Notes on academic integrity Historian and Harvard trustee Doris Kearns Goodwin plagiarized 50 passages…



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Notes on academic integrity

  • Historian and Harvard trustee Doris Kearns Goodwin plagiarized 50 passages…

    (but a forgiving “public”)

  • Pulitzer Prize winner Joseph Ellis lied about his military record…

  • Poet laureate, UC-San Diego professor Quincy Troupe, admitted
    his bachelor’s degree was an invention…

  • Jayson Blair fabricated comments, scenes, and stories about news events over a period of several years (Arce & Troetel, 2004; New York Times, 2003)

  • The real King made his mark in American history not by being a countercultural rebel or by parading his "life style" before the public but through his oratory and politics.
    – Adam Wolfson & Daniel Patrick Moynihan “The Martin Luther King We Remember” http://usinfo.state.gov/scv/Archive/2005/Jun/08-488675.html

  • Keith Miller, in his book "Voice of Deliverance”…end of King's "I have a Dream" speech & Archibald Carey’s at the Republican National Convention in 1952
    Source: Who’s dream is this anyway? http://chem-gharbison.unl.edu/mlk/whose_dream.html

  • Archibald Carey’s Speech, Republican Convention 1952

  • - from every mountain side, let freedom ring. Not only from the Green Mountains and White Mountains of Vermont and New Hampshire…may the Republican Party, under God, from every mountainside, LET FREEDOM RING!


Q. Is lifting some of the rhetoric from a colleague or friend really plagiarism? Does it matter?

  • 'Opal Mehta' vs. 'Sloppy Firsts' April 24, 2006, Boston Globe

  • To be or not to be Shakespeare…Francis Bacon Christopher Marlowe Elizabeth I Sir Walter Raleigh…others…but not Shakespeare…Smithsonian, September 2006, pp. 62-71

Photo source: Campbell’s image, http://www.campbellsoupcompany.com/history.asp?cpovisq=

Andy Warhol Prints
http://www.warholprints.com/portfolio/Campbell.Soup.I.html

  • iPODbits v. GloopIt
    Source: Perry Share, 2nd International Plagiarism Conference, June 19, 2006 http://staffweb.itsligo.ie/staff/pshare/plagiarism/intertextuality%20newcastle%202006.ppt

  • Wong v. Balenciaga
    Source: Perry Share, 2nd International Plagiarism Conference, June 19, 2006 http://www.aishe.org/conf2004/proceedings/paper23.doc

  • Bourdin v. Madonna
    Source: Perry Share, 2nd International Plagiarism Conference, June 19, 2006 http://www.aishe.org/conf2004/proceedings/paper23.doc

…definitions change reports…

Data comes from McCabe 1999, 2002, 2003 studies cited in reference list and 2003 FSU study.


Form of question:
How often did you observe/engage in this form of cheating?
◄NOTE: self-reports may not reflect actual incidence►

Data comes from McCabe 1999, 2002, 2003 studies cited in reference list.


Form of question:
How often did you observe/engage in this form of cheating?

Plagiarize using Internet

Obtain from paper mill or web

Copied “a few sentences” without footnotes


  • Obtain from paper mill or web
    Students reported: ◄fewer use sites that charge a fee►

    4-7% (1999) , 4% (2002), 1-8% (2003)

  • Is this serious cheating?
    83-86% (2003)

  • Copied “a few sentences” without footnotes
    15-45%

    Students reported:


    36-45% (1999)
    From Internet
    25% once 15% more than once (2003)
    From written source
    23% once 21% more than once (2003)
    Is this serious cheating?
    35-38% (2003)

    FSU study 2003:


    38% Written (2003), Internet 39%

Data comes from McCabe 1999, 2002, 2003 studies cited in reference list and 2003 FSU study.

How often did you observe/engage in this form of cheating?

Students reported:

  • Plagiarize using Internet 8-13%

  • Obtain from paper mill or web 1-8%

  • Copied “a few sentences” without footnotes 15-45%

    Is this serious cheating?


    Paper mill 83-86%
    A few sentences 35-58%

  • Question from Greg, Large Midwestern University:

    How much of the college student population appear to be incorrigible (willing to cheat on just about any assignment), regardless of the instructor's attempts to limit the possibility?

    Source: The Chronicle, Colloquy Live
    http://chronicle.com/colloquylive/2001/07/cheat/

  • Answer: Donald L. McCabe:

    Research that I've done over the years suggest that as many as 10 - 20% of students would qualify as habitual cheaters.



Research that I've done over the years suggest that as many as 10 - 20% of students would qualify as habitual cheaters. Perhaps half of that number or less would fall into the category you describe as incorrigible.

Size of “cheating problem”

5% or less…




Why do students plagiarize?

  • Procrastination

  • Panic, pressure

  • Lack of skills

  • Confusion

  • Careless note taking

  • Cultural dispositions

  • Schoolsucks.com “download your workload”

Baty, P. (2004) Plagiarist student to sue university. Times Higher Education Supplement. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3561-1126250,00.html


Mr Gunn, 21, claims that he was unaware …cutting and pasting without attribution - constituted plagiarism…argues that the university failed to give proper guidance on acceptable research techniques. (University of Kent at Canterbury)

Blog reports:

Who’s been grading the papers?

