Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)


England and America, 19th century

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15. England and America, 19th century.


The history of oratorio in 19th-century England is inseparable from that of the provincial music festivals, which were the chief institutions to cultivate oratorio composition and performance. Of particular importance is the Three Choirs Festival, which continued in the early 19th century to emphasize Handel's works. The festivals of Birmingham and Leeds were also of special importance for the history of the oratorio. In the first half of the 19th century selections from and at times complete performances of the oratorios of foreign composers began to appear on English programmes. Among the more popular works of foreign composers were Haydn's Creation; Spohr's Calvary (i.e. Des Heilands letzte Stunden, first performed in London, 1837) and The Fall of Babylon (composed for the Norwich Festival of 1842); and Mendelssohn's St Paul (performed at Liverpool in 1836, for the first time in England, and conducted by the composer at the Birmingham Festival of 1837) and Elijah (first performed at the Birmingham Festival of 1846, conducted by the composer). Foreign oratorios continued to be performed in the second half of the 19th century in England, including those of Saint-Saëns, Gounod, Liszt, Raff, Franck and Dvořák.

In early 19th-century England the stylistic and structural models for new oratorios were mainly the music of Handel, Mozart and Haydn. An outstanding oratorio from this period is Crotch's Palestine (1805–11); basically Handelian, it nevertheless includes music that departs significantly from the model and is remarkably modern. Clarke-Whitfeld's oratorio pair Crucifixion and Resurrection (1822, 1825) are musically among the better Handelian works of the time. From the late 1840s to the 1880s, the primary model was Mendelssohn, who had incorporated elements of Handel's and Bach's choral style into his own work. English oratorios of this period tend to include chorales (absent from English oratorios before St Paul and Elijah), Mendelssohnian lyricism, reminiscence motifs (or ‘representative motifs’, as they came to be called in England), greater structural flexibility than before and programmatic overtures. Representative of the period are Ouseley's St Polycarp (1855), Costa's Eli (1855) and Naaman (1864), Bennett's Woman of Samaria (1867) and Macfarren's St John the Baptist (1872). The late period, beginning in the 1880s, was the most innovatory one for English oratorio: the models of Handel and Mendelssohn tended to be abandoned, and oratorio composers struck out in directions new for England. Wagnerian principles were increasingly adopted – or at least adapted to a composer's personal style. English oratorios became more dramatic, included more long, continuous scenes, and used more reminiscence motifs and occasionally even leitmotifs. The orchestra, increasingly liberated from its purely accompanimental role, became a more significant vehicle of expression. The fugue lost ground as an essential ingredient. Two works from the beginning of the late period are Mackenzie's Rose of Sharon (1884) and Cowen's Ruth (1887), both important representatives of the ‘dramatic oratorio’, which was new in 19th-century England. Among the most important works that represent the late style are Stanford's Three Holy Children (1885) and Eden (1891), and Parry's Judith, or The Regeneration of Manasseh (1888), Job (1892) and King Saul (1894). The Victorian period reached its peak, however, with Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius (1900) (discussed below).



The earliest oratorios known to have been composed in America, Jerusalem in Affliction (1828) and The Daughters of Zion (1829), are by Filippo Trajetta (son of Tommaso Traetta), who established the American Conservatorio in Philadelphia, where his oratorios were performed. In 1841 A.P. Heinrich, among the most significant American composers of the mid-19th century, wrote The Jubilee: a Grand National Sinfonia Canonicate: Commemoration of the Landing on the Banks of Plymouth by the Pilgrim Fathers, later called The Wild Wood Spirits' Chant, a Grand National Song of Triumph; or, The Oratorio of the Pilgrims. It is a bold, fresh, imaginative and highly creative oratorio, but Heinrich was insufficiently skilled in the craft of musical composition to do justice to his concept. This monumental work was presumably never performed in its entirety. The earliest known oratorio by an American-born composer is Jephtha (1845) by J.H. Hewitt, a modest work with essentially the same turns of melody, simple harmony and unadorned patterns of accompaniment that Hill had already established in his extremely popular parlour songs and was soon to apply in his operettas. More comparable with European oratorios, however, are George F. Bristow's Daniel (1866), Leopold Damrosch's Ruth and Naomi (1874), John Knowles Paine's St Peter (1870–72), and Horatio Parker's Hora novissima (completed 1892, first performed 1893) and The Legend of St Christopher (1898). Hora novissima is the only 19th-century American oratorio that is still performed. Unique for its subject matter is Dudley Buck's The Light of Asia (1886), based on Sir Edwin Arnold's blank-verse epic of the same name that treats the life of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.

Oratorio

16. Italy and Spain, 19th century.


The 19th century was a period of decline for the Italian oratorio. The traditional genre lingered on, with little vigour and with conservative opera seria characteristics, while the ‘staged oratorio’, or sacred opera, became increasingly popular. Among the most frequently performed sacred operas was Rossini's Mosè in Egitto, a three-act work called an ‘azione tragico-sacra’ in its earliest version, first performed during Lent of 1818 at the Teatro S Carlo in Naples. Among the unstaged oratorios in 19th-century Italy are Simon Mayr's Samuele (1821); Paolo Bonfichi's Il Genesi (1826); Mercadante's Le sette ultime parole di Nostro Signore (1841); Teodulo Mabellini's Eudossia e Paolo, o I martiri (1845); Pietro Raimondi's trilogy Giuseppe (1847–8), curiously experimental in that its three constituent oratorios (Putifar, Giuseppe and Giacobbe) are intended to be performed either successively or simultaneously; Giovanni Pacini's Il trionfo di Giuditta (1854); Paolo Serrao’s Gli Ortonesi in Scio (1858); and Jacopo Tomadini's La risurrezione del Cristo (1864).

The relatively few oratorios of 19th-century Spain appear to follow the conservative course of those in Italy, although sacred opera seems to have been less popular in Spain. Examples of the Spanish oratorio are Francisco Andreví y Castellar's La dulzura de la virtud (before 1819) and El juicio universal (1822), Ruperto Chapí's Los ángeles (1873) and Tomás Bretón's El apocalipsis (1882).



Oratorio

17. The 20th century.


New directions were taken in oratorio composition around the turn of the century in both Italy and England. Lorenzo Perosi rejected the oratorio volgare of the 18th and 19th centuries, with its heavy dependence on opera, and in his 12 oratorios (among them La risurrezione di Cristo, 1898; La risurrezione di Lazzaro, 1898; Il natale del Redentore, 1899; La strage degli innocenti, 1900; and Il giudizio universale, 1904) he consciously returned to the format of the Carissimi period, although his scale was larger and his materials were post-Wagnerian. Most of Perosi's oratorios are in two sections and have Latin texts, including a storico, or narration, which, in the manner of Carissimi, is distributed among various vocal parts. His aim was to achieve a more serious religious expression than had been characteristic of Italian oratorio in the previous two centuries; to this end he made use of Gregorian chant and adopted a quasi-liturgical attitude, particularly in the numerous choruses. The oratorios of the Franciscan priest Pater Hartmann (Paul Eugen Josef von An der Lan-Hochbrunn) continue in the direction established by Perosi. Of South Tyrolean origin, Hartmann was active mostly in Rome. His five oratorios (S Petrus, 1900; S Franciscus, 1901; La cena del Signore, 1904; La morte del Signore, 1906; and Septem ultima verba Christi, 1908) set Latin texts in a post-Wagnerian harmonic style. Other 20th-century Italian oratorios include Wolf-Ferrari's Talitha Kumi (1900), Malipiero's S Francesco d'Assisi (1921), Licino Refice's Trittico francescano (1926), Franco Vittadini's L'agonia del Redentore (1933), Antonio Veretti's Il figliuol prodigo (1942) and Luigi Dallapiccola's Job (1950).

