-8


(“strings” refers to violin, viola, cello and bass throughout this document)

Course Philosophy
Music Education is an essential part of each student’s development and growth. Each child enters the world in which sound and its more organized form, music surrounds their daily existence. Whether through hearing or feeling, sound makes is presence known to each of us. It is from sound that our languages were first born. The ideas of man were first expressed by sound then signs and symbols associated with those sounds.
Music is a language that is expressed through symbols and signs. Through a planned stratagem each child will develop literacy in music according to their ability. Upon completion of this curriculum, students will be able to convert the symbols of music into musical expression, so each student will develop sufficient literacy in music to be able to intelligently follow and understand a selection of music.
Further, it is hoped that each student will come to see music as a major means utilized by all people to express their emotions and feelings. Music has been used by all cultures to exalt man’s highest ideals and aspirations. Through its communicative nature music has the ability to transcend the restrictions of language and convey thoughts and feelings to all people.
Music is an expression of culture and it is through the sequential study of the music of various cultures that students will not only experience and understand a part of these cultures, but also be able to see the music of their own culture with greater appreciation.

Music education can provide positive and successful experiences for all students. The success-oriented experiences can be realized by students who may

otherwise encounter learning difficulties in the realms of purely academics subjects. Music not only enhances the learning of all students, but through the

opportunities it provides for individual and group performance, it can be utilized to identify and develop those students with special abilities and talents. It

is hoped that some students who may possess exceptional ability and talent will be able to develop their talents and knowledge in order to make a

contribution to world culture in the area of musical arts.

Strings Grade 4-8

Course Description



All Students must meet District Wide Attendance Standards

This course for all string students continues developing the skills students start to build in the 4th grade. Students in the Newark Early Strings Program (NESP) Within the string curriculum, students will advance their technical and artistic skills through applied lessons. The development of individual practice strategies will be emphasized since practice and preparation time are required outside of the class. Rhythm, scales, dynamics, articulation and notation will continue to be developed. Ear training and musical interpretation skills will be sharpened. The study of music history and music theory will be included in this performance class. All students will participate in ensemble performance and solo performance. Performance and Participation in extracurricular instrumental music ensembles is highly recommended.



Prerequisite: Introductory string instruction with the approval of instructor.

Mastery Criteria:



    • Class Participation 75%

    • Performance 10%

    • Homework 10%

    • Tests/Quizzes/Projects 5%



Recommended Textbooks/Resources

Method Books

Suzuki Book 1 et.al. (2007) Suzuki ( * ) School (*Violin, Viola, Cello, Bass), Miami, FL, Warner Bros., ISBN# 29156-11897

Allen et.al, (1995) Essential Elements for Strings, Milwaukee, WI, Hal Leoanard, ISBN# 7935-4297-9

Applebaum (1960) String Builder, Miami, FL, Belwin, ISBN# 6824-3186-8

Dabczynski, Phillips (1996) Fiddlers Philharmonic, Van Nuys CA, Alfred. ISBN# 88284-802

Dabczynski, Meyers, Phillips (2002) String Explorer, Van Nuys CA Alfred ISBN# 38081029223

Erwin et.al. (2006) New Directions for Strings, Ft. Lauderdale FL, FJH ISBN#74398-21864

Snyder (1997) The Rhythm Reader Milwaukee WI, Hal Leonard ISBN #73999-31998

Sueta (1986) Rhythm Vocabulary Charts, Bloomfiled, NJ Macie ISBN # 934151-55-5


Teacher Resources

Suzuki (1983) Nurtured by Love Miami FL Summy-Birchard ISBN#780874-875843

Starr (2000) The Suzuki Violinist Miami FL, Summy-Birchard ISBN#2458-06052

Elizabeth Wilson, (2007) Rostropovich: The Musical Life of the Great Cellist, Teacher, and Legend,

Chicago, Ivan Dee ISBN#13-978-1-56663-776-3

Various Authors, Spotlight on Teaching Orchestra: Selected Articles from State MEA Journals (2005)

Rowman & Littlefield Education, Lanham MD, ISBN# 1-56545-169-4 /978-1-56545-169-8

Kaschub and Smithe,(2009) Minds on Music: Composition for Creative and Critical Thinking,

Rowman & Littlefield Education, Lanham MD, ISBN#160709194-978-1607091943

Henry Barrett (1978) The Viola: Complete Guide for Teachers and Students, University of Alabama Press,

Tuscaloosa, AL, ISBN# 0-8173-0885-7

Benfield and Dean, (1973) The Art of Double Bass Playing, Summy-Birchard, Miami FL,

ISBN# 0-87487-081
Course Proficiencies

Introductory Knowledge
1. Identify and list the members of the string family.