Deal with plagiarism in an educational way!

Pay attention and follow-up EARLY!



  • Students have a tendency to plagiarize because of a genuine misunderstanding of the rules and formats for citing sources

    S. Wilhoit, 1994. "Helping students avoid plagiarism," College Teaching, volume 42, number 4, pp. 161–164 CITED IN Guertin, L.A. (2005) Using virtual lectures to educate students on plagiarism. First Monday. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/guertin/

    Crisp, G. T., 2004, July “Plagiarism and the reputation of the university…”

    Mainka, Raeburn & Earl, 2006, p. 13…many more

  • Rebecca Howard – students learn from “patchwriting”

What are the problems with plagiarism detection tools?

  • Unlawful gain

  • Publicity for plagiarism

  • Incomplete databases

  • Instructor works

  • False positives, negatives

  • Conflicting interests

  • “Two online services that help professors check student papers for plagiarism -- PlagiServe.com and EduTie.com -- appear to have ties to Web sites that sell term papers to students.”

    Chronicle of Higher Education, Information Technology, Tuesday, March 12, 2002, http://chronicle.com/free/2002/03/2002031201t.htm

  • This site [Plagiserve]…appears to be run by students in the Ukraine and how they fund the site is unclear…[they] are very likely archiving submitted papers in order to sell them on the very same paper mills they claim to police.

Shane, J. (2003). A rose by any other name would still smell a cheat. The Cyberskeptics Guide. Pp. 4-5. http://www.unm.edu/~jshane/pubs/cheat.pdf

Paper mill “captures” student’s paper and sells it…
Young, J. R. (2005)
Student sues term-paper web sites for selling one of
her papers. Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/daily/2005/09/2005090101t.htm


Turnitin.com sells your paper by virtue of using it in its matching database…

  • Told their papers would be checked: 10.7% - 17.5% plagiarism1

  • Not told: 17.2% plagiarism1

1. “Plagiarism: Prevention, Practice, and Policies, 2004 conference” James Douglas Beasley “The Impact of Technology on Plagiarism Prevention and Detection” – Weinstein & Dobkin study http://www.powerresearcher.com/download/plagiarism_tech_impact.pdf

  • TIC Failures (Barrett & Malcolm, 2006)
    Turnitin 41%, AFTER Inspection 26% (Threshold 15% to equal plagiarism)

  • Failures in “rigged essays”
    Turnitin (Hill cited in Royce, 2006, p. 4)

    0 for 1st & 3rd

    — only 2 instances in 2nd
    Turnitin (Crisp, 2004)
    — “The use of the Turnitin service did not lead to the detection of all cases…”
    Turnitin missed 15 of 18 passages (Royce, 2006, p. 5)
    Turnitin failed to check 5 db’s (Mainka, Raeburn & Earl, 2006, p. 13)




  • EVE (Braumoeller & Gaines, 2001)

    29% 6% 4% 38% in one trial

    44% 42% 52% in another trial

  • Cited quotations = word count1,2

  • References = word count1

  • Assignment specs = word count1

  • Sequence of words plagiarism3

  • Limited databases3, 5,7

  • No access behind password sites4, subscription db3

  • No access to discussion lists3

  • No match to online encyclopedias3

  • No match to paraphrases/transformations3

    1 Barrett & Malcolm, 2006, p. 40; 2 Braumoeller & Gaines, 20001, p. 837; 3 Royce, 2006, p. 2; 4 Crisp, 2004; 5 Mainka, Raeburn & Earl, 2006, p. 13; 6 Large cited in Royce 2006, p. 5; Beasley, 2004, p. 3

  • Won’t detect false citations3

  • Unlikely to detect translations from


    foreign language6

  • Hard to detect diagrams,

    pictures, graphs6

1 Barrett & Malcolm, 2006, p. 40; 2 Braumoeller & Gaines, 20001, p. 837; 3 Royce, 2006, p. 2; 4 Crisp, 2004; 5 Mainka, Raeburn & Earl, 2006, p. 13; 6 Large cited in Royce 2006, p. 5; 6 Large cited in Royce 2006, p. 5

…problems…

  • Results:

    “false accusations”3
    “annoyingly ambiguous” “gray zone”2
    “false-positives”-“false-negatives”3

1 Barrett & Malcolm, 2006, p. 40; 2 Braumoeller & Gaines, 20001, p. 837; 3 Royce, 2006, p. 2

  • Results: students learn what?

    “…her daughter is not sure how much she needs to rewrite research material before she can use it” (Carroll cited in Royce, 2006, p. 5)

  • Results: students learn what?

    “…it’s ok to profit from other people’s work, provided I don’t give out the author’s names..” (Theresa L. Ford, August 12, 2004, http://www.cattail.nu/school_web/plagiarism.html)

  • Results: students learn what?



    “…Students say there are ways to trick the database. Adam Zakreski…knows how to bypass Turnitin… ‘You just change a few texts,’ said the 24-year old student.” (Report at MikeSmit.com from The Daily News, Halifax, April 12, 2006, p. 4)

  • Students still can plagiarize

  • Copyright violation is a federal crime while plagiarism is an academic crime.