In England, Elgar's Dream of Gerontius was not only the most important oratorio of the Victorian period but the most creative English oratorio since Handel. Based on Cardinal Newman's poem of the same name, Gerontius is the only oratorio by a Victorian composer to have retained a position in the performing repertory up to the present day. The work is organized in two large parts, and the music is continuous throughout each. Gerontius owes far more to Wagner's chromatic harmonic language, solo vocal style, motivic technique and orchestral-vocal synthesis than any English oratorio before it. With Gerontius the English oratorio achieved the emancipation of the orchestra from its accompanimental role. Elgar's oratorio pair The Apostles (1903) and The Kingdom (1906) are more conventional for their biblical texts but at the same time unconventional for their continuity and structural flexibility, which continues the harmonic, melodic and orchestral style of Gerontius. Like Gerontius, they are full of reminiscence motifs, many of which appear in both works. Other important English oratorios are Vaughan Williams's Sancta civitas (1925), Walton's Belshazzar's Feast (1931), Berkeley's Jonah (1935), Fricker's The Vision of Judgement (1957–8), Milner's The Water and the Fire (1961), and Tippett's A Child of our Time (1939–41) and The Mask of Time (1980–82). Paul McCartney's Liverpool Oratorio (1991) reflects his background in popular music.

American oratorios in the 20th century reveal a wide variety of musical styles, and most rely on traditional subjects for their librettos. Among them are Charles Sanford Skilton's The Guardian Angel (1925), Robert Nathaniel Dett's The Ordering of Moses (1937), Stefan Wolpe's Israel and his Land (1939), Bernard Rogers's The Passion (1942), Franz Waxman's Joshua (1959), Vincent Persichetti's The Creation (1969), Dominick Argento's Jonah and the Whale (1973) and Charles Wuorinen's The Celestial Sphere (1980).

Among the German-language oratorios, of special interest is Schoenberg's Die Jakobsleiter (1917–22), a religious work only in the sense that it is concerned with ultimate human strivings. Despite its imagery of Swedenborgian mysticism, its philosophy is intensely individual, and individualistic: in the first part of the work (the second remained uncomposed, though Schoenberg's text is complete) various easy options to the struggles of living for truth are caustically dismissed. Die Jakobsleiter, unperformed until 1958, had no effect on the course of the 20th-century German oratorio, which is better represented by Franz Schmidt's Das Buch mit sieben Siegeln (1935–7) on texts from the Apocalypse. Other examples are Hindemith's Das Unaufhörliche (1931), Blacher's Der Grossinquisitor (1942), David's Ezzolied (1957) and the simple ‘folk oratorios’ of Joseph Haas (Die heilige Elizabeth, 1931; Christnacht, 1932; Lebensbuch Gottes, 1934; Lied von der Mutter, 1939; and Das Jahr im Lied, 1952).

The interest in sacred composition on Baroque models that grew in Germany between the wars produced few oratorios, but in Switzerland the fruits were more plentiful and included Willy Burkhard's Das Gesicht Jesajas (1933–5) and Conrad Beck's Oratorium nach Sprüchen des Angelus Silesius (1934). Both apply a severe neo-Baroque technique, and Burkhard's piece achieves great force through its stark simplicity. Though not Swiss in origin, Wladimir Vogel took a Swiss subject for his most ambitious work, the oratorio Thyl Claes, fils de Kolldrager (1938–45); it is in two parts, each lasting a whole evening, and employs his characteristic polyphonic choral speaking. More impressive among the Swiss oratorios, however, are those of Martin: Le vin herbé (1938–41), In terra pax (1944), Golgotha (1945–8) and Le mystère de la nativité (1957–9). The first is an extended work based on the Tristan legend, but its scoring is for only 12 voices and eight instruments. Golgotha uses more conventional forces in a quite original form: the Gospel narrative is unfolded in seven ‘pictures’ separated by settings of contemplative texts by St Augustine. Le mystère de la nativité is a ‘scenic oratorio’ available for stage or concert performance, and in this it looks back to Honegger's Le roi David, composed in 1921 as a ‘dramatic psalm’ for the theatre and revised as an oratorio in 1923. The clearcut facture of this piece, the strong design of individual scenes and the lapidary use of melody and rhythm make it one of the most powerful oratorios of the 20th century. Honegger extended those techniques in Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (1935), which was written as a stage spectacle for Ida Rubinstein, though it may also be given as an oratorio.

Similarly, Debussy's Le martyre de St Sébastien (1911), another Rubinstein commission, has often been given in concert performance with the spoken dialogue cut, but the reduction of this five-act ‘mystery’ to a one-hour oratorio is not entirely satisfactory. The fusion of genres was best achieved by Stravinsky in his ‘opera-oratorio’ Oedipus rex (1926–7). Although the subject is secular, Stravinsky's treatment is liturgical in style, with the text sung in Latin, an important part for the chorus, and the principal actors appearing masked and stationary; the stylization and distance of the presentation are further accentuated by the vernacular commentaries given by a narrator in modern evening dress. If Oedipus rex is best regarded as an oratorio for the stage, concert performances can present the neo-classical monumentality of the music, which still leaves room for Verdian effusions.

Stravinsky's oratorio represents a continuation of the genre's secularization, which began in the 19th century. Politically motivated secularization enabled the oratorio to enjoy a vigorous life in Russia, where oratorios had been rare. The oratorio became a medium for the expression of heroic and at times bombastic patriotic sentiments, as in Kabalevsky's The Great Homeland (1941–2), Myaskovsky's Kirov is with us (1942) and Shaporin's Story of the Battle for the Russian Land (1943–4). After World War II the demands of socialist realism produced, throughout eastern Europe, a huge number of oratorios in praise of party leaders or the proletariat. But the period also saw the composition of a few important works: Shostakovich's Song of the Forest (1949), Prokofiev's On Guard for Peace (1950), Sviridov's Poem in Memory of Sergei Yesenin (1955–6) and Pathetic Oratorio (1959), and Shnitke's Nagasaki (1958).

Elsewhere, new departures in the oratorio continued after World War II. Messiaen's La transfiguration (1969) almost dispenses with narrative and with solo voices for an immense, meditative theological exposition drawing on texts from the Bible, the Roman liturgy and Aquinas, and on musical materials characteristic of all periods in the composer's career. Notable among the oratorios of younger composers are Penderecki's Dies irae (1967) and Henze's Das Floss der ‘Medusa’ (1968), an ‘oratorio volgare e militare’ to a politically revolutionary text. Yet perhaps the most far-reaching innovation was made by Krenek in Spiritus intelligentiae sanctus (1955), a Pentecost oratorio realized on magnetic tape.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Oratorio, §17: The 20th century

BIBLIOGRAPHY


general

antecedents

oratorio in italy and spain, c1620c1720

italian oratorio and ‘sepolcro’ in vienna

protestant germany, baroque

handel and the english oratorio

charpentier and the oratorio in france

early classical and classical 18th-century oratorio

19th century

20th century

Oratorio: Bibliography

general


MGG1 (P. Damilano, L. Tagliavini and others)

MGG2 (J. Riepe, D. Mielke-Gerdes and others)

SmitherHO

C.H. Bitter: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums (Berlin, 1872/R)

O. Wangemann: Geschichte des Oratoriums von den ersten Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1882/R)

H. Kretschmar: Führer durch den Konzertsaal, ii/2: Oratorien und weltliche Chorwerke (Leipzig, 1890, rev. 5/1939 by H. Schnoor)

J.R. Carreras y Bulbena: El oratorio musical desde su origen hasta nuestros días (Barcelona, 1906)

G. Pasquetti: L'oratorio musicale in Italia (Florence, 1906, 2/1914)


D. Alaleona: Studi su la storia dell'oratorio musicale in Italia (Turin, 1908, 2/1945 as Storia dell'oratorio musicale in Italia)

A. Schering: Geschichte des Oratoriums (Leipzig, 1911/R)

F. Raugel: L'oratorio (Paris, 1948)

G. Massenkeil, ed.: Das Oratorium, Mw, xxxvii (1970; Eng. trans., 1970)

H.E. Smither: ‘The Baroque Oratorio: a Report on Research Since 1945’, AcM, xlviii (1976), 50–76

T. Dox: American Oratorios and Cantatas: a Catalogue of Works written in the United States from Colonial Times to 1985 (Metuchen, NJ, 1986)

J. Johnson and H. Smither, eds.: The Italian Oratorio 1650–1800: Works in a Central Baroque and Classical Tradition (New York, 1986–7) [31 vols. of MS facs.]

