Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)


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Cymbal, Cymbale. See under Zimbel.

, Decima (It.: ‘tenth’). A mutation rank sounding the 10th or 17th; largely a theorist’s term (Samber, 1704–7; Adlung, 1768).

Diapason (?Gk.). (1) Octave stops, sounding an octave above the case pipes, according to theorists (Werckmeister, 1705; Hess, 1774); found in organs with graecized stop names c1790.

(2) In England, the term may have denoted Trompes in c1500, but by 1613 it had its present meaning of Open Diapason (main Principal (or foundation) rank, usually 8') and Stopped Diapason (Gedackt). As a term, ‘Diapason’ may be derived from Dutch Doif (c1450) and only later taking on a quasi-Greek form. As a registration direction ‘Diapasons’ is an indication to use the Stopped Diapason, whose mild but harmonically rich tone has a strong emphasis on the quint, to colour the Open Diapason. English builders prided themselves on their Diapason tone, Renatus Harris’s examples (c1690) being already richer than those of his French models.

Diaphone. One of Hope-Jones’s valvular reeds, useful in cinema organs. The construction was also adapted to create a powerful nautical fog signal, the ‘fog horn’. See Organ, §III, 4.

Diez (Sp.: ‘ten’). Hence ‘Diez y novena’ is the 19th or Larigot 11/3' (sometimes chorus Quint).

, Doif, Doff, Doof (Dutch). Terms denoting the Principal stop in those early sources that used the word ‘Prinzipal’ to mean ‘plenum’ or main chorus, from c1450; e.g. ‘le prestant ou doeuf’ at Namur, 1598. Spellings are sometimes confusing, e.g. Praetorius’s ‘Doiflöte’ is a Doppelflöte, not a Doef.

(Ger.). See under Tolkaan.

(It.; Fr. douce). The verbal coincidence of Dolce, Dolcan, Dulciana and Dulzian has led to much confusion; probably all terms derive from Dulcis, a stop with ‘sweet’ tone. Dolce or Flauto dolce was common for any soft stop from c1600 to 1800, whether wood or metal, and whether narrow and cylindrical or conical. Adlung gave other spellings and versions: Dulzfloit, Dolzflöte, Dulceflöt, Süssflöte.

Doppelflöte (Ger.). A fairly large-scaled Flute with two mouths, differing from the earlier Bifara in that it has no dividing wall. Late 19th-century German and American examples are of stopped wooden pipes with a powerful fundamental tone; the stoppers are occasionally bored.

Double. A prefix indicating pitch an octave lower than usual (Double Trumpet, Double Diapason).

Doublette (Fr.). The 2' Principal rank of the French classical organ. The name was often used in the larger organs of the more cosmopolitan English builders of c1860, under the influence of Cavaillé-Coll’s large 2' ranks.

(Fr.). See under Dolce.

Dulcian, Dulciana. Gentle flue stops of various form, found in the non-Latin countries of Europe from at least c1640, and in name deriving presumably from dulcis (‘sweet’). Early examples in Austria and hence, through Snetzler, in England, were as likely to have been small-scaled Dolcan stops in the form of an inverted cone as the narrow, small-mouthed, miniature Diapason ranks familiar in most 19th-century organs, either as single ranks or in Mixtures. The earlier examples, especially c1725, seem mostly to have been at 4', not 8'; by the mid-19th century, 16' stops were also found in larger English organs, particularly on the Choir manual.

Dulzian (Ger.; Dutch dulciaan; Sp. dulcayna; Cz. dulceon). A reed stop of fairly gentle tone, with cylindrical resonators incorporating a conical foot, of 16' (pedal, manual) or 8' (secondary manuals), found in the Netherlands and north Germany. Early forms of the name were Touzyn, Toussein, Douseynen (c1510), showing a different origin from Dolcan–Tolkaan, despite Praetorius’s confusion. Some Dulzians had fanciful resonators, some were similar to Cromornes. Iberian Dulcaynas were short conical reeds (c1740), often en chamade below the Trompetas, closer as an imitation of the medieval instrument Dolzaina than the northern types.

Echo. (1) A small-scaled Cornet in many 18th-century German organs.

(2) A prefix indicating a soft colour-stop (Echo Flute, Echo Gamba, etc.) in 18th- and 19th-century organs throughout northern Europe.

English Horn. An imitative, double-belled reed stop, developed in the 1920s by the American builder Skinner; it is smoother in tone than the older Cor anglais, and different in construction.

Erzähler (Ger.: ‘narrator’). A narrow, tapered flue stop of soft tone, developed by Skinner in the early 20th century and still popular with American organ builders; it is often accompanied by a Celeste rank.

Espigueta (Sp.). See under Chimney Flute.

Euphone. One of the free reeds invented c1820 and found on French and Italian organs, often with no resonators.

Faberton (?Ger.). Possibly a corruption of ‘faburden’, but apparently a stop producing a high, tinkling, bell-like tone, perhaps a Mixture (c1490), a high Principal rank (c1550) or a high, wide mutation stop (c1700).

Fagotto (Fr. basson; Dutch, Ger. Fagott). (1) The German 16' or 8' Fagotto was a fairly soft-toned reed with long narrow resonators, from c1575 onwards; it could be open, stopped (Niedt, 2/1721), or fanciful in shape (Praetorius, 2/1619).

(2) ‘Basson’ by Bédos de Celles’ period (c1775) was a French reed with short conical pipes, sometimes capped with a double cone.

(3) In Italy, a rare wooden Regal (c1675); in Spain, a short reed with half-length resonators, sometimes en chamade; in England, the name occurs only in the bigger organs c1860 for a narrow conical 16' Swell reed.

Feldpfeife, Feldtrompete (Ger.). ‘Feld’ here means ‘field’ in the military sense. (1) A narrow, open flue stop of assertive Flute tone, usually at 2' or 1', found occasionally in 17th-century German organs.