2. Describe and discuss the various parts of the instruments.

3. Demonstrate proper instrument maintenance.

4. Formulate proper performance techniques for their particular instrument.

5. Evaluate proper playing position (sitting and standing), bow and pizzicato technique, and good sound production.
Rhythm

1. Define whole note, half note, quarter note, eighth note, sixteenth notes, dotted half, quarter and eighth notes.

2. Identify whole note, half note, quarter note, eighth note and sixteenth notes, dotted half, quarter and eighth notes.

3. Demonstrate understanding of note values for whole, half, quarter, sixteenth, dotted half, quarter and eighth notes.

4. Analyze rhythms using whole, half, quarter, sixteenth, dotted half, quarter and eighth notes

5. Speak and clap rhythms.

6. Perform rhythms on their instrument

7. Compose rhythms using whole, half, quarter, sixteenth, dotted half, quarter and eighth notes.

Scales
1. Identify all major scales and the natural, harmonic and melodic forms of the minor scales.

2. Demonstrate, through writing and performance, an understanding of the construction of major and minor scales.

3. Analyze and differentiate between major and minor scales with key signatures.

4. Evaluate their performance of all scales in appropriate keys.



Dynamics

1. Define the term dynamics.

2. Identify the range of dynamics.

3. Demonstrate an understanding of dynamics through performance of repertoire.

4. Analyze the range and details of the dynamics indicated in the music.

5. Evaluate the music for dynamics component


Time/Meter
1. Perform in simple and compound duple and triple meters

2. Perform etudes and solos with the appropriate tempo and metronome markings.


Ear Training
1. Demonstrate knowledge of solfege syllables.

2. Identify all steps of the scale with the appropriate solfege syllables and scale numbers.

3. Demonstrate an understanding of intervallic relationship relative to the scale through the use of the solfege syllables

4. Analyze solfege melodies for intervallic relationships.

5. Compose a melodic dictation exercise using solfege.

6. Use solfege syllables to take melodic dictation.


Aesthetics
1. Define aesthetics.

2. Discuss how aesthetics relates to the field of music.

3. Use a set of predetermined list of aesthetic criteria.

4. Analyze the aesthetics in a piece of music.

5. Evaluate the aesthetics of a musical performance.
Individual Practice Strategies

1. Demonstrate an understanding of a desired practice schedule through the use of a practice log.

2. Demonstrate, through an application of a reasonable practice schedule, musical nuances of selected repertoire.

3. Define practice as it relates to the field of music.

4. Discuss individual practices strategies.

5. Demonstrate the practice strategies through individual performance practices.

6. Analyze their progress with repertoire through individual and ensemble performance.


Articulation/Bowing
1. Define articulation/bowing as it relates string performance.

2. Identify various types of articulation/bowing

3. Demonstrate proper articulation/bowing through performance.

4. Differentiate between various types of articulations/bowing through performance.

5. Select the proper articulation/bowing of a passage through performance.
Ensemble Performance
1. Define ensemble performance as it relates to string performance.

2. Identify various ensembles as related to string performance.

3. Demonstrate their performance skills as a member of a string ensemble.

4. Critique their individual performance relative to the ensemble.

5. Perform in various instrumental groups.

Musical Interpretation
1. Define musical interpretation through string performance.

2. Identify musical interpretation through string performance.

3. Demonstrate musical interpretation through string performance.

4. Analyze musical interpretation through string performance.

5. Demonstrate the proper performance practices of a musical work/selection.
History
1. Define music history.

2. Identify the various periods of music history and associated compositional styles, performer styles and instrumentation.

3. Understand, analyze and create a timeline illustrating music history.

4. Compare the various periods of music and its many genres.


Career Education

1. Define career education as it pertains to areas in music.

2. Discuss career education as it pertains to areas of music.

3. Demonstrate knowledge of basic technical career opportunities, as related to music.

4. Examine various career opportunities in the field of music.

5. Create a career plan outlining their educational and career goals.

6. Evaluate career goals through research of major performing artists.


Curriculum Units
The Strings Curriculum Grades 4-8 curriculum comprises four strands:


  • Instrument Care, Handling and Maintenance

  • Tone Production

  • Musicianship

  • Performance

Instrument Care, Handling and Maintenance

Students will demonstrate a working knowledge of the various parts of their instrument by naming the parts of the instrument a describing their function. Students will be able to do basic repairs including changing strings, fine tuners, chin rests etc. Students will be able to

tune their instrument. Students will demonstrate the ability to identify the need for an instrument in need of professional repair.

Tone Production

Students will demonstrate a working knowledge of the techniques and methods of proper tone production on their instrument. This will

include, but not be limited to: knowledge of the fundamentals of good posture; how to hold the instrument, hand

and finger positions with both hands; bowing and pizzicato techniques; understanding of the qualities of musical

tone and intonation; evaluate and assess their individual tone production.

Musicianship

Students will demonstrate musicianship skills in solo and ensemble settings by: reading and performing exercises, scales and repertoire; by

creating music; by listening to and analyzing musical samples; and through performance critique.



Performance

Students will demonstrate maturity and expressiveness in performance practices by reading and performing solo and ensemble repertoire of

various genres, styles and graded levels, with accurate pitch, rhythm, articulation, balance/blend, technical proficiency and musicianship.