K. Pahlen: The World of Oratorio (Portland, OR, 1990)

G. Massenkeil: Oratorium und Passion (Teil 1) (Laaber, 1998)

Oratorio: Bibliography

antecedents


MGG1 (‘Dialog’, E. Noack)

MGG2 (‘Dialog’, W. Brown)

D. Alaleona: ‘Su Emilio de' Cavalieri, la Rappresentatione di Anima e di Corpo e alcune sue composizioni inedite’, Nuova musica, x (1905), 35, 47


D. Alaleona: ‘Le laudi spirituali italiani nei secoli XVI e XVII e il loro rapporto coi canti profani’, RMI, xvi (1909), 1–54

T. Kroyer: ‘Dialog und Echo in der alten Chormusik’, JbMP 1909, 13–32

E.J. Dent: ‘The Laudi Spirituali in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries’, PMA, xliii (1916–17), 63–95

K. Meyer: ‘Das Offizium und seine Beziehung zum Oratorium’, AMw, iii (1921), 371–404

L. Bordot and L. Ponelle: Saint Philippe Néri et la société romaine de son temps (1515–1595) (Paris, 1926; Eng. trans., 1932)

H.J. Moser: Die mehrstimmige Vertonung des Evangeliums, i (Leipzig, 1931/R)

B. Becherini: ‘La Rappresentazione di anima e corpo di Emilio de' Cavalieri’, RaM, xvi (1943), 1–34

L. Cervelli: ‘Le laudi spirituali di Giovanni Animuccia, e le origini dell'oratorio musicale a Roma’, RaM, xx (1950), 116–31

C. Gasbarri: L'oratorio filippino (1552–1952) (Rome, 1957)

C. Winter: ‘Studien zur Frühgeschichte des lateinischen Oratoriums’, KJb, xlii (1958), 64–76

C. Gasbarri: L'oratorio romano dal Cinquecento al Novecento (Rome, 1962)

M. Trevor: Apostle of Rome: a Life of Philip Neri, 1515–1595 (London, 1966)


H.E. Smither: ‘The Latin Dramatic Dialogue and the Nascent Oratorio’, JAMS, xx (1967), 403–33

H.E. Smither: ‘Narrative and Dramatic Elements in the Laude Filippine, 1563–1600’, AcM, xli (1969), 186–99

R. Chauvin: ‘Six Gospel Dialogues for the Offertory by Lorenzo Ratti’, AnMc, no.9 (1970), 64–77

J.W. Hill: ‘Oratory Music in Florence’, AcM, li (1979), 108–36

H. Smither, ed.: Antecedents of the Oratorio: Sacred Dramatic Dialogues, 1600–1630, Oratorios of the Italian Baroque, i, Concentus musicus, vii (Laaber, 1985)

G. Distaso: De l'altre meraviglie: teatro religioso in Puglia, Musica e teatro: quaderni degli Amici della Scala, vi (Milan, 1987)

Oratorio: Bibliography

oratorio in italy and spain, c1620c1720


A. Maugars: Response faite à un curieux sur le sentiment de la musique d'Italie (Paris, c1640); ed. J. Hevillan (Paris, 1991, 2/1992); Eng. trans. (Geneva, 1993)

S. Lazarini: Sacra melodia di oratorii musicali (Rome, 1687)

A. Spagna: Oratorii overo melodrammi sacri (Rome, 1706); prefaces and Ger. trans., SIMG, viii (1906–7), 43–70

A. Spagna: I fasti sacri (Rome, 1720)

F. Chrysander: ‘Die Oratorien von Carissimi’, AMZ, new ser., xi (1876), 67–9, 81–3, 113–15, 130–32, 145–7

M. Brenet: ‘Les “oratorios” de Carissimi’, RMI, iv (1897), 460–83

A. Solerti: ‘Lettere inedite sulla musica di Pietro della Valle a G.B. Doni ed una veglia drammatica-musicale del medesimo’, RMI, xii (1905), 271–338

A. Schering: ‘Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte des italienischen Oratoriums im 17. Jahrhundert’, SIMG, viii (1906–7), 43–69

A. Michieli: ‘Le Poesie sacre dramatiche di Apostolo Zeno’, Giornale storico della letteratura italiana, xcv (1930), 1–33

M.A. Zorzi: ‘Saggio di bibliografia sugli oratorii sacri eseguiti a Venezia’, Accademie e biblioteche d’Italia, iv (1930–31), 226–46, 394–403, 529–43; v (1931–2), 79–96, 493–508; vi (1932–3), 256–69; vii (1933–4), 316–41

E. Dagnino: ‘Quanti sono gli oratorii di Bernardo Pasquini?’, NA, ix (1932), 270–76

E. Dagnino: ‘Ancora degli oratorii di Bernardo Pasquini’, NA, xi (1934), 68–9

R. Casimiri: ‘Oratorii del Masini, Bernabei, Melani, Di Pio, Pasquini e Stradella in Roma nell'anno santo 1675’, NA, xiii (1936), 157–69

R. Lustig: ‘Saggio bibliografico degli oratorii stampati a Firenze dal 1690 al 1725’, NA, xiv (1937), 57–64, 109–16, 244–50

F. Vatielli: ‘L'oratorio a Bologna negli ultimi decenni del Seicento’, NA, xv (1938), 26–35, 77–87


U. Rolandi: ‘Oratorii stampati a Firenze dal 1690 al 1725’, NA, xvi (1939), 32–9

L.P. Beveridge: Giacomo Carissimi (1605–1674): a Study of his Life and his Music with Latin Texts (diss., Harvard U., 1944)

G. Massenkeil: Die oratorische Kunst in den lateinischen Historien und Oratorien Giacomo Carissimis (diss., U. of Mainz, 1952)

A. Damerini: ‘L'oratorio musicale nel Seicento dopo Carissimi’, RMI, lv (1953), 149–63

A. Ghislanzoni: ‘Tre oratori e tre cantate morali di Luigi Rossi ritrovati nella Biblioteca Vaticana’, RBM, ix (1955), 3–11

A. Damerini: ‘Le due “Maddalene” di G. Bononcini’, CHM, ii (1956–7), 115–25

G. Massenkeil: ‘Die Wiederholungsfiguren in den Oratorien Giacomo Carissimis’, AMw, xiii (1956), 42–60

A. Liess: ‘Materialen zur römischen Musikgeschichte des Seicento: Musikerlisten des Oratorio San Marcello 1664–1725’, AcM, xxix (1957), 137–71

A. Liess: ‘Die Sammlung der Oratorienlibretti (1679–1725) und der restliche Musikbestand des Fondo San Marcello der Biblioteca Vaticana in Rom’, AcM, xxxi (1959), 63–80