(2) The German imitative Trumpet, not en chamade as in Spain but often held in the case vertically; others were interior Trumpets, all of a thin, strong tone.

Fernflöte (Ger.: ‘far-away flute’). Found in a few English and American Echo organs, in imitation of the Kronwerk Flutes of south Germany c1750 or (more directly) their successors in the large organs of c1840.

Fiffaro (It.). See under Bifara and Piffaro.

Fifteenth. The Principal 2' rank on English organs (any manual), so called from at least c1610, although early contracts qualify it as ‘small principal’. See also Superoctave.

Flachflöte (Ger.). Probably a corruption of ‘flageolet-flute’ rather than ‘flat-flute’ (i.e. one made of wide, shallow, wooden pipes). The name was used for several pipe forms: 8', 4' or 2' conical pipes (Praetorius, 2/1619), perhaps like a Spillflöte (Zang, 1829), with strong, round tone.

Flageolet (Fr.). See under Flachflöte. (1) Also a name very common in 19th-century England (used by Willis) for a round, wide, rather discreet rank of metal 2' pipes.

(2) French Flageolets of the early 17th century were usually 1' or 11/3' ranks of open cylindrical pipes (see under Larigot).

Flautado (Sp.). The Principal or Diapason pipes, 32', 16' or 8' (52, 26 and 13 palmos) in the organs of Spain, Roussillon, etc., from c1475. The name probably originated in Flauto, etc., but later became more specific: ‘Flautado de violon’, the Spanish Gedackt rank (usually of wood) in the 17th and 18th centuries; ‘Flautadito’, the 4' Principal or Octave stop.

Flautino (It.). 19th-century name in Germany, England, USA, etc., for a soft 2' open Flute.

Flauto (It.). See under Flute.

Flauto a camino (It.). See under Chimney Flute.

Flötenbass (Ger.) See under Bassflute.

Flute (Fr. Flûte; Ger. flöte; It. flauto). Originally a generic term for foundation stops (organ pipes other than the Mixtures) when the Blockwerk was divided into ‘stops’; later a word applied throughout Europe to stopped or open pipes of 8' or 4' (as in 18th-century England) or to colour-stops with prefixes denoting shape (Spitzflöte, etc.), sound (Sifflöte, etc.) or function (Flûte majeur, etc.). Thus ‘driifach fleiten’ at Hagenau in 1491 indicated the three-rank Principal (8' 8' 4'); ‘verdeckt floutwerk’ indicated the Gedackts at the abbey church Einsiedeln in 1558; ‘flauto coperto’ indicated a stopped Flute rank (a Nasard 22/3') at Orvieto Cathedral in 1591; and ‘flauto reale’ an open Flute rank in Venetian organs c1800. Other terms would indicate department (‘flûte de pédale’ was an 8' or 4' stop in the French classical organ, sometimes stopped, but usually an 8' open metal stop of principal quality), construction (‘flûte à fusée’ was a Spitzflöte at Bordeaux, 1627), imitation (‘flûte a neuf trous’, the 16th-century French Recorder stop), compass (‘dessus de flûte’, a treble, open, imitative Flute stop of French organs c1740), etc. In addition, there were many attempts at imitating the recorder or transverse flute, usually specified in the name, e.g. ‘Flauto allemano’ or ‘travesiera’ in Spain, ‘Querflöte’ or ‘flauto traverso’ in Germany, ‘flûte d’amour’ in 18th- and 19th-century organs anywhere; on the other hand, ‘Flet’ was the usual eastern European name for stopped ranks of ordinary 4' or 8' Gedackt type. Some of the flute imitations were highly ingenious, involving overblowing (central Germany, c1610; France and England, c1850), fanciful construction or exotic woods (south Germany, c1725; southern Italy, c1725; the Netherlands, c1775), and in some cases with conduits leading the air under pressure to strike a flute-like lip in the pipe mouth (Westphalia and Spain, c1775, and some 19th-century orchestrions and 20th-century ‘symphonic’ organs. See also under Querflöte.).

Flute à cheminée (Fr.). See under Chimney Flute.

Flûte à pavillon (Fr.). Used c1850 for a large-scaled metal 8' flue stop, whose cylindrical pipes are capped by inverted conical pavillons; found in some large organs c1875–1925. It is of wider scale and smoother tone than the similarly constructed Bell Diapason.

Flûte d’amour (Fr.). A mild 4' Flute of wood, sometimes stopped, often found in American organs from the late 19th century onwards. It probably derives from the 18th-century central German Flauto amabile, usually a 4' open flute.

Flûte harmonique (Fr.). The term was first used by Cavaillé-Coll, and hence his disciples in England and the USA, to describe the large-scaled, open, metal Flute rank of 8' or 4' pitch. A small hole is bored halfway along each pipe cylinder and the resulting 1st harmonic tone is strong. It is sometimes anglicized as ‘Harmonic Flute’.

Flûte Triangulaire. Name given by E.M. Skinner to a softly voiced, three-sided, open, wood stop, usually at 8' pitch. Stops of this type, although not so named, can be found at 4' and 2' pitch from the 1860s onward.

Fourniture (Fr.). The basic French Mixture stop, its name probably derived from the fact that in the 16th century, when the higher pitches were being separated from the foundations of the Blockwerk, it ‘furnished’ the higher pitches to the chorus; see also under Mixture. In the typical 18th-century organ, the Fourniture broke back only once in each octave, the Cymbale (see under Zimbel) twice. The term was also to be found in England in the organs of the French-influenced Renatus Harris (c1680 onwards), where, however, they frequently contained a Tierce rank, particularly by c1740.

French Horn. An imitative reed stop, made in England and the USA c1875–1950, often of high-pressure reeds with thick tongues; also occasionally found in 18th-century England, where the pipes took the form of a large-scaled, smoothly-voiced Trumpet.