Suggested Course Pacing















TOPICS


THEME

BLOCK

FULL CLASS

Introduction of Technique


Posture. Holding instrument in

Rest and Playing Position




1 Day

1 Day

Introduction the bow and bow hold.

1 Day

1 Day

Fingering


1 Day

1 Day

Imitation of “Twinkle Variation”

Number 1. Suzuki Book 1




1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Technique


Posture. Holding instrument in

Rest and Playing Position




Continuous

Continuous

The bow and bow hold.

Continuous

Continuous


Imitation of “Twinkle Variation”

Number 1. Suzuki Book 1




Continuous

Continuous

Review care and maintenance of instrument.


Continuous

Continuous

Rhythm


Imitation of “Twinkle Variations”

Numbers 2, 3, 4



1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Rhythm

Refinement of Basic Rhythm

Continuous

Continuous

Melody


Introduction of “Twinkle Variations” with Theme

1 Day

1 Day

Introduce other melodies.


Continuous

Continuous

Dynamics


Introduction of Dynamics

1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Dynamics

Continuous

Continuous

Notation


Introduction To Notation

1 Day

1 Day



Refinement of Notation

Continuous

Continuous

Ear Training/Aural Skills


Introduction to Ear Training

1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Ear Training

Continuous

Continuous

Aesthetics

Aesthetics




Introduction of Aesthetics

1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Aesthetics

Continuous

Continuous

Individual Practice Strategies


Introduction of Primary Practice Strategies

1 Day

1 Day


Refinement of Practice Strategies

Continuous

Continuous

Articulation

Introduction of Articulation

1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Articulations

Continuous

Continuous

Ensemble Performance

Introduction of Performance


1 Day

1 Day

Refinement of Solo/Ensemble Performance

Continuous

Continuous

Suggested Course Pacing

Strings– Grades 4-5
Cycle 1

Identify the parts of the instrument

Posture

Bowing/Pizzicato Techniques



Hand Positions

Introduction to Music Reading

Beat

Long Tones



First Five Notes

Quarter Notes and Rests

Repeat Signs and Double Bar Lines

Cycle 2

Natural


Flat

Sharp


Treble Clef

Key Signature

Time Signature – 4/4

Half Notes and Rests

Whole Notes and Rests

Bowing Marks

Major Scales A, D, G

Cycle 3

Dynamics


Time Signature – 2/4

Tempo


Eighth Notes and Rests

Dotted Notes and Rests

Introduce 4th Finger

Introduce 2nd Position

Scales F, Eb, Bb

Cycle 4

Accent


Time Signature – 3/4

1st and 2nd Endings

Da Capo and Del Segno

Fine and Coda

Phrase

Multiple Measure Rests


Continue 2nd Position

Review All Scales



Strings – Grades 6-8
Cycle 1

Review Concepts of Band Grades 4-5

Staccato

Legato


Crescendo

Decrescendo

Ritardando

Accelerando

Sight Reading

Cycle 2

Introduce 3rd Position

Scales C, D minor, G minor

Staccato


Legato

Tenuto


Cut Time – Alla Breve

Syncopation



Cycle 3

Sixteenth Notes and Rests

Review all scales and positions

Introduce more scales once mastery of

Positions and scales is demonstrated

Balance


Blend

Key Changes

Time Changes

Cycle 4

Continue Scale Studies including

Minor scales

Introduce Arpeggios

Rallantando

Compound Meter – 6/8

Enharmonics

Chromatic Scale

Following the Conductor







l





Intro to String Instruments

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.1 - All students will demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles that govern the creation of

works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.

Brief Description: Students will learn about various instruments in a school orchestra.



How to Teach It: Materials: Violin, Viola, Cello, Bass
Do Now: Make a list of all the instruments in a school orchestra.
Procedure:

1. Teacher will first give a brief overview on the many roles of a school orchestra.

2. Teacher will then describe the four different instrument families in an orchestra (Strings, Woodwind, Brass,

Percussion)

3. The teacher will introduce each string instrument explaining its purpose, sound and

construction. A sound demonstration will be given.
Evaluation: The students will be able to answer different questions about the instruments they have witnessed.

Students Act As TV Reporters

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.2 - All students will understand the role, development, and influence of the arts throughout history and across

cultures.

Brief Description: Students act as TV reporters and interview their favorite composer.

How to Teach It: Materials Needed: Biographies and music of several composers, video camera (optional) art supplies to help children create

microphones and costumes of the composer.

Lesson: Have groups of students choose a composer to study. Provide biographies for the children to study and pieces of music

for the children to listen to. Have them gather pertinent information about important pieces their composer composed,

when they were born, where they lived, etc. Write your own script and demonstrate so the students can model. Give

them time to create scripts and rehearse. Make sure the children incorporate a section of the music from their composer.

They can include the music just like a Hollywood star and talk show host watch a piece of their upcoming films and then


discuss it afterwards. Students become very creative and you could have a production crew and camera crew to make it

really interesting. Videotape the students and watch it later. Ask them to write a little paragraph explaining the whole

process and what they learned from it.