R. Ewerhart: ‘New Sources for Handel's “La resurrezione”’, ML, xli (1960), 127–35

O. Mischiati: ‘Per la storia dell'oratorio a Bologna: tre inventari del 1620, 1622 e 1682’, CHM, iii (1962–3), 131–70


W. Müller-Blattau: ‘Untersuchungen zur Kompositionstechnik in den Oratorien Giacomo Carissimis’, Mf, xvi (1963), 209–23

G.L. Dardo: ‘“La Passione” di Attilio Ariosti’, Chigiana, xxiii (1966), 59–87

M. Fabbri: ‘Torna alla luce la partitura autografa dell'oratorio “Il primo omicidio” di Alessandro Scarlatti’, Chigiana, xxiii (1966), 245–64

U. Kirkendale: Antonio Caldara: sein Leben und seine venezianisch-römischen Oratorien (Graz, 1966)

R. Schnitzler: The Passion-Oratorios of Giacomo Antonio Perti (M.F.A. thesis, Ohio U., 1967)

A. Ziino: ‘Pietro della Valle e la “musica erudita”: nuovi documenti’, AnMc, no.4 (1967), 97–111

D.G. Poultney: The Oratorios of Alessandro Scarlatti: their Lineage, Milieu, and Style (diss., U. of Michigan, 1968)

L. Bianchi: Carissimi, Stradella, Scarlatti e l'oratorio musicale (Rome, 1969)

W.C. Hobbs: Giovanni Francesco Anerio's ‘Teatro armonico spirituale di madrigali’: a Contribution to the Early History of the Oratorio (diss., Tulane U., 1971)

H.E. Smither: ‘What is an Oratorio in Mid-Seventeenth-Century Italy?’, IMSCR XI: Copenhagen 1972, 657–63

D. Poultney: ‘Alessandro Scarlatti and the Transformation of the Oratorio’, MQ, lix (1973), 584–601


M.D. Grace: Marco Marazzoli and the Development of the Latin Oratorio (diss., Yale U., 1974)

H.E. Smither: ‘Carissimi's Latin Oratorios: their Terminology, Functions, and Position in Oratorio History’, AnMc, no.17 (1976), 54–78

W. Witzenmann: ‘Zum Oratorienstil bei Domenico Mazzocchi und Marco Marazzoli’, AnMc, no.19 (1979), 52–93

J.A. Griffin: The Oratorios of Giovanni Paolo Colonna and the Late Seventeenth-Century Oratorio Tradition in Bologna and Modena (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1978)

J.W. Hill: ‘Oratory Music in Florence, II’, AcM, li (1979), 246–67

C. Vitali: ‘Giovanni Paolo Colonna maestro di cappella dell'Oratorio Filippino in Bologna’, RIM, xiv (1979), 128–54

B. Brumana: ‘Per una storia dell'oratorio musicale a Perugia nei secoli XVII e XVIII’, Esercizi: arte musica, spettacolo, iii (1980), 97–167

G. Price: Il Sedecia: a Seventeenth-Century Oratorio by Giovanni Legrenzi (diss., U. of Kentucky, 1980)

H. Baker: The Oratorios of Benedetto Marcello (1686–1739) (diss., Rutgers U., 1982)

A.V. Jones: The Motets of Carissimi (Ann Arbor, 1982)

G. Dixon: ‘Oratorio o motetto? alcune reflessioni sulla classificazione della musica sacra del Seicento’, NMRI, xvii (1983), 203–22

E. Ozolins: The Oratorios of Bernardo Pasquini (diss., UCLA, 1983)


D. and E. Arnold: The Oratorio in Venice (London, 1986)

G. Dixon: Carissimi (Oxford, 1986)

J.W. Hill: ‘Oratory Music in Florence, III’, AcM, lviii (1986), 129–79

B. Przybyszewska-Jarminska: ‘Tipi, forma e funzioni dei dialoghi latini di Kasper Förster junior’, Tradizione e stile: Como 1987, 209–19

E. Selfridge-Field: ‘Italian Oratorio and the Baroque Orchestra’, EMc, xvi (1988), 506–13

H.E. Smither: ‘Musical Interpretation of the Text in Stradella's Oratorios’ [1972], Chigiana, xxxix (1988), 287–316

J. Riepe: ‘Überlegungen zur Funktion des italienischen Oratoriums im letzten Drittel des 17. Jahrhunderts am Beispiel von Giovanni Legrenzis Sedecia und La caduta di Gierusalemme von Giovanni Paolo Colonna’, Giovanni Legrenzi e la cappella ducale di San Marco: Venice and Clusone 1990, 605–42

A. Morelli: Il tempio armonico: musica nell'Oratorio dei Filippini in Roma (1575–1705), AnMc, no.27 (1991)

G. Staffieri: ‘L'Athalie di Racine e l'oratorio romano alla fine del XVII secolo’, RdM, lxxvii (1991), 291–310

E.S. Bonini: Il fondo musicale dell’ Arciconfraternita di S. Girolamo della Carità (Rome, 1992)

V. Crowther: The Oratorio in Modena (Oxford, 1992)


M.T. Ferrer-Ballester: ‘El Oratorio barroco hispánico: localización de fuentes musicales anteriores a 1730’, Revista de musicología, xv (1992), 1–12

C. Gianturco: ‘“Cantate spirituali e morali”, with a Description of the Papal Sacred Canata Tradition for Christmas 1676–1740’, ML, lxxiii (1992), 1–31

M. Girardi: ‘Per una definizione delle origini dell'oratorio a Venezia e i libretti per oratorio di Bernardino Sandrinelli’, Rivista internazionale di musica sacra, xiii (1992), 112–49

H.-J. Marx: ‘Römische Weihnachtsoratorien aus der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, xlix (1992), 163–99

F. Noske: Saints and Sinners: the Latin Musical Dialogue in the Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1992)

C. Gianturco: ‘Opera sacra e opera morale: due “altri” tipi di dramma musicale’, Il melodramma italiano in Italia e in Germania nell'età barocca: Como 1993, 169–77

J. Riepe: Die Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte in Bologna: Beiträge zur Geschichte des italienischen Oratoriums im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert (diss., U. of Bonn, 1993)

J. Riepe: ‘Gli oratorii di Giacomo Antonio Perti’, Studi musicali, xxii (1993), 115–232

C. Gianturco: Alessandro Stradella (1639–1682): his Life and Music (Oxford, 1994)


C. Gianturco: ‘Il trionfo del Tempo e del Disinganno: Four Case-Studies in Determining Italian Poetic-Musical Genres’, JRMA, cxix (1994), 43–59

B. Przybyszewska-Jarminska: ‘The Sacred Dramatic Dialogue in Seventeenth-Century Poland: Facts and Suppositions’, Musica Iagellonica, i (1995), 7–21

J.G. Fanelli: The Oratorios of Giovanni Carlo Maria Clari (Bologna, 1998)

Oratorio: Bibliography

italian oratorio and ‘sepolcro’ in vienna


L. von Köchel: Die kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien von 1543 bis 1867 (Vienna, 1869/R)

G. Adler, ed.: Musikalische Werke der Kaiser Ferdinand III, Leopold I, und Joseph I (Vienna, 1892–3/R)

A. von Weilen: Zur Wiener Theatergeschichte: die vom Jahre 1629 bis zum Jahre 1740 am Wiener Hofe zur Aufführung gelangten Werke theatralischen Charakters und Oratorien (Vienna, 1901)