Fugara. A term derived from Slav words for a shepherd’s pipe (e.g. Polish fujara) and denoting a soft, rather slow-speaking string-toned stop of 8' or 4'; first known in 17th-century Silesia, soon after in Bohemia, Austria, Switzerland, Swabia, etc. The pipes were usually long, narrow, cylindrical and metal, but slightly tapered forms were also known – both types reminiscent of the German Viola da gamba stop.

Gaitas (Sp.). A Regal with short resonators, imitating the bagpipe with its thin, nasal but quiet tone, known in Spain from c1600.

Gamba. See under Viola da gamba and Geigen.

Gedackt (Ger.). A rank of ‘stopped’ pipes, usually of wood; more specifically the Stopped Diapason of German organs, in Austria called Coppel, in France Bourdon, etc. In England the term was first used c1850 in connection with the narrow-scaled Lieblich Gedackt.

Geigen (Ger.). A ‘string-toned’ or narrow-scaled stop, usually of open metal pipes, found in central Germany c1620 and becoming indispensable in all national types of 19th-century organ. ‘String-toned’ is only a comparative or analogous term. The Geigen Diapason of the 19th century is a narrow-scaled Principal.

Gemshorn (Ger.). A sharply tapering, wide metal Flute stop, with a tone between that of flute and string (more towards the flute) and known from at least 1500 in the Rhineland, where it imitated the Gemshorn. The shape and tone were more widely known than the name, and many mutation stops in France and Spain have pipes of this kind. 19th-century organs have narrower, more string-toned Gemshorn stops than the classic ranks of 16', 8', 4', 2', 51/3', 22/3' and 11/3' noted by Praetorius; the modern Gemshorn is almost always of 8' or 4' pitch.

Glockenspiel (Ger.). Usually a row of steel, copper or bronze bars hit by hammers activated by pedals or the keys of a secondary manual; in organs of 1720 (Swabia, Silesia, Saxony) of soprano or bass compass only, in organs of the 1920s often complete. See under Carillon. Some Glockenspiels were called ‘Stahlspiel’ (‘steel instrument’).

Gravissima (Lat.). A 64' ‘Acoustic Bass’ stop whose tone was produced by a 32' pipe sounding with a softer pipe of 211/3'; made by several 19th-century builders (Schulze, Willis, Walcker).

Gross. A prefix generally indicating a stop of large scale (Grossflöte, Gross Gamba), but also applied to a mutation stop pitched an octave lower than usual (Gross Tierce).

Harfa, Harfe, Harp. (1) A Regal toy stop found on some 16th-century organs, probably giving a kind of bagpipe drone effect. Some complete Regal ranks of 16' or 8' were also so called, in central Germany (Harfenregal) c1620, Spain c1750, etc.

(2) A marimba-like percussion stop found in early 20th-century organs, especially residence and cinema organs.

Harmonia, Harmonika. Although these terms occasionally appear in early contracts, they were chiefly used by certain 19th-century builders for soft stops of various kinds: Harmonia aetheria, a soft Echo Mixture as in Schulze’s instruments; Harmonika, a soft open flue stop of indeterminate tone (Walcker) or a free-reed stop (c1830).

Hautbois, Hautboy, Oboe. Like Cornet, Hautbois has indicated stops of several kinds over the centuries, all presumably imitating the instrument which itself changed and inspired builders in various ways. (1) In early 16th-century French organs, Hautbois was probably a registration (i.e. Flutes and mutations), not a stop; by c1600 the stop called Hautboy-Cornet was probably a strong-toned reed stop.

(2) The French classical Hautbois originated as a soft récit Trompette, with small-scaled flaring metal resonators; called ‘French Schalmei’ by Mattheson, and found on most French organs and those they influenced elsewhere, notably England (Harris).

(3) In Germany, stops of this name had various constructions, from fanciful Regals to small-scaled Schalmeien.

(4) 19th-century attempts to imitate the tone varied from free reeds (c1840, France, central Germany) to the ubiquitous, ultimately French-inspired English Swell Oboe.

Hintersatz (Ger.). The ranks of pipes ‘placed behind’ the case pipes in the late medieval organ, thus one of the names of the Mixture of the Blockwerk remaining when the Prestants were separated off. Schlick (1511) assumed that it would contain at least 16–18 ranks. To some extent, the name remained as an occasional alternative for ‘Mixtur’.

Hohlflöte, Hohlpfeife (Ger.; Dutch holpijp). (1) Rather wide, open, cylindrical metal pipes between Principal and Nachthorn in scale, found in organs of central and north Germany from c1500. The name is probably derived not from hohl (‘hollow’) but from Holunder (‘elder-tree’; see under Salicet). Many German contracts of the 18th century confuse Hol, Hohl and Holz (wood) as stop-name prefixes, and the popular 19th-century stop can usually be assumed to be of wooden pipes.

(2) During the 16th century, the name in its various forms often indicated a stopped rank of wide scale (Rhineland, south Germany). In the Netherlands, it might be a Gedackt, Rohrflöte or even Quintatön, many 18th-century examples being simple stopped Flutes.

Horn, Hörnli (Ger.). (1) Several kinds of imitative reed stop (see under French Horn).

(2) Suffix for a group of stop names (Gemshorn, Nachthorn), like the related term ‘Cornet’ popular with 16th-century builders expanding organ colours.

(3) More specifically, the Hörnli was a 16th-century stop found in the upper and lower Rhineland, composed of the same ranks as stops elsewhere called Cornet and Sesquialtera, i.e. a solo (or solo and chorus) Tierce Mixture.

(4) Horn Diapason was a late 19th-century stop whose Diapason-scaled pipes had a vertical slot cut at the top and back, which influenced the tone.

Kalkant (Ger.). An accessory stop-lever found in Germany over the centuries, which when pulled caused a bell to ring and communicated with the bellows-blower. Similar devices were found in all countries until mechanical blowing was introduced in the late 18th century.

Keraulophon. A quasi-Greek term invented by Gray in c1820 to denote a stop type long known by other builders, i.e. a quiet, reedy-toned 8' Flute stop. The pipes usually have a hole near the top.