Creating a Sound Map

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.3 - All students will synthesize skills, media, methods, and technologies that are appropriate to creating,

performing, and/or presenting works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.
Brief Description: This lesson will reinforce the reading of notated rhythms and the correct use their instruments.

How to Teach It: Materials: Recording of chosen song
String instruments
Classroom chalkboard or dry erases board


Procedure: 1. Choose a piece of music you are very familiar with. At the time of this writing, I was using “Animal” by Kat DeLuna and “Oye Como Va” by Santana. Any piece of music, from any genre will be fine. Have the students list all instruments that they hear playing throughout the piece. List all correct instruments on the board.
2. Have the students identify the passages where strings are playing, or could be playing during the piece.


3. Lead the class in composing a sound map on the board by playing along with the song recording. As a class, decide whether that instrument sounds good with the recording. Write the rhythm patterns on the board as you go. For beginning level students, focus on rhythm while playing just one or two notes on their instrument.

4. Map out the form of the piece and indicate when the students play in the form. With more advanced students, you can break the group into sections, each playing it’s own part.


5. Once the students are able to play the rhythms with the recording of the piece, add more complex melodic and harmonic embellishments appropriate to their development. Encourage the students to explore and embellish the string parts on their own.

6. Experiment with various methods of recording the students, encouraging them to come up with ideas. As many available audio and video recording devices should be tried. Also, experimented with various devices for playback should be explored.

The Function of Music

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.4 A - All students will demonstrate and apply an understanding of arts philosophies, judgment, and analysis to

works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.

Brief Description: This lesson examines how music reflects and influences societies and is a metaphor for ideas and experiences. Students begin by brainstorming the functions or purposes of music and by discussing music's power as a mirror and a symbol. A special focus will be made on the use of music to sell - how advertisers use the power of music to create bonds between consumers and products. As a group activity, students will add a string part to a radio or TV commercial.

How to Teach It: Preparation and Materials:


    • Samples of music that reflect some of the categories of music listed below

    • Record ads that use jingles or accompanying music

Note: If you have access to a computer, many songs and musical compositions can be listened to online. It's worth conducting an online search prior to class.
Procedure: Class Discussion

Ask students to list as many functions or purposes of music that they can think of and record their suggestions on the board.


Some functions would be, for example:


      • as personal expression

      • as communication

      • to uplift human spirit

      • for religious purposes

      • for group identity

      • as a way to pass on traditions

      • to sell a product

      • to enhance film

      • to increase nationalism

      • as propaganda

      • for dance

      • as a form of protest

      • as an agent of social change

      • to tell a story

Play the musical samples that you have brought to class and discuss how each selection might be used for a specific purpose. (For example, using a National Anthem to instill patriotism, using David Foster's theme for the Olympics to create enthusiasm and identity for the Olympics, or music from current commercials chosen by students, teachers and other members of the school community.

Music as a Mirror

Music suggests much about the society in which it is created. Whether it is a traditional song of an Indigenous people, a Strauss waltz, a gospel song or a rock video, music reflects a culture. It expresses experience and also affects experience, creating feelings and responses in the listener. Like many art forms, music mirrors society, sometimes raises questions about society's norms and values, and sometimes has the power to bring about change.

When this happens, music can serve a purpose that it was not necessarily intended for. For example, popular music has been known to create an identity for groups of people. Songs that were popular during World War II helped unify soldiers and those at home - for example, songs by Vera Lynn, such as "We'll meet again." "De Colores" a traditional Latino song has been sung by several generations of migrant workers, especially in California. Discuss how and why groups of people, including the students themselves, sometimes tend to be identified with certain types of music. (Categories might include heavy metal, punk, hip hop, new wave, rap, alternative music, etc.)


  • Ask students to evaluate some of the positive and negative results of this type of categorization.

  • Does this kind of identification stereotype students? If so, what are the stereotypes associated with specific music genres?



Music and Symbolism
Songs and music may eventually become symbols for a particular group of people, a place or historical event. (A few examples from popular culture might include popular television show and movie scores and signature tunes used by show business personalities.)


  • Have students think of melodies that have become symbols. Try to determine how this happens.

  • Specifically, can students think of musical symbols that have become associated with modern historical events?

  • Some music is considered a symbol for a whole generation. For the parents of students, artists such as Bob Dylan, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones created much of the music that embodied what it was like to be a teen in the 1960s. Ask students to imagine themselves looking back twenty years from now on the handful of artists whose music will represent their generation. Who do they think those artists will be? Which songs will become the anthems that symbolize their generation? Students should be made aware of songs from previous generations which are still “current” today. In 2010, examples are “Thriller” by Michael Jackson, The Opening Theme from Symphony #5 by Beethoven,

Pure Imagination” from Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory and others.


Music and Advertising

One function of music is to sell products. This is most often done through advertising jingles, although popular music may also be co-opted for this purpose.