G. Renker: Das Wiener Sepolcro (diss., U. of Vienna, 1913)

C. LaRoche: Antonio Bertali als Opern- und Oratorienkomponist (diss., U. of Vienna, 1919)

E. Wellesz: ‘Die Opern und Oratorien in Wien von 1660–1708’, SMw, vi (1919), 5–138

H. Vogl: ‘Zur Geschichte des Oratoriums in Wien von 1725 bis 1740’, SMw, xiv (1927), 241–64


R. Haas and J. Zuth, eds.: ‘Dreifache Orchesterteilung im Wiener Sepolchro’, Festschrift Adolf Koczirz (Vienna, 1930), 8–10

F. Biach-Schiffmann: Giovanni und Ludovico Burnacini (Vienna, 1931)

A.B. Gottron: Mainzer Musikgeschichte von 1500 bis 1800 (Mainz, 1959)

R. Schnitzler: The Sacred Dramatic Music of Antonio Draghi (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1971)

G. Gruber: Das Wiener Sepolcro und Johann Joseph Fux (Graz, 1972)

J. Herczog: ‘Tendenze letterarie e sviluppo musicale dell'oratorio italiano nel Settecento tra Vienna e il paese d'origine’, NRMI, xxv (1991), 217–29

Oratorio: Bibliography

protestant germany, baroque


MGG2 (‘Abendmusik’, K. Snyder; ‘Historia’, G. Konradt)

R. Schwartz: ‘Das erste deutsche Oratorium’, JbMP 1898, 59–65

M. Seiffert: ‘Anecdota Schütziana: Schützens Werke in einer verschollenen Bibliothek Lüneburgs: seine Oratorium vom reichen Mann und armen Lazarus’, SIMG, i (1899–1900), 213–18

M. Seiffert: ‘Matthias Weckmann und das Collegium musicum in Hamburg’, SIMG, ii (1900–01), 76–132

W. Maxton: ‘Mitteilungen über eine vollständige Abendmusik Dietrich Buxtehudes’, ZMw, x (1927–8), 387–95

L. Krüger: Die hamburgische Musikorganisation im 17. Jahrhundert (Strasbourg, 1933)


H. Edelhoff: ‘Die Abendmusiken in Lübeck’, Musik und Kirche, viii (1936), 53–8, 122–7

W. Stahl: ‘Die Lübecker Abendmusiken im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert’, Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, xxix (1938), 1–64

W. Menke: Das Vokalwerk Georg Philipp Telemanns: Überlieferung und Zeitfolge (Kassel, 1942)

F. Smend: ‘Neue Bach-Funde’, AMf, vii (1942), 1–39; repr. in F. Smend: Bach-Studien, ed. C. Wolff (Kassel, 1969), 137–52

C. LaRoche: ‘Bachs Himmelfahrts-Oratorium’, Bach-Gedenkschrift, ed. K. Matthaei (Zürich, 1950), 42–65; repr. in F. Smend: Bach-Studien, ed. C. Wolff (Kassel, 1969), 195–211

G. Karstädt: ‘Das Textbuch zum “Templum Honoris” von Buxtehude’, Mf, x (1957), 506–8

O. Söhngen: ‘Die Lübecker Abendmusiken als kirchengeschichtliches und theologisches Problem’, Musik und Kirche, xxvii (1957), 181–91

J. Birke: ‘Eine unbekannte anonyme Matthäuspassion aus der zweiten Hälfte des 17. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, xv (1958), 162–86

C.H. Rhea: The Sacred Oratorios of Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767) (diss., Florida State U., 1958)

M. Geck: ‘Die Authentizität des Vokalwerks Dietrich Buxtehudes in quellenkritischer Sicht’, Mf, xiv (1961), 393–415


G. Godehart: ‘Telemanns “Messias”’, Mf, xiv (1961), 139–55

G. Karstädt: Die ‘extraordinairen’ Abendmusiken Dietrich Buxtehudes (Lübeck, 1962)

W. Maxton: ‘Die Authentizität des “Jüngsten Gerichts” von Dietrich Buxtehude’, Mf, xv (1962), 382–94

M. Geck: ‘Nochmals: die Authentizität des Vokalwerks Dietrich Buxtehudes in quellenkritischer Sicht’, Mf, xvi (1963), 175–81

B. Baselt: ‘Actus musicus und Historie um 1700 in Mitteldeutschland’, Wissenschaftliche Beiträge der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, ser.G, viii/1 (1968), 77–103; abridged in GfMKB: Leipzig 1966, 230–37

W. Maertens: ‘Georg Philipp Telemanns Hamburger “Kapitänsmusiken”’, Festschrift für Walter Wiora, ed. L. Finscher and C.-H. Mahling (Kassel, 1967), 335–41

S.A. Malinowski jr: The Baroque Oratorio Passion (diss., Cornell U., 1978)

S. Ruhle: An Anonymous Seventeenth-Century German Oratorio in the Düben Collection (Uppsala University Library vok. mus. i. hskr. 71) (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1982)

H. Kümmerling: ‘“Difficile est satyram non scribere” oder: “Über eine gewisse Passion eines so genannten weltberühmten Mannes”’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums seit Händel: Festschrift Günther Massenkeil zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. R. Cadenbach and H. Loos (Bonn, 1986), 57–69


S. Oschmann: Jan Dismas Zelenka: seine geistlichen italienischen Oratorien (Mainz, 1986)

H. White: The Oratorios of Johann Joseph Fux (diss., Trinity College, Dublin, 1986)

K. Langrock: Die sieben Worte Jesu am Kreuz: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Passionsmusik (diss., U. of Bochum, 1987)

Oratorio: Bibliography

handel and the english oratorio


W. Nagel: ‘Ein Dialog John Hilton's’, MMg, xxix (1897), 121–34

S. Taylor: The Indebtedness of Handel to Works by Other Composers: a Presentation of Evidence (Cambridge, 1906/R)

E. Bredenförder: Die Texte der Händel-Oratorien: eine religionsgeschichtliche und literarsoziologische Studie (Leipzig, 1934)

R.M. Myers: Handel's Messiah: a Touchstone of Taste (New York, 1948/R)

P.M. Young: The Oratorios of Handel (London, 1949)

J. Herbage: ‘The Oratorios’, Handel: a Symposium, ed. G. Abraham (London, 1954/R), 66–131

J.P. Larsen: Handel's Messiah: Origins, Composition, Sources (London, 1957, 2/1972/R)

I. Spink: ‘English Seventeenth-Century Dialogues’, ML, xxxviii (1957), 155–63

G.-F. Wieber: Die Chorfuge in Händels Werken (Frankfurt, 1958)

W. Dean: Handel's Dramatic Oratorios and Masques (London, 1959/R)

H.-B. Dietz: Die Chorfuge bei G.F. Händel: ein Beitrag zur Kompositionstechnik des Barock (Tutzing, 1961)

W. Shaw: Textual and Historical Companion to Handel’s Messiah (London, 1965)

B. Smallman: ‘Endor Revisited: English Biblical Dialogues of the Seventeenth Century’, ML, xlvi (1965), 137–45

J. Tobin: Handel's Messiah: a Critical Account of the Manuscript Sources and Printed Editions (London, 1969)

W. Dean: ‘How Should Handel's Oratorios be Staged?’, Musical Newsletter, iv/1 (1971), 11–15

H. Meier: Typus und Funktion der Chorsätze in Georg Friedrich Händels Oratorien (Wiesbaden, 1971)

I. Bartlett: ‘Boyce and the Early English Oratorio’, MT, cxx (1979), 293–7, 385–7

A. Hicks: ‘The Late Additions to Handel's Oratorios and the Role of the Younger Smith’, Music in Eighteenth-Century England: Essays in Memory of Charles Cudworth, ed. C. Hogwood and R. Luckett (Cambridge, 1983), 147–69