Kinura. A keen-toned reed stop with very narrow, cylindrical resonators, often used in cinema organs.

Koppel (Ger.). See under Coppel.

Kornett (Ger.). See under Cornett.

Krummhorn. See under Cromorne.

Kuckuck (Ger.). See under Vogelgesang.

Kützialflöte (Ger.). An open Flute of 4', 2' or sometimes 1' pitch, occasionally found on German organs from Praetorius onwards, evidently imitating a Slav instrument (cewzial: ‘flute’).

Larigot (Fr.). A term possibly derived from ‘l’arigot’ (‘flageolet’ – cf haricot) and used in the 16th century (and hence the later French classical organ in general) to denote the 11/3' wide mutation rank found in large and small organs and used for both chorus and solo registrations. Outside France, other terms like Superquinte, Quintanus and Flageolet were used.

Lieblich Gedackt (Ger.). (1) The ‘pleasant stopped rank’ known from at least Praetorius onwards to refer to the Stopped Diapason used for continuo playing or for soft (often echo) effects.

(2) More specifically, the smooth-toned Gedackt made popular by 19th-century builders (Walcker, Schulze, etc.), of metal or wood, with a high cut-up and characteristic tone. It is found at both 16' and 8' pitches.

Lleno. See under Compuestas; Mixture; see also Full organ.

Major, Minor. Terms denoting the size (rather than function) of a stop. Flöte major [minor] were common in 18th-century Habsburg Europe for 8' and 4' Gedackts; ‘Majorbass’ was fairly common in Germany between 1650 and 1900 for the 16' or 32' open or stopped pedal rank.

Melodia. A medium- to wide-scaled, open, wood Flute stop of 8' pitch; the pipes usually have reversed mouths and sometimes sunken blocks. It was widely used in England and the USA from the middle of the 19th century.

Mixture (Fr. fourniture; Ger. Mixtur; Sp. lleno). Names for the collected ranks of the Blockwerk when the Principals and Flutes had been separated off. ‘Mixture’ was normally used to denote the Principal-scaled chorus Mixture as distinct from the high-pitched Zimbeln or the solo Cornets. The ‘true Mixture’ is often said to contain Octave and Quint ranks only, but Tierces have been found in many national types of Mixture (17th-century Spain, 18th-century England and central Germany), some of which were highly influential during the 19th century. Early names for the stop, which was presumably activated by levers, were ‘Position’, ‘Locatio’ and ‘Starkwerk’, all known before 1520; late types, introduced in some organs in the early and mid-19th century, were the ‘Compensationsmixtur’, which decreased in number of ranks, strength and volume as it ascended, and ‘Progressio harmonica’, which increased as it ascended. Mixture stops are never used without the foundations (8', 4', 2', sometimes 16').

Montre (Fr.). The case pipes of the French organ, corresponding to the English Open Diapason, the German Prestant, the Italian Principale, etc. Early alternative names were ‘le principal de devant’, ‘devanture en monstre’ (Reims Cathedral, 1570). The tone of the classical French Montre was somewhat more fluty than the various English Open Diapason types or German Principals.

Nachthorn (Ger.). A term possibly derived from Nachhorn or Nachsatz, i.e. a rank of pipes distinguished from the Hintersatz, and nothing to do with Cor de nuit in origin. (1) Nachthornen were frequently the same as Cornets in the 16th century, more particularly in northern France and the Netherlands, cf the Spanish term Nasardos.

(2) By Praetorius’s time, the name denoted a rank of very wide-scaled 4' or 2' pipes, stopped like the Quintatön and more horn-like than the Hohlflöte, owing to its Quint partial. The familiar 17th-century Nachthorn useful in the north German repertory was a very wide, metal, open Flute, used for cantus firmus in manual or pedal; a similar stop later appeared in English-speaking countries as ‘Nighthorn’.

Nachtigall (Ger.). See under Vogelgesang.

Nasard (?Fr.; Ger. Nasat). Terms possibly derived from Nachsatz, i.e. the rank or ranks between the Principals and the Hintersatz of a separated Blockwerk. Early usages of the name refer to a registration or effect rather than a single rank of pipes (c1530, France), and nazard meant the rank helping to produce the characteristic sound, i.e. 22/3' or 11/3' Flutes. The form could be open or stopped, Chimney Flute or tapered. The French classical Nasard was usually a stopped rank of 22/3', often a Rohrflöte for some or all its compass, that on the Grand orgue usually different in type from that of the Positiv manual. In Germany, there was frequently no distinction drawn in stop-lists between Quinte and Nasard, nor were the differences in form, volume, tone and function between the two so clear-cut as in France.

Nasardos (Sp.). A term probably derived from 16th-century French and Flemish usage to denote either the single mutation ranks (Octave, Quint or Tierce) making up the Corneta or, more importantly, the chorus/solo Mixture; a kind of bass version of the treble Corneta and found over the centuries on most Iberian organs.

Nason (?Eng.). A stopped Flute introduced to England at the end of the 17th century by Smith and copied by many builders for two centuries. It is very often of oak, with a characteristic sweet tone. The origins of its name are unclear.

Night Horn. In Anglo-American organs of the 18th and 19th centuries, usually a wide-scaled, 4' open Flute. See under Nachthorn, Cor de nuit.

Nineteenth. The English term is meant to indicate the Principal-scaled 11/3' rank, something more like the Italian Decimanona than the classical French Larigot.

Octave (Ger. Oktave; It. ottava; Sp. octava). (1) The 4' Principal of an organ based on an 8' Open Diapason, or 8' of one based on a 16' Diapason, etc. In England, ‘Octave 4'’ implies a strong Principal 4' rank, such special meaning originating c1850.

(2) A prefix indicating pitch an octave higher than usual (Octave Flute).