According to Ad Age, the top ten advertising jingles of the Twentieth Century were:

1. You deserve a break today (McDonalds)
2. Be all that you can be (U.S. Army).
3. Pepsi Cola Hits the Spot (Pepsi Cola).
4. M'm, M'm good (Campbell's).
5. See the USA in your Chevrolet (GM).
6. I wish I were an Oscar Meyer Wiener (Oscar Meyer).
7. Double your pleasure, double your fun (Wrigley's Doublemint gum).
8. Winston tastes good like a cigarette should (Winston).
9. It's the Real Thing (Coca Cola).
10. Brylcreem -- A little dab'll do ya
(Ask students if they recognize any of them. Can sing along with any of them!)

Listen to, or view, the musical ads that have been brought to class and discuss the following with students.



  • How does the music in a particular advertisement help to sell the product? (If using a TV commercial, teachers might want to play the ad first without music, and then with music, to gauge their students' impressions.)

  • Ask students to determine if there are any similarities between the product being sold and the music; for example, toy racing cars and fast tempo music.

  • For ads that use jingles or original music, discuss how the elements of music and principles of composition have been used by the composer to achieve the desired purpose.

  • If there isn't anything obviously similar between the product being sold and the music, what are the producers trying to accomplish with the music? (Toy commercials are examples of these sorts of ads.)

  • In ads like toy ads, what kind of image are advertisers trying to create?

  • How does the accompanying music support this image?

  • What are some examples of ads that use hit music?
  • How do you feel when advertisers use popular music to sell products? (Especially music that has symbolic meaning to a particular generation, like when Michael Jackson - who owns the rights to the song - sold John Lennon singing "Revolution" to Nike, or when Bob Dylan sold the rights to "The Times They Are A-Changin'" to an accounting firm.)


  • What do advertisers hope to achieve when they use music in this manner?


Activity: In groups, students will select a function of music theme from the board. Each group will create a string part to accompany or embellish this theme, which will be presented to class. Groups may integrate visuals (such as pictures or slides) and other audio effects (such as a poetry reading or accompanying dialogue) into their presentations.

Found Music Unit, Dress, Success!



Applies to Standards: Standard 1.4 B - All students will demonstrate and apply an understanding of arts philosophies, judgment, and analysis to

works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.

Brief Description: The purpose of this lesson is to have students think critically about peer performances.

When the students are finished this lesson, they will have:

1. Participated in a dress rehearsal situation.

2. Taken part in a class critique, where they will assess both positive and negative attributes of peers' performance.

How to Teach It: Resources: Repertoire and instruments.
Have the students practice their instruments for the first few minutes of class.

Arrange an informal concert where each group can play their pieces for one another. Have a suggestion period after each piece.

Ask for three positive things first, and then have the students suggest things that the group could have improved upon.

Make sure the suggestions get written down. Perhaps establish one person in the group as the recorder.

Assessment: Concert and class discussion (assess piece and suggestions). Note participation and diplomacy. By watching the dress rehearsal,

I will be able to assess who has a grasp on the concept of the dress rehearsal. The class will then get a chance to participate in


peer evaluation. The students will be evaluated on the relevance and sensitivity of their comments.


Rhythm Bingo
Applies to Standards: Standard 1.1 - All students will demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles that govern the creation of

works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.

Brief Description: Identify types of notes and rests; and appropriate clefs through the use of the game Bingo.
How to Teach It: Preparation: Make up bingo cards using the word "music" across the top instead of "bingo." Make the center a free square and

the rest of the squares (bingo card should be 5x5) should contain different notes and rests and clefs and anything you

want to review.

Process: Pass out bingo cards and a small piece of paper (to rip up for game pieces.) Play bingo as usual.

Name That Style

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.2 - All students will understand the role, development, and influence of the arts throughout history and across

cultures.
Brief Description: This lessons reinforces the elements of music within a variety of music styles
How to Teach It: Materials: A collection of a wide variety of music recordings.

Procedures:


  1. List or post the elements--melody, form, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, timbre--and brief definitions of each.

  2. See if students can come up with a good definition of style. Discuss briefly that what makes a style unique is the way the elements of music are utilized in the music.
  3. Have students brainstorm as many styles as they can, including styles they like and styles they don't like. Have them try to think of at least 10.


  4. Get a volunteer to make a master list on the board. Give each student the chance to name one from his/her list. After each student has had a turn, get other styles that have not yet been named. Finally, add any that you have thought of that were left out.

  5. Have students choose from the list to describe a particular style. Encourage the use of musical terms to describe the styles, not opinions about the styles.

  6. Explain that you will be playing excerpts of several styles that are listed. Their task is to list the style. Have them number 1-10 (or however many selections you have) and be ready to guess the style. If they are unsure, the task is to describe the music (using music terms).

  7. Play excerpts. After the game, and as time permits, offer to let them listen to full pieces of their favorite excerpts. *

  8. Close by reviewing the elements of music, and the definition of style.



Assessment: Check the papers.