K. Kropfinger: ‘Israel in Egypt – das fragwürdige Fragment’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums seit Händel: Festschrift Günther Massenkeil zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. R. Cadenbach and H. Loos (Bonn, 1986), 1–27

M. Marx-Weber and H.-J. Marx: ‘Der deutsche Text zu Händels Messias in der Fassung von Klopstock und Ebeling’, ibid., 29–55


A.H. Shapiro: ‘Drama of an Infinitely Superior Nature: Handel's Early English Oratorios and the Religious Sublime’, ML, lxxiv (1993), 215–45

R. Smith: Handel's Oratorios and Eighteenth-Century Thought (Cambridge, 1995)

Oratorio: Bibliography

charpentier and the oratorio in france


K. Nef: ‘Das Petrus-Oratorium von Marc-Antoine Charpentier und die Passion’, JbMP 1930, 24–31

H.W. Hitchcock: The Latin Oratorios of Marc-Antoine Charpentier (diss., U. of Michigan, 1954)

H.W. Hitchcock: ‘The Latin Oratorios of Marc-Antoine Charpentier’, MQ, xli (1955), 41–65

C. Barber: ‘Les oratorios de Marc-Antoine Charpentier’, RMFC, iii (1963), 91–130

C. Cessac: Marc-Antoine Charpentier (Paris, 1988; Eng. trans., 1995)

Oratorio: Bibliography

early classical and classical 18th-century oratorio


J.-F. Le Sueur: Essai de musique sacrée, ou musique motivée et méthodique, pour la Fête de Noël à la messe du jour (Paris, 1786)

J.-F. Le Sueur: Exposé d'une musique une, imitative, et particulière à chaque solemnité (Paris, 1787)

M. Brenet: Les concerts en France sous l'ancien régime (Paris, 1900/R)

G. Servières: ‘Les oratorios de J.-F. Le Sueur’, Tribune de Saint-Gervais, xi (1905), 43–55, 78–87, 109–17; repr. in G. Servières: Episodes d'histoire musicale (Paris, 1914), 23–101


O.G. Sonneck: Early Concert-Life in America (1731–1800) (Leipzig, 1907/R, 3/1959)

M. Friedlaender: ‘Van Swieten und das Textbuch zu Haydns “Jahreszeiten”’, JbMP 1909, 47–56

L. Kamieński: Die Oratorien von Johann Adolf Hasse (Leipzig, 1912)

R. Haas: ‘Eberlins Schuldramen und Oratorien’, SMw, viii (1921), 9–44

H. Miesner: Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in Hamburg (Heide, 1929)

P. Baumgärtner: Gottfried van Swieten als Textdichter von Haydns Oratorien (diss., U. of Vienna, 1930)

C. Schneider: ‘Die Oratorien und Schuldramen Anton Cajetan Adlgassers’, SMw, xviii (1931), 36–65

K. Geiringer: ‘Haydn's Sketches for “The Creation”’, MQ, xviii (1932), 299–308

K. Nef: ‘Die Passionsoratorien Jean-François Lesueurs’, Mélanges de musicologie offerts à M. Lionel de la Laurencie (Paris, 1933), 259–68

V.L. Redway: ‘Handel in Colonial and Post-Colonial America’, MQ, xxi (1935), 190–207

D.F. Tovey: ‘Haydn's “Creation” and “Seasons”’, Essays in Musical Analysis, v (London, 1938/R), 114–49

A. Damerini: ‘La morte di San Giuseppe’, G.B. Pergolesi (1710–1736): note e documenti, Chigiana, iv (1942), 63–70


G. Pannain: ‘Haydn e la “Creazione”’, RaM, xviii (1948), 1–14

E.F. Schmid: ‘Haydns Oratorium “Il ritorno di Tobia”: seine Entstehung und seine Schicksale’, AMw, xvi (1959), 292–313

K. Schnürl: ‘Haydns “Schöpfung” als Messe’, SMw, xxv (1962), 463–79

A.D. McCredie: ‘John Christopher Smith as a Dramatic Composer’, ML, xlv (1964), 22–38

A. Riedel-Martiny: Die Oratorien Joseph Haydns: ein Beitrag zum Problem der Textverstonung (diss., U. of Göttingen, 1965)

A. Tyson: ‘The 1803 Version of Beethoven's Christus am Oelberge’, MQ, lvi (1970), 551–84

H.C. Wolff: ‘Un oratorio sconosciuto di Leonardo Leo’, RIM, vii (1972), 196–213

J.M. Chamblee: The Cantatas and Oratorios of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1973)

D.H. Foster: ‘The Oratorio in Paris in the 18th Century’, AcM, xlvii (1975), 67–133

H. Smither: ‘Oratorio and Sacred Opera, 1700–1825: Terminology and Genre Distinction’, PRMA, cvi (1979–80), 88–104

B. van Boer jr: ‘Der Tod Jesu von Joseph Martin Kraus: ein Oratorium der Sturm und Drang-Bewegung’, Joseph Martin Kraus in seiner Zeit: Buchen 1980, 65–82

H. Smither: ‘Haydns Il ritorno di Tobia und die Tradition des italienischen Oratoriums’, Joseph Haydn: Cologne 1982, 160–88


N. Temperley: ‘New Light on the Libretto of The Creation’, Music in Eighteenth-Century England: Essays in Memory of Charles Cudworth, ed. C. Hogwood and R. Luckett (Cambridge, 1983), 189–211

J.L. Johnson: The Oratorio at Santa Maria in Vallicella in Rome, 1770–1800 (diss., U. of Chicago, 1983)

A.P. Brown: Performing Haydn's ‘The Creation’: Reconstructing the Earliest Renditions (Bloomington, IN, 1985)

S. Brandenburg: ‘Beethovens Oratorium Christus am Ölberg: ein unbequemes Werk’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums seit Händel: Festschrft Günther Massenkeil zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. R. Cadenbach and H. Loos (Bonn, 1986), 203–20

R. Cadenbach: ‘Carl Philipp Emanuel Bachs Vertonung der Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu von Karl Wilhelm Ramler: Beobachtungen zur muskalischen Auslegung einer geistlichen Dichtung’, ibid., 95–122

G. Feder: ‘Die Jahreszeiten nach Thomson, in Musik gesetzt von Joseph Haydn’, ibid., 185–201

H. Federhofer: ‘Die donnernde Legion von Joseph Barta: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Wiener Oratoriums am Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts’, ibid., 135–50

F. Lippmann: ‘Zur Affektdarstellung in Johann Adolf Hasses Oratorium La conversione di S. Agostino’, ibid., 71–94

M. Vogel: ‘Drei Flöten in Haydns Schöpfung’, ibid., 179–84

H. Werber: ‘Mozart und andere: La Betulia liberata – Vertonungen im Vergleich’, ibid., 151–78


H. Smither: ‘The Function of Music in the Forty Hours Devotion of 17th- and 18th-Century Italy’, Music from the Middle Ages through the 20th Century: Essays in Honor of Gwynn S. McPeek, ed. C.P. Comberiati and M.C. Steel (New York, 1988), 149–74

H. Smither: ‘Arienstruktur- und Stil in den Oratorien und Kantaten Bachs’, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach und die europäische Musikkultur: Hamburg 1988, 345–68

H. Smither: ‘The Other Creation: an Italian Response to Haydn’, Essays in Musicology: a Tribute to Alvin Johnson, ed. L. Lockwood and E. Roesner (Philadelphia, 1990), 220–34

J. Best: Music and Society in Eighteenth-Century Germany: the Music Dramas of Johann Heinrich Rolle (1716–1785) (diss., Duke U., 1991)

N. Temperley: Haydn, The Creation (Cambridge, 1991)

B.H. van Boer: ‘Justus Friedrich Wilhelm Zachariä's Die Pilgrime auf Golgotha: a Passion Oratorio Libretto’, Ars lyrica, vi (1992), 87–102