  • Real life: some businesses encourage plagiarism.

…definitions differ…
…values differ…

  • Using “a few sentences” w/o footnotes?

  • Cutting and pasting?
    “patchwriting” “mosaic” “mouse-click”
    “point-and-click”…REWRITE OR…???

  • Obtain from paper mill or web?

  • Collaborating with another student?
    When is it OK? When NOT?


English

Plagiarizing Example - English

  • Politics: How does a particular novel -- say, Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale -- raise its political questions? And does it raise these questions effectively? For example, would you say that the novel's "reconstructed" style helps or hinders its political agenda? And what about the novel's ending?

Plagiarizing Example 1-English

  • Search Terms: Atwood's “The Handmaid's Tale” politics

Plagiarizing Example - English

  • Google Search:

    http://www.brothersjudd.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/reviews.detail/book_id/750/Handmaid's%20T.htm

finds paper that covers

  • conflict - security v. freedom

  • gender politics

  • pollution subtext

  • Leftist politics

  • Mamma Search: http://endeavor.med.nyu.edu/lit-med/lit-med-db/webdocs/webdescrips/atwood157-des-.html finds paper that covers

  • anti-abortion rhetoric

  • reproductive technologies

  • contemporary (1980-90) gender politics

  • Yahoo Search: http://www.planetpapers.com/Assets/5522.php - similar

Assignment Example

  • English 102, Writing Research Papers
    Dr. Marylynne Diggs 
    Permission to use received 1/26/05 from mdiggs@clark.edu.
    http://web.clark.edu/diggma/102/102home.htm or http://thor.clark.edu/diggma/102/102home.htm


Assignment Example

  • Checklists

  • Instructions

  • Grading Criteria & Sheets

  • Help Resources

Assignment – Planet Earth

  • EAS 100 Planet Earth
    Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences
    Term Paper Assignment
    Prof. Lawrence W. Braile
    Permission to use received by email on 1/27/05 from braile@purdue.edu.

    http://www.eas.purdue.edu/~braile/eas100/term.doc

Prof. Braile wrote: “On the plagiarism issue, I found a few years ago that there were several copy and paste term papers turned in. Now I have a section in the assignment and I go over this issue in class and there are many fewer plagiarized papers.”

Dr. Braile

EAS 100 Planet Earth

  • IMPORTANT!Do not be tempted to use a term paper obtained from the Internet or some other source or to copy sentences or paragraphs from the Internet!

Dr. Braile
EAS 100 Planet Earth

  • …A simple Internet search can distinguish papers that are copied.

Dr. Braile
EAS 100 Planet Earth

  • …Plagiarism is copying or direct paraphrasing… (“Paraphrasing should not include the replication of vivid phasing…Where those things are involved, direct quotation marks should be employed.” Thomas Mallon, author of Stolen Words, 1989, as quoted in USA Today, January 17, 2002.)

Dr. Braile
EAS 100 Planet Earth

  • Direct quotations must be placed in quotes in your text and be cited.

Students need education…
What really subverts plagiarism?

“…needed guidance and instruction…”

“well-crafted, carefully sequenced, and interesting assignments…”

Are teachers part of the solution or part of the problem? Toward the Best in the Academy, Vol 15, No 1, 2003-2004



What works?

  • Well-designed learning

  • Clear detailed directions

  • Process focus, steps

  • Change in list of topics

  • Valuing original thought

  • Allowing time needed to think

Working with teachers…

  • Defining academic integrity and cheating, plagiarism

  • Developing swift and sure consequences

  • Defining and sharing definitions and policy

  • Helping others recognize and document plagiarism

Teachers working with students

  • Work with student on planning, ideas outline, note-taking

  • “Recent” and range of references

  • A “report” on the work done

  • Change list of topics

  • Value original thought

  • Asking questions about process:
    “What exactly DO you mean here by ‘dynamic equivalence’?”

  • Assess planning, notes, and process

  • Annotated bibliography noting usefulness of the source

  • “Metalearning” essay – at moment of collecting paper - write “what they learned from the assignment” and “what problems did they face and how did they overcome…”



McKenzie’s Levels of Research

  • Level one: just the facts

  • Level two: other people’s ideas

  • Level three: new ideas and synthesis

McKenzie, J. (1998). The new plagiarism. Available online at http://www.fno.org/may98/cov98may.html

Avoid “Trivial Pursuits”

  • Require

  • Explanations

  • Problem-solving

  • Choices and Decision Making

  • Self-assessment

  • Emphasize Essential Questions

  • Questions worth asking

  • Touch upon basic human issues

  • May make a difference in the quality of life

McKenzie, J. (2001). From trivial pursuits to essential questions and standards based learning. Available online at http://www.fno.org/feb01/pl.html

Making a Difference…

  • Show how to take notes

  • Show how to use technology effectively

  • Use different colors when taking notes

  • Self-assessment

  • Reward originality

McKenzie, J. (1998). The new plagiarism. Available online at http://www.fno.org/may98/cov98may.html




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