Vibrato
Applies to Standards: Standard 1.3 - All students will synthesize skills, media, methods, and technologies that are appropriate to creating,

performing, and/or presenting works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.
Brief Description: Various methods of introducing vibrato will be explored.
How to Teach It: 1. Introduce the concept and sound of vibrato by demonstration, audio and video recordings.

2. Discuss the purpose of vibrato and present examples of different types of vibrato in various situations.

3. Have the students try to play vibrato. Discuss, assess the degrees of success, problems encountered etc.

4. With the students, play a familiar song. Then play the song yourself using vibrato.


5. Chose a comfortable introductory method to the students as their first step to learning vibrato.

6. Strive for a measure of success and achievement during this first step toward learning vibrato.

7. Take a photograph of each student to be dated and presented to the student in commemoration of the day they began to learn vibrato.

Found Music Unit, The Concert

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.4 B - All students will demonstrate and apply an understanding of arts philosophies, judgment, and analysis to

works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.

Brief Description: The purpose of the lesson is to give the students a satisfying experience in performing pieces that they composed.

When the students are finished this lesson, they will have:

1. Attended a concert displaying proper concert etiquette.

2. Performed original pieces in a formal concert setting.

3. Had their original work recorded for later analysis?

How to Teach It: Resources: Instruments, compositions, reception refreshments (juice & cookies & fruit), concert programs.

Tasks:

1. Before the students arrive, arrange the classroom (or auditorium, if you can get in there) into a stage area and audience area.

2. Pass out a program when the students arrive.

3. Have the concert. Record it; offer to make copies for anyone who wants them.
4. Have a mini-reception.
5. Have the students pass in their compositions.


Assessment: Written compositions (rough and good copies), concert performance, and audience attitude. Students will write a reflection to be

handed in to me. I will record their concert and


they will listen to it when writing their reflections, in order to better appraise their progress. By taking attendance I will know

who was present at the concert?




Homework: Have the students write down their thoughts detailing what they thought about this process.


Repeat Signs
Applies to Standards: Standard 1.1 - All students will demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles that govern the creation of

works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.
Brief Description: Introduce music notation Work on reading skills - Repeat Sign, D.S. al Coda, D.C. al Coda, repeat measure
How to Teach It: Materials: Worksheet for all the students in the class that has a verse that has many repeated words

Procedures:

1. Talk about how composers are so busy that they do not have enough time to keep writing the same material over and over.
2. Draw on the board a repeat sign and ask the class if anyone knows what this is? (Any kids that are in the orchestra will probably know but give the other students a chance to guess).
3. "Musicians like to use shortcuts when they write music. If a portion of a song is going to be sung twice the composer will use these repeat signs or repeat signs and multiple endings." Maybe you have seen those boxes with one and two over them, well those are for repeating.
4. Show the kids a copy of music with either repeat signs or repeat signs and multiple endings. (In our book the star spangled banner has two verses) Did these shortcuts help you get lost in the music rather than help you get to the end?
5. Pass out the hand out with the poem on it (and write it on the board so you can refer to it).

6. "Say the verse together with me and find its meter where the strong pulses are. The pulses are grouped together is sets of?

7. Since they said two we will put a two next to the first line to remind us of the meter.
8. Now place vertical lines in the verse to separate the words into two beat units - measures. (Then show them what you mean by putting the bar lines in the first line of roses are red).
9. Draw a circle around all the words that repeat.
10. Ask the students if they know how to write a shortcut so we won't have to write all these repeated words twice? Draw on the board what it would look like in a piece of music using repeat sign.
11. Point to each repeat sign and explain why there has to be two (one at the end of the line and one back at the beginning).
12. Now have the students add a third line on their papers Roses are red, Violets are Blue, Skunks really stink, and teachers too (Most students will add a third ending, but some will forget to add a repeat sign at the end of the second).
13. Why is this repeat sign required after the second ending??
14. Another short cut that people use is the D.C. al Coda which is then followed by a Coda (Draw a coda and tell them what is does).
15. Show them a piece in their music book and then have them read the text using the short cut.
16. Show them a repeat measure sign and tell them what it does.
17. Finally show them the D.S. al Coda sign and show them what it does (Find a piece of music in their books that uses these and have them read the text using this short cut)



History of African-American Music

Applies to Standards: Standard 1.2 - All students will understand the role, development, and influence of the arts throughout history and across

cultures.

Brief Description: African-American music history awareness

How to Teach It: Students will be made aware of African-American music history from the slave work song through modern rap and hip-hop.


Students will also be made aware of significant musical figures from several styles. Dates range from c.1619 through 2005.