Oratorio: Bibliography

19th century


J.T. Mosewius: ‘Über das Oratorium Moses von A.B. Marx’, AMZ, xliv (1842), 953–9, 972–9, 997–1003, 1027–32

F.P. Laurencin d'Armond: Das Paradies und die Peri (Leipzig, 1859)

O. Jahn: ‘Über Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy's Oratorium Paulus’, Gesammelte Aufsätze über Musik (Leipzig, 1866/R), 13–39


O. Jahn: ‘Über Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy's Oratorium Elias’, Gesammelte Aufsätze über Musik (Leipzig, 1866/R), 40–63; Eng. trans. in Mendelssohn and his World, ed. R.L. Todd (Princeton, NJ, 1991), 364–81

T. Baxter: Mendelssohn's Elijah (London, 1880)

W. Stumpf: Les béatitudes van C.A. Franck (Amsterdam, 1895)

F.G. Edwards: The History of Mendelssohn's Oratorio ‘Elijah’ (London, 1896/R)

J.G. Prod'homme: Le cycle Berlioz, i: La damnation de Faust (Paris, 1896); ii: L'enfance du Christ (Paris, 1898)

L. Pistorelli: ‘Jacopo Tomadini e la sua “Risurrezione del Cristo”’, RMI, vii (1899), 762–91

K. Anton: Beiträge zur Biographie Carl Loewes, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Oratorien und Ideen zu einer volkstümlichen Ausgestaltung der protestantischen Kirchenmusik (Halle, 1912)

C. Forsyth: ‘The First Performance of Gounod's “Redemption”’, ML, vi (1925), 85–93

T. Armstrong: ‘Mendelssohn's Elijah’, ML, xiv (1933), 396

A. Finzi: ‘“Le beatitudini” di César Franck’, RMI, xlii (1938), 20–33

R.M. Kent: A Study of Oratorios and Sacred Cantatas Composed in America Before 1900 (diss., State U. of Iowa, 1954)


J. Werner: ‘Mendelssohn's Elijah: the 110th Anniversary’, MT, xcviii (1957), 192–3

H.C. Wolff: ‘Mendelssohn and Handel’, MQ, xlv (1959), 175–90

H. Lomnitzer: Das musikalische Werk Friedrich Schneiders (1786–1853), insbesondere die Oratorien (Marburg, 1961)

N. Temperley: ‘Mendelssohn's Influence on English Music’, ML, xliii (1962), 224–33

J. Werner: Mendelssohn's Elijah (London, 1965)

J.A. Mussulman: ‘Mendelssohnism in America’, MQ, liii (1967), 335–46

M. Geck: Deutsche Oratorien 1800 bis 1840: Verzeichnis der Quellen und Aufführungen (Wilhelmshaven, 1971)

M. Palotai: Liszt's Concept of Oratorio as Reflected in his Writings and in Die Legende von der Heiligen Elisabeth (diss., U. of Southern California, 1977)

A. Kurzhals-Reuter: Die Oratorien Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdys: Untersuchungen zur Quellenlage, Entstehung, Gestaltung und Überlieferung (Tutzing, 1978)

E. Reimer: ‘Kritik und Apologie des Oratoriums im 19. Jahrhundert’, Religöse Musik in nicht-liturgischen Werken von Beethoven bis Reger, ed. W. Wiora, G. Massenkeil and K.W. Niemöller (Regensburg, 1978), 247–56

F. Riedel: ‘Die Bedeutung des Christus von Franz Liszt in der Geschichte des Messias-Oratoriums’, Liszt-Studien II: Eisenstadt 1978, 153–62


L. Orr: Liszt's Christus and its Significance for Nineteenth-Century Oratorio (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1979)

N. Burton: ‘Oratorios and Cantatas’, Music in Britain: the Romantic Age 1800–1914, ed. N. Temperley (London, 1981/R), 214–41

F. Reinisch: Das französische Oratorium von 1840 bis 1870 (Regensburg, 1982)

H.E. Smither: ‘Haydns Il ritorno di Tobia und die Tradtion des italienischen Oratoriums’, Joseph Haydn: Cologne 1982, 160–88

C. Hughes: The Origin of ‘The First Patriotic Oratorio’: Stepan Anikievich Degtiarev's ‘Minin i Pozharskii’ (1811) (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1984)

F. Reinisch: ‘Liszts Oratorium Die Legende von der Heiligen Elisabeth: ein Gegenentwurf zu Tannhäuser und Lohengrin’, Franz Liszt und Richard Wagner: Eisenstadt 1983, 128–51

G. Nauhaus: ‘Schumanns Das Paradies und die Peri: Quellen zur Entstehungs-, Aufführungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichte’, Schumanns Werke: Text und Interpretation: Düsseldorf 1985, 133–48

W. Kirsch: ‘Richard Wagners Biblische Scene Das Liebesmahl der Apostel’, HJbMw, viii (1986), 157–84

F. Krummacher: ‘Religiosität und Kunstcharakter: über Mendelssohns Oratorium Paulus’, HJbMw, viii (1986), 97–117


H. Smither: ‘Messiah and Progress in Vitorian England’, EMc, xiii (1985), 339–47

H.-J. Bauer: ‘Wagners musikdramatisches Oratorium Das Liebesmahl der Apostel’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums seit Händel: Festschrift Günther Massenkeil zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. R. Cadenbach and H. Loos (Bonn, 1986), 269–81

W. Boetticher: ‘Das ungeschriebene Oratorium Luther von Robert Schumann und sein Textdichter Richard Pohl’, ibid., 297–307

W. Kirsch: ‘Oratorium und Oper: zu einer gattungsästhetischen Kontroverse in der Oratorientheorie des 19. Jahrhunderts (Materialien zu einer Dramaturgie des Oratoriums)’, ibid., 221–54

H. Loos: ‘L'enfance du Christ, “Das erste Oratorium eines Zukunft-Musikers”: Hector Berlioz und die Tradition’, ibid., 309–27

K.W. Niemöller: ‘Das Oratorium Christus von Franz Liszt: ein Beitrag zu seinem konzeptionellen Grundlagen’, ibid., 329–45

D. Pistone: ‘L'oratorio à Paris de 1870 à 1900’, ibid., 345–56

H. Schröder: ‘Zu Adolf Bernhard Marx' Mose’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums seit Händel: Festschrift Günther Massenkeil zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. R. Cadenbach and H. Loos (Bonn, 1986), 255–68

M. Staehelin: ‘Elias, Johann Sebastian Bach und der Neue Bund: zur Arie Es ist genug in Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdys Oratorium Elias’, ibid., 283–96; Eng. trans. in Mendelssohn and his World, ed. R.L. Todd (Princeton, NJ, 1991), 121–36


G. Stanley: ‘Bach's Erbe: the Chorale in the German Oratorio of the Early Nineteenth Century’, 19CM, xi (1987), 121–49

M. Schwarzer: Die Oratorien von Max Bruch: eine Quellenstudie (Berlin, 1988)

G. Stanley: The Oratorio in Prussia and Protestant Germany: 1812–1848 (diss., Columbia U., 1988)

G. Stanley: ‘Religious Propriety versus Artistic Truth: the Debate between Friedrich Rochlitz and Louis Spohr about the Representation of Christ in Des Heilands letzte Stunden’, AcM, lxi (1989), 66–82

S. Ledbetter: ‘Two Seductresses: Saint-Saëns's Delilah and Chadwick's Judith’, A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, ed. R. Crawford, R.A. Lott and C.J. Oja (Ann Arbor, 1990), 281–301