Octavin (Fr.; It. ottavino). Open metal Flutes made by Venetian builders c1790 and Cavaillé-Coll c1860; often used in late 20th-century organs to denote a wide-scaled 2' Principal.

Open Diapason. See under Diapason and Principal.

Ophicleide. Strong reed stop supposedly imitating the Ophicleide and popular as a pedal rank in Willis organs.

Orchestral. A prefix denoting a stop of particularly imitative tone (Orchestral Oboe, Orchestral Flute), found in many early 20th-century organs.

Orlos (Sp.). An 8' Regal with short cylindrical resonators, sometimes en chamade and common in Iberian organs by c1730.

Pauke, Trommel (Ger.; It. timballo; Sp. tambor). Drum stops were popular in the larger organs of all European countries until the early 19th century, and the percussion varieties in theatre organs c1920 were only revivals. Sometimes real timpani were provided, tunable and played by putti activated by pedal levers (Berlin, c1730), but more usually the many drum-effects were produced by two or more large-scaled wooden pipes out of tune with each other. Frequently the quasi-pitches produced were A and D, allowing realistic ‘trumpet-and-drums’ music: ‘with trumpet, shawm or fife’ according to the Trier Cathedral contract of 1537 (P. Briesger).

Philomela. An open, metal Flute of strong and fundamental tone, found in the Solo division of large Anglo-American organs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Physharmonika. A free-reed stop with resonators introduced to Germany in the mid-19th century by builders such as Walcker and Ladegast and widely used for a time in large organs. It was also briefly popular in England and the USA.

Piccolo. A 19th-century 2' or 1' Flute stop made by English builders to a design labelled Octavin, Flöte, Flageolet, etc., by other builders; pipes are sometimes of harmonic (double) length.

Pífano (Sp.). Open or stopped Flute 4' or 2'; the name was used over the centuries and was possibly a corruption of Pfeife or Piffaro.

Piffaro, Fiffaro (It.). Although in other musical contexts Fiffaro often denoted a reed instrument, organ stops of this name fall into two different classes. (1) An open Flute found in Rhineland organs of the 16th century, high-pitched and later overblowing or double-mouthed, producing a tone imitative of the cross-blown fife.

(2) An important Italian stop of the 16th century onwards; it had treble compass Principal-scaled pipes mistuned with the Principale 8' and thus producing an undulating effect, more singing and less reedy than 19th-century céleste stops. It was sometimes called Voce umana. See under Voce umana.

Pommer (Ger.). See under Bombardon.

Portunal (Portunalflöte) (Ger.). A term, probably a corruption of Bourdon, denoting in 17th- and 18th-century German organs a rank of 8' or 4' open, wood or metal pipes (sometimes in the form of an inverted cone), producing a modified Open Flute colour.

Posaune (Ger.; Dutch bazuin, buzain). A common name for 16' or 32' pedal reed stops of varied construction in certain areas and periods. Resonators two-thirds long were generally considered desirable, but they could be of wood or metal. The ‘stille Posaune’ seems, from Praetorius, to have been a stopped reed, but many builders used ‘Posaune’ in general for their big reed other than the Bombarde, from at least c1580 onwards.

Praestant (Lat.; Fr., Ger. Prestant). Pipes ‘standing in the front’ of the organ case. (1) In the Netherlands, since ‘Principal’ denoted the main chorus as a whole in c1525, ‘Praestant’ was used to refer to the case pipes or Open Diapason itself. German builders c1550–1800 used Praestant and Principal as synonyms, depending on local custom.

(2) In France, ‘Prestant’ soon came to denote the 4' Principal rank distinct from the Montre 8', as ‘Principal’ in England has always indicated the 4' Principal rank distinct from the Open Diapason 8'; both French and English usage was established by 1600.

Principal (Ger. Prinzipal). See also under Praestant. The term first arose soon after 1500 in the Netherlands (and hence probably in England) to denote not a single rank of pipes but the Diapason chorus as a whole, i.e. the undivided Mixture or pleno; in English and American organs from the 18th century onwards, however, it usually denotes a 4' stop. By Praetorius’s time, the ‘stop formerly called Praestant or Doeff’ was called Prinzipal in Germany. In the 20th century, Prinzipal has become useful as a term denoting the relatively colourless German basic 8' rank as opposed to the French Montre or the various English Diapason tones.

Quartane. In the 20th century this term has been used as a substitute for Quarte de nasard. See under Rauschpfeife.

Quarte de nasard (Fr.). The stop a 4th above the Nasard on the French classical organ, i.e. a 2' Flute mutation rank rather than the chorus Doublette. Usually open, the bass octave was sometimes a Chimney Flute.

Querflöte (Ger.). The transverse flute has been imitated in various ways. The organ stop so called is properly an open cylindrical metal or wood stop, usually 4', overblowing to the 1st or 2nd overtone because of the narrow scale and small mouth; a small hole halfway along the pipe facilitates the overblowing (cf Cavaillé-Coll’s Flûte harmonique). Such overblowing Schweizerpfeifen seem to have been known in late 15th-century south Germany. Construction can vary: stopped and wide-scaled (Praetorius, 2/1619); long, narrow pipes overblowing at the 12th (Compenius, Fritzsche); conical (Snetzler); ‘blown from the side’ (Wagner); simple, stopped 2' Flutes (c1600); fanciful, large-scale pipes (c1840), perhaps of turned hardwood (c1730).

Quint. Like Nineteenth, Fifteenth, etc., Quint has usually since about 1550 indicated chorus ranks (not Flute mutations) sounding 102/3', 51/3', 22/3' and 11/3'. See also Quint (iii).

Quintadecima (It.). The Fifteenth or 2' Principal chorus rank, sometimes perhaps doubled or paired in Italian organs before c1500.