Selections:



1. Work Song - "Pickin' Cotton All Day Long"
2. Spiritual - "Come By Here"
3. Blues - "Nobody Loves Me, But My Mother" (B. B. King)
4. Jazz - "Don't Worry 'Bout Me"
5. Rhythm and Blues - "Let the Good Times Roll (Ray Charles)
6. Funk/Soul - "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" (James Brown)
7. Hip Hop (early) - "Hip Hop Be Bop"
8. Rap/Hip Hop (contemporary) - "God Gave Me Style" (50 Cent)


Assessment: Students will be asked questions with each selection. Questions will be in regard to personal preferences of students and their ability to

recognize the common threads in African-American music history.

Composing - Rhythm Charts
Applies to Standards: Standard 1.3 - All students will synthesize skills, media, methods, and technologies that are appropriate to creating,

performing, and/or presenting works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.

Brief Description: In this lesson students will create original rhythm charts.

How to Teach It: Materials - 1) string instrument

2) copies of blank rhythm charts

3) a baton for the students to conduct with
Students are shown a copy of a sample rhythm chart. (an X means you play) Students volunteer to perform this chart for the class.
Beat

*Instrument 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 *Rhythm instruments may be used as substitutes

Violin x x x x x x x x x

Viola x x x x x x x x x


Cello, Bass x x x x x x x x
Hand out blank rhythm charts. Discuss with students strong beats (1/3) vs. weak beats (2/4). Have them select 2 or 3 instruments to write a rhythm chart for. In pencil, students write a rhythm chart, experimenting with the instruments.

Have students perform their rhythm charts for the class. Let each individual "composer" select the musicians. The composer should also act as conductor, keeping a steady beat with the baton. Have the students briefly analyze (verbally) what they heard.

You can expand this lesson plan to 6/8 and/or 3/4 meter.

The next step is to have the students compose a rhythm chart to an existing song. Well known folk songs work well (Skip to My Lou, Oh, When the Saints, Go Tell Aunt Rhody, Yankee Doodle, etc.) In order to perform the rhythm chart for the class, the teacher will need to perform the melody while the "rhythm band" performs the rhythm chart. Students can also devise their own evaluation sheet to "grade" each rhythm chart. This will keep the students who are not currently performing on task and attentive to the students who are performing.

A more complex rhythm chart can include eighth notes. Some students will naturally want to create more complex rhythms. Teacher should encourage this.

Visual and Performing Arts NJ CCCS Alignment with Other Core Content Areas




    1. All students will acquire knowledge and skills that increase aesthetic awareness in dance, music, theater and visual arts.

CPIs

1.1.1 By the end of Grade 4, students will communicate their responses to dance, music, theater and visual arts with supporting statements based on aesthetics.

1.1.2 By the end of Grade 8, students will understand that arts elements, such as color, line, rhythm, space and form, may be combined selectively to elicit a

specific aesthetic response.

1.1.3 By the end of Grade 8, students will communicate about the aesthetic qualities of art works through oral and written analysis, using appropriate technical

and evaluative terms.

1.1.4 By the end of Grade 12, students will demonstrate an understanding of different aesthetic philosophies through the evaluation and analysis of artistic styles,

trends and movements in an art form.



HEALTH AND

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

SOCIAL STUDIES

WORLD LANGUAGES

CROSS CONTENT

WORKPLACE READINESS

2.2,2.4

3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5

4.1,4.2,4.3,4.7,4.8,4.9,

4.10,4.11

5.1,5.3,5.9,5.11,5.12


6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,

6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9

7.1,7.2


  • Develop career planning and workplace readiness skills.

  • Use technology, information and other tools.

  • Use critical thinking, decision-making and problem solving skills.

  • Demonstrate self-management skills.







    1. All students will refine perceptual, physical, and technical skills through creating dance, music theater and/or visual arts.


CPIs

1.2.1 By the end of Grade 4, students will demonstrate performance and participation skills by working and creating individually and with others.

1.2.2 By the end of Grade 8, students will demonstrate technical skills in dance, music, theater or visual arts, appropriate to students' developmental level.

1.2.3 By the end of Grade 8, students will create, produce, or perform works of dance, music, theater, or visual arts, individually and with others.

1.2.4 By the end of Grade 12, students will demonstrate originality, technical skills and artistic expression in the creation, production of dance, music, theater

or visual arts.


Visual and Performing Arts NJ CCCS Alignment with Other Core Content Areas




HEALTH AND

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

SOCIAL STUDIES

WORLD LANGUAGES

CROSS CONTENT

WORKPLACE READINESS

2.5,2.6

3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5

4.1,4.2,4.3,4.4,4.5,4.6,4.7,4.10, 4.14,4.16

5.1,5.2,5.3,5.4,

5.8,5.9,5.12

6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,

6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9

7.1,7.2


  • Develop career planning and workplace readiness skills.

  • Use technology, information and other tools.

  • Use critical thinking,

  • decision-making and problem-solving skills.

  • Demonstrate self-management skills.

  • Apply safety principles.







    1. All students will utilize arts elements and arts media to produce artistic products and performances.


CPIs

1.3.1 By the end of Grade 4, students will apply elements and media common to the arts to produce a work of art.

1.3.2 By the end of Grade 8, students will demonstrate appropriate use of technology, tools, terminology, techniques and media in the creation of dance, music,

theater or visual arts.