R. Dusella: Die Oratorien Carl Loewes (Bonn, 1991)

B. Mohn: ‘Das englische Oratorium von 1846 bis 1910: Versuch einer ersten Erfassung der Quellen und summanfasenden Darstellung’ (MA thesis, Bonn U., 1992)

P. Maurizi: ‘Misticismo e spettacolo negli oratori di Franz Liszt’, Rivista internazionale di musica sacra, xiv (1993), 278–96

C. Mori: ‘L'oratorio Isacco figura del Redentore di Francesco Morlacchi e la Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung’, Esercizi musica e spettacolo, new ser., iii (1993), 99–110

J. Daviero: ‘Schumann’s “New Genre for the Concert hall”: Das Paradies und die Peri in the Eyes of a Contemporary’, Schumann and his World, ed. L. Todd (Princeton, 1994), 129–55


H.E. Smither: ‘“Une musique une, imitative, et particulière a chaque solemnité”: The “Mass-Oratorios” of Jean-François Le Sueur’, Res musiche: Essays in Honour of James W. Pruett, ed. P.R. Laird and C.H. Russell (Warren, MI, forthcoming)

Oratorio: Bibliography

20th century


G. Bressan: ‘Il momento perosiano’, RMI, vi (1899), 385–99

E. de Schoultz-Adaïewsky: ‘Le massacre des innocents: oratorio en deux parties de Don Lorenzo Perosi’, RMI, vii (1900), 746–68

E. de Schoultz-Adaïewsky: ‘L'entrée du Christ à Jérusalem: oratorio en deux parties de Don Lorenzo Perosi’, RMI, vii (1900), 536–55

A. Coeuroy: ‘Present Tendencies of Sacred Music in France’, MQ, xiii (1927), 584–604

N.G. Long: ‘A Child of Our Time: a Critical Analysis of Michael Tippett's Oratorio’, MR, viii (1947), 120–30

J.L. Broeckx: Review of M. De Jong: The Song of Hiawatha, MQ, xxxiv (1948), 609–12

L. Burkat: Review of H. Barraud: Le mystère des saints innocents, MQ, xxxvii (1951), 241–3

H. Cowell: Review of F. Martin: Golgotha, MQ, xxxviii (1952), 291–4

H. Cowell: Review of M. Tippett: A Child of our Time, MQ, xxxviii (1952), 440–43

J.S. Weissman: Review of I. Stravinsky: Oedipus rex, MR, xiii (1952), 231–7


L. Morton: Review of L. Foss: A Parable of Death, MQ, xxxix (1953), 595–600

G. Roncaglia: ‘L'oratorio di Lorenzi Perosi’, Immagini esotiche nella musica italiana, Chigiana, xiv (1957), 103–7

G. Roncaglia: ‘Il “Transitus animae” e “Giudizio universale” di Lorenzo Perosi’, Immagini esotiche nella musica italiana, Chigiana, xiv (1957), 109–13

H. Headley: The Choral Works of Arthur Honegger (diss., North Texas State U., 1959)

N. Atkinson: ‘Michael Tippett's Debt to the Past’, MR, xxiii (1962), 195–204

M. Bernheimer: Review of F. Martin: Le vin herbé, MQ, xlviii (1962), 525–8

W. Mellers: ‘Stravinsky’s Oedipus as 20th Century Hero’, MQ, xlviii (1962), 300–12

R.S. Hines, ed.: The Composer's Point of View (Norman, OK, 1963)

W.C. Holmes: Review of R. Palmer: Nabuchodonosor, MQ, l (1964), 367–70

D.C. Johns: Review of J.N. David: Ezzolied, MQ, l (1964), 241–3

G. Roncaglia: ‘L'arte di Lorenzo Perosi e La strage degli innocenti’, Chigiana, xxii (1965), 237–53

C. Marinelli: Review of K. Penderecki: Dies irae, RIM, ii (1967), 436–7

A. Rössler: ‘Messiaens Oratorium La transfiguration in Lissabon uraufgeführt’, Melos, xxxvi (1969), 389 only


K. Wagner: ‘Untergang bei der Ausreise: Henzes Floss der Medusa kentert in Hamburg’, Melos, xxxvi (1969), 19–22

K. Foesel: ‘Nürnberg zeigt Henzes “Floss” als theatralische Imagination’, Melos, xxxix (1972), 232–4

A.C. Fehn: Change and Permanence: Gottfried Benn's Text for Paul Hindemith's Oratorio Das Unaufhörliche (Berne, 1977)

J.M. Christensen: Arnold Schoenberg's Oratorio Die Jakobsleiter (diss., UCLA, 1979)

H.D. Voss: Arthur Honegger, ‘Le Roi David’: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Oratoriums im 20. Jahrhundert (Munich, 1983)

S. Kross: ‘Zu Boris Blachers Oratorium Der Grossinquisitor’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums seit Händel: Festschrift Günther Massenkeil zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. R. Cadenbach and H. Loos (Bonn, 1986), 493–512

S. Gmeinwieser and G. Weiss: ‘Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Volksoratorien von Joseph Haas’, ibid., 463–91

D. Launay: ‘André Caplet (1878–1925), Le miroir de Jesus, Mystères du rosaire: poèmes d'Henri Ghéon’, ibid., 407–37

S. Mauser: ‘Schönbergs Moses und Aron: zum Konzept eines Oratoriums als Oper’, ibid., 455–61

K.J. Müller: ‘“Weh dem, der allein ist!”: zum letzten Werk von Bernd Alois Zimmermann’, ibid., 541–55

E. Platen: ‘Oedipus Rex im Zeichen der Drei: triadische Strukturen in Strawinskys Opern-Oratorium’, ibid., 439–53


S. Popp: ‘Die ungeschriebenen Oratorien Max Regers’, ibid., 379–406

G. Schubert: ‘Frederick Delius, Eine Messe des Lebens: Kommentare und analytische Hinweise’, ibid., 357–77

S. Shigihara: ‘In terra pax: Anmerkungen zu Frank Martins Oratorium’, ibid., 513–32

W. Siegmund-Schultze: ‘Das Mansfelder Oratorium von Ernst Hermann Meyer’, ibid., 533–9

M. Zenck: ‘Oratorien nach Auschwitz: zu Bernd Alois Zimmermans “ecclesiastischer Aktion” Ich wandte mich und sah an alles Unrecht, das geschah unter der Sonne’, ibid., 557–86

T. Cornfield: Franz Schmidt, 1874–1939: a Discussion of his Style with Special Reference to the Four Symphonies and ‘Das Buch mit sieben Siegeln’ (New York, 1989)

R. Schuhenn: Franz Schmidts oratorische Werke: zur Enstehungsgeschichte des ‘Buches mit sieben Siegeln’ und der ‘Deutschen Auferstehung’: Erinnerungen, zeitgenössische Presseberichte, Nachrufe (Vienna, 1990)

M. Stegemann: ‘Style Chromatique und freie Tonalität: Frank Martins Kammeroratorium Le vin herbé’, Frank Martin: Das Kompositorische Werk, 13 Studien, ed. D. Kämper (Mainz, 1990), 21–36

M. Wheeler: ‘The Dream of Gerontius: from Verse Drama to Music Drama’, Critical Essays on John Henry Newman, ed. E. Block (Victoria, BC, 1992), 89–103

S. Walsh: Stravinsky” ‘Oedipus Rex’ (Cambridge, 1993)

A. Friesenhagen: ‘The Dream of Gerontius’ von Edward Elgar: Das englische Oratorium an der Wende zum 20. Jahrhundert (Köln-Rheinkassel, 1994)

C.E. McGuire: Epic Narration: The Oratorios of Edward Elgar (diss., Harvard U., 1998)



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