Quintadena, Quintatön (Ger.). A stop of narrow-scaled, stopped, metal pipes, often of a high tin content, producing a quiet tone with a marked 5th (i.e. 2nd overtone) in it; the pipes are near overblowing. Like other basic organ-pipe shapes, it was known by 1500 and more commonly used throughout Europe than the name itself. The origin of the term is uncertain, all the variants (e.g. Quintade, Quintaden, Quintiten) suggesting the ‘5th-tone’ nature of the sound. Schällenpfeifen (‘bell-pipes’, referring to the tone) was an early 16th-century alternative name; a Gedacktpommer was a strong-voiced 4' Quintatön in the 17th century. Many types of Stopped Diapason before c1775 have much of the tonal quality of a Quintadena, but with more fundamental.

Rankett, Rackett (Ger.). A 16' Regal with short resonators and gentle tone, found fairly often from the end of the 16th century in northern Europe, particularly in small organs and the secondary manuals of large ones. Shape and materials varied, but the pipes were always short. Such Regals were entirely out of fashion after 1710, but have been revived in the late 20th century.

Rauschpfeife, Rauschquint, Rauschwerk (Ger.). Words of doubtful origin – probably unconnected with rauschen (‘to murmur’) – properly denoting three distinct kinds of chorus Mixture in the various German organ types from c1575. (1) Rauschpfeife of two ranks (15.19 or 2' + 11/3'); other additional ranks would be the 12th and 22nd.

(2) Rauschquinte of two ranks (12.15 or 22/3' + 2'), otherwise called Quartane. Neither term was used reliably by builders until recently.

(3) Rauschwerk is frequently used to replace one or other term; but for early sources (e.g. Schlick, 1511), ‘Rauschwerk’ was a term denoting either a semi-Flute solo compound stop imitating a reed instrument, or a reed stop itself or a collective term for reeds, probably of more refined tone than the Trompete. ‘Rauschende Zimbel’ (Russzimbel, etc.) seems to be an early term for high Mixtures.

Recorder. In England, the term appears in a few 17th-century contracts to refer to a Flute stop, probably of 4' pitch (‘unison to the Principall’: York Minster, 1632). It could be a stopped metal rank (Worcester Cathedral, 1613) or of wood (St John’s College, Cambridge, 1635), and both forms are encountered up to the beginning of the 18th century.

Regal. A term of uncertain origin (see Regals) denoting a family of reed stops probably descending from the late medieval instrument; the small or very small resonators made such ranks useful in the subsidiary chests of larger organs. Early 16th-century names were frequently specific, at other times more cumbersome, such as ‘Regal to make the human voice’ (Vox humana). Fanciful names and pipe forms were found chiefly in northern Germany from c1575 to c1700 and should not be overestimated: Apfelregal (short resonators with a little round perforated ball at the end), Geigenregal (delicate 4' Regal, treble sounding as a violin when drawn with a Quintatön, according to Praetorius), Harfenregal, Jungfernregal (thin tone ‘like a girl’s voice’), Knopfregal and Kopfregal (‘knob-’ and ‘head-shaped Regal’), Messingregal (short brass pipes), Singendregal (‘singing Regal’ of light tone, useful for cantus firmus melodies), Trichterregal (important type with ‘funnel-shaped’ or conical resonators like small trumpets). In other countries, Regals usually had freer names, e.g. Orlos, Tromboncini, Vox humana; this was true everywhere after the 17th century.

Repeating. When applied to a mixture or mutation, this term indicates that the entire compass of the stop consists of a repetition of the same octave (or half-octave) of pitches.

Resimbala (Port.). See under Zimbel.

Ripieno (It.). (1) The full chorus, i.e. either a registration of drawn stops or the Blockwerk itself.

(2) The classical Italian chorus Mixture, after single ranks became less the norm on the Italian organ than they had once been (c1800).

Rohrflöte (Ger.). See under Chimney Flute.

Rosignolo, Rusignolo, Rossignol. See under Vogelgesang.

Sackbut. A term occasionally used in various periods for big reed stops.

Salicet, Salicional. A term derived from Latin salix (‘willow tree’) during the later 16th century to denote a rank of open cylindrical pipes of narrow (sometimes conical) scale giving a fairly delicate, almost string-like tone. The most common pitch may have been 4', as it was for the early Dulciana. The stop was a speciality of eastern Europe, and it became very popular in the 19th century at both 8' and 4' (Salicet) pitches). The small mouths made side ears advisable. In central Germany c1725, ‘Sollicinal’ was a two-rank Sesquialtera.

Schalmei (Ger.). (1) From c1550, a short-length reed stop with narrow, flaring resonators giving it a tone closer to a smooth trumpet than a real shawm. The tone must have varied over the centuries, but the stop seems to have been particularly associated with cantus firmus playing. It was rare from 1750 to 1930.

(2) In some central European sources of c1775, Schalmei seems to have been an auxiliary 8' flue stop.

Scharf (Ger.; Dutch scherp). Narrow-scale chorus Mixture of ‘sharp’ penetrating tone, found throughout northern Europe from c1500 onwards. (1) Early Dutch and German Scharf Mixtures were high-pitched like the Zimbel, and properly distinct from the Terzzimbel.

(2) The basic Mixture of subsidiary manuals was often called Scharf whether or not it was Zimbel-like. Those of the mid-19th century frequently contained a high Tierce rank.

Schnarrwerk (Ger.). 17th-century term for the ‘rattling stops’ or Regals, but not used to designate a specific stop.

Schwebung (Ger.). An undulating stop composed of two slightly detuned ranks of pipes; it is usually called ‘Celeste’ in English and French. See also Tremulant.

Schwegel, Schweigel (Ger.). A term derived from the High German suegela (‘flute’) to denote a delicate Flute stop of fairly narrow scale, common in south and central Germany from 1550 to 1850, chiefly on subsidiary manuals. Some ‘Schwegli’ were 11/3', others 4', 2' and even 8' (the last especially c1750); some open, wide pipes, others conical, yet others in the form of a double cone or overblowing. 19th-century Schwegels are usually wide Flutes.