1.3.3 By the end of Grade 12, students will demonstrate an understanding of technology, methods, materials and creative processes commonly used in dance,

music, theater or visual arts.




HEALTH AND

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY


MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

SOCIAL STUDIES

WORLD LANGUAGES

CROSS CONTENT

WORKPLACE READINESS

2.5,2.6

3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5

4.1,4.2,4.3,4.4,4.5,4.6,

4.7,4.9,4.10,4.11,4.16

5.1,5.2,5.3,5.4,

5.8,5.9,5.12

6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,

6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9

7.1,7.2


  • Develop career planning and workplace readiness skills.

  • Use technology, information and other tools.

  • Use critical thinking, decision -making and problem- solving skills.

  • Demonstrate self-management skills.

  • Apply safety principles.



Visual and Performing Arts NJ CCCS Alignment with Other Core Content Areas




    1. All students will demonstrate knowledge of the process of critique.

CPIs

1.4.1 At all grade levels, students will explain the criteria by which they evaluate the quality of their work and the work of others.

1.4.2 By the end of Grade 8, students will offer constructive critique in the evaluation of their own and others' work in dance, music, theater or visual arts.

1.4.3 By the end of Grade 12, students will evaluate and interpret works of art orally and in writing, using appropriate terminology.




HEALTH AND

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

SOCIAL STUDIES

WORLD LANGUAGES

CROSS CONTENT

WORKPLACE READINESS

2.2

3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5

4.3

5.1,5.2,5.3

6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,6.6


7.1,7.2


  • Develop career planning and workplace readiness skills.

  • Use technology, information and other tools.

  • Use critical thinking, decision-making and problem- solving skills.

  • Demonstrate self-management skills.






    1. All students will identify the various historical, social, and cultural influences and traditions which have generated artistic accomplishments throughout the ages and continue to shape contemporary arts.

CPIs

1.5.1 By the end of Grade 4, students will investigate, experience and participate in dance, music, theater and visual arts activities representing various historical

periods and world cultures.

1.5.2 By the end of Grade 4, students will investigate and experience the works of artists and community cultural resources through exhibitions and

performances.

1.5.3 By the end of Grade 4, students will apply knowledge of historical, social and cultural influences to understand a work of art.

1.5.4 By the end of Grade 4, students will use their senses, imagination and memory to express ideas and feelings in dance, music, theater and visual arts.

1.5.5 By the end of Grade 8, students will identify significant artists and artistic works in dance, music, theater and visual arts representing various historical

periods, world cultures and social and political influences.

Visual and Performing Arts NJ CCCS Alignment with Other Core Content Areas
1.5.6 By the end of Grade 8, students will understand and demonstrate knowledge of how various artists and cultural resources preserve our cultural heritage

and influence contemporary arts.

1.5.7 By the end of Grade 8, students will interpret the meaning(s) expressed in works of dance, music, theater and visual arts.

1.5.8 By the end of Grade 12, students will demonstrate knowledge of how artists and artistic works connect with political, social, cultural and historical events.


1.5.9 By the end of Grade 12, students will analyze and evaluate how various artists and cultural resources influence student work.

1.5.10 by the end of Grade 12, students will create works of art that communicate personal opinions, thoughts and ideas.




HEALTH AND

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

SOCIAL STUDIES

WORLD LANGUAGES

CROSS CONTENT

WORKPLACE READINESS

2.1,2.2,2.3

3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5

4.1,4.2,4.3,4.9,4.10


5.1,5.2,5.3,5.4,

5.7,5.11,5.12

6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,

6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9

7.1,7.2


  • Develop career planning and workplace readiness skills.

  • Use technology, information and other tools.

  • Use critical thinking, decision-making and problem -solving skills.

  • Demonstrate self-management skills.






    1. All students will develop design skills for planning the form and function of space, structures, objects, sound and events.


CPIs

1.6.1 By the end of Grade 4, students will identify and state needs and opportunities for design in the contexts of home, school, recreation and play.

1.6.2 By the end of Grade 4, students will plan and execute solutions to design problems.

1.6.3 By the end of Grade 8, students will identify and solve design problems in space, structures, objects, sound and/or events for home and workplace.

1.6.4 By the end of Grade 12, students will identify, plan and provide solutions to design problems of space, structures, objects, sound and/or events in a

public or private environment


HEALTH AND

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION


LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

MATHEMATICS

SSCIENCE

SOCIAL STUDIES

WORLD LANGUAGES

CROSS CONTENT

WORKPLACE READINESS

2.1,2.2,2.5,2.6






3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5


44.1,4.2,4.3,4.5



5.1,5.2,5.3,5.4,5.5,

5.8,5.9,5.10,5.11,

5.12

6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,

6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9



  • Develop career planning and workplace readiness skills.

  • Use technology, information and other tools.

  • Use critical thinking, decision-making and problem -solving skills.

  • Apply safety principles.




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