Schweizerpfeife (Ger.). To play a flute ‘in the Swiss manner’ in early 16th-century sources meant to play it cross-blown, like a fife. (1) Organ imitations of the period took various forms (see under Querflöte and Flute).

(2) In the 18th century, the name often denoted an 8' or 4' rank, in the form of an inverted cone or narrow and cylindrical, either way resembling the so-called Viola da gamba in tone.

Sedecima (?It.). A term found in eastern Europe of the 17th and 18th centuries to denote a 11/3' Sifflöte.

Septième (Fr.). Cavaillé-Coll’s name (hence that used by English builders) for the ‘Seventh’ or 44/7', 22/7' and 11/7' mutation series, first known as an idea in Prussia c1780 but coming into prominence as an extra colour in a large organ of c1860, and as a sharply colourful rank in the Oberwerk of a neo-Baroque organ of c1950, particularly in Germany.

Seraphon. Weigle’s name for a group of high-pressure flue and reed stops popular in Germany during the early 20th century.

Sesquialtera. A term perhaps derived from the Latin sesquialtera (‘one and a half’) and used to denote a two-rank solo/chorus mutation stop containing the 12th and 17th (22/3' + 13/5'), written carelessly as ‘Quinte 3' + Terz 2' = 3:2 = 1½'’. Other forms of the name suggest clever etymologies: ‘Sexquialter’ (England, late 18th century) apparently referring to the 6th contained between the 22/3' and 13/5' pipe. ‘Sex quintaltra’ and ‘Sexquintalter’ (ditto), ‘Flautt in 6ta’ (Italy, late 17th century), etc. F. Hocque’s phrase ‘Sesquialtera called by some Vox humana or Nasard’, for what was in fact a Cornet stop (Trier Cathedral, 1590), shows the interdependence of names at that period. (1) The classic two-rank Sesquialtera was a flute-like semi-Cornet solo stop, often treble only, found in north-west German organs of c1630–1790.

(2) The English Sesquialtera was, during the late 17th century, a bass complement to the treble Cornet stop; during the 18th century a complete chorus Mixture including a narrow-scaled Tierce rank; and during much of the 19th century often the only Mixture (still with a Tierce) in the whole organ.

Seventeenth. See under Tierce.

Sifflöte (Ger.). A term probably derived from siffler, ‘to whistle’, although many German spellings suggest a wider derivation: cyvelet (Amsterdam, Oude Kerk, 1539 – cf zuffolo: ‘shepherd’s fife’), Sufflet (Dresden, 1563), Schufflet (Münster, 1579), Suff Flöte (by Christoph Donati, 1683), Suiflöt/Duiflot and Subflöte (Praetorius, 2/1619). (1) A high-pitched Flute stop, narrow, wide or conical; good examples have a characteristic sibilant tone.

(2) Throughout its period of popularity, the stop could be either 1' or 11/3', some builders (e.g. G. Silbermann) preferring the first, others (e.g. Schnitger) the second. Much the same was true of the Sedecima, the Sifflöte of eastern European countries.

Sordun. A very short stopped Regal imitating a woodwind instrument, soft (cf sordino) and somewhat thin in tone, popular during the 17th century in north central Germany.

Soubasse (Fr.). See under Sub-Bass.

Souffleur (Fr.). See under Kalkant.

Sperrventil (Ger.). The ‘blocking valve’ for preventing wind reaching a chest, saving it for other chests or keeping it from sounding a ciphering note. Such valves were the first means of dividing the Blockwerk in some instances; they remained a common accessory in northern Europe until c1850. During the 19th century, the valve’s potential as a registration aid was exploited by such builders as Cavaillé-Coll who (like certain 17th-century builders) made several chests for each department or manual, each of which could have prepared stops that would sound only when the valve was activated.

Spillflöte (Ger.). Probably a corruption of ‘spindleflute’, a rank of open, wide cylindrical pipes which suddenly taper towards the top. The pipe form could be used for an 8', 4' or 2' stop (north Germany, 17th century) or for part of a mutation rank (various countries) of discreet tone.

Spitzflöte (Ger.). The ‘pointed flute’ stop whose pipe form – gently tapering or conical from mouth to top – was more common than the occurences of its name suggest, especially outside Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia. The taper is more pronounced than that of the Gemshorn, and the tone is that of a reedy or breathy flute, good for blending either at 8' pitch or as a mutation. Such pipe forms are known from the late 15th century (8' at Lübeck Totentanzorgel, 1492) and frequently had a part in a French mutation rank, a Spanish Corneta or an Italian Flauto; the name itself appears to be late 16th-century. 19th-century examples in Germany and England tend to be more string-like in tone.

Stentorphone. One of Weigle’s late 19th-century open flue stops of very loud tone, popular in larger German and American organs c1890–1920.

Stopped Diapason. Unique to Britain and its colonies until the late 19th century, this medium-scaled, low cut-up, thin-walled, stopped wood stop has a mild, blending colour, quite distinct from that of the German Gedackt or French Bourdon. See also under Diapason and Gedackt.

Suavial, Suabe Flöte (?Ger.). A term probably derived from suavis (‘sweet’; not from Swabia, ‘schwäbisch’) and used to denote a narrow-scaled 8' or 4' metal stop popular in southern Germany, Switzerland and the Habsburg countries from c1710 to the 19th century. Burney described one in Frankfurt as ‘meant for that sweet stop in Mr Snetzler’s organs which he calls the Dulciana’.

Sub-Bass (Ger.; Fr. soubasse). An unspecific term that usually denoted a stopped wooden rank of 16' pedal pipes of average scale. During the 19th century, some German and French builders used it for the 32' Bourdon rank.

Superoctave. See under Fifteenth; see also Superoctave.

Tambor. See under Pauke.

Tapada, Tapadillo (Sp.; It. tappato). Prefix denoting ‘stopped’ pipes. Tapadillo was the Spanish 4' Flute of the 17th and 18th centuries, usually stopped but on occasion open, and either conical or a Rohrflöte.

Tenori (It.). An occasional 16th-century name for the Principal 8'.

Tenoroon (?Eng.). The name applied in some early 19th-century sources to describe a flue or reed stop, usually of 16' pitch, and generally going no lower than C.

Terpodion. A quasi-Greek name for delicate stops of ‘delightful’ tone in early 19th-century German organs. (1) A free reed (c1830).

(2) A small-scaled, open, metal flue (Schulze).

Tertian, Terzian (Ger.). Properly a two-rank solo and chorus Tierce Mixture, found more especially in northern Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries and consisting of the ranks 17.19 (13/5' + 11/3') as opposed to the 12.17 of the Sesquialtera. Theorists have pointed out that it could contain 15.17 ranks (Werckmeister, 1705) or 10.12 (Adlung, 1768), and many examples did break back an octave around c'. The scaling was somewhat wider than Principal.

Terza mano (It.). The ‘third hand’ or octave coupler found on late 18th-century and 19th-century Italian organs, feasible in view of the often long compass of the main manuals.

Terzzimbel. See under Zimbel.

Theorbe (Ger.; Sp. tiorba). (1) German reed stop of the 17th and 18th centuries, rare but of a distinct type, i.e. gentle 16' tone imitating, in some way, the theorbo.

(2) More familiar Spanish reed with short resonators, often en chamade, c1750.

Tibia (Lat.). General name for ‘pipe’, used in the Latinate contracts of the late 18th century and by the technician-inventors of the late 19th century. Thus Tibia angusta is a narrow Flute, Tibia clausa a Gedackt, ‘cuspida’ a Spitzflöte, ‘sylvestris’ a Waldflöte, etc. In 20th-century cinema organs it is a loud, wide-scaled Principal.

Tierce (Fr.; Ger. Terz, Tertia). The 13/5' Flute mutation rank, more particularly of the French classical organ. Such third-sounding ranks were contained in Arnaut de Zwolle’s Cymbale of c1440, but evidently their scaling widened over the centuries, achieving a characteristic horn tone by 1750. Some Parisian organs c1630 had two such ranks, one wide the other narrow, the latter thus used in one or other pleno. The Double Tierce 31/5' (Grosse Tierce) was first known c1660 and contributed to the array of melodic colours in French organ music. Outside France the stop was found as a single mutation rank only in organ types influenced by the French, e.g. those of the Rhineland, Saxony and England. Besides French terms, 18th-century names for it were Ditonus, Decima, Sixtil (all in various northern European countries) and Corneta (Italy).

Tiratutti (It.). A mechanical device known in 18th-century Italian organs whereby the organist could ‘draw all the pleno ranks’ at once.

Tolkaan (Dutch; Ger. Dolcan). A term of uncertain origin denoting a rank of open inverted conical metal or wood pipes, often confused with Dulzian, Dulciana, etc. As in other instances, the pipe form was known in more versions and over greater areas than the name itself. The Tolkaan was a speciality of large Dutch and Hanseatic organs of c1580, as was the Trichterflöte (‘funnel-shaped flute’) early in the next century. The pipe form was also found in the case of Spanish flutes, Austrian Dulcianas, Neapolitan Voci umani (all of c1750) and many soft or fairly soft colour-stops in German organs c1825.

Tremulant (Fr. tremblant; It. tremolo; Sp. temblor). An important accessory stop contained in most larger European organs from c1500 to the present day, although not always specified in the contract; see Tremulant.

Trichterregal. See under Regal.

Trombone. See under Posaune.

Tromboni, Tromboncini (It.). (1) A ‘small-large trumpet’ reed stop introduced now and then into Italy by various Flemish or German builders.

(2) Tromboni were long and strong-toned 16' or 8' reed stops on many national types of organ c1820.

(3) Tromboncini were an important type of Regal on Venetian and Tuscan organs of the late 18th century, with very small-scaled square-sectioned metal resonators standing in front of the case pipes.

Trommel (Ger.). See under Pauke.

Trommet, Trompete, Trompette. See under Trumpet.

Trompes (Fr.). The large open bass pipes placed apart from, and on either side of, the Grand orgue of many large French and Dutch organs of the later 15th century. A set of ten was fairly common. Other names (e.g. turres at Angers Cathedral in 1416) were sometimes found; ‘trompe’ may signify the ‘pendentive’, or carved, wooden, semicircular console on which the pipes were placed.

Trumpet (Ger. Trommet, Trompete; Fr. trompette; etc.). A very familiar imitative reed stop with long resonators either flaring or in the form of an inverted cone, of metal or wood, found in most organ types since c1500 and taking various forms. (Organs without a Trumpet were the classical Italian organ of c1600, the English pre-Restoration organ, and the mature eastern European organ of the 18th century.) The resonators should be about two-thirds long (6' for 8' C). German and English Trumpets from 1650 varied from builder to builder; 17th-century German Trumpets were often short, especially if the flaring was marked and the pipes placed vertically in the case front. 18th-century French Trumpets developed great power and attack, especially in the bass, often using wider tongues and bigger resonators. Spanish Trumpets also followed certain conventions: the Trompeta real was a full-size vertical reed within the organ; Trompeta bastarda had shorter resonators, often en chamade; the Trompeta magna, Trompeta de batalla and Trompeta imperial were horizontal Trumpets, often of suboctave pitches (16', even 32', in the treble). During the late 19th century, exceptional organs in any city of Europe might have had highly imitative Trumpet stops, with higher pressures, perhaps brass resonators, arranged as a fan or en chamade, etc.

Tuba. Except in the Latinate contracts of c1800, ‘Tuba’ as a stop name is found almost entirely in the 19th and 20th centuries, and denotes a louder reed stop than the usual Trumpet, taking whatever form the builder found useful for increasing volume. The Tuba Mirabilis was an unusually loud Tuba, often on a separate chest.

Twelfth. The rank of 22/3' open metal pipes forming part of the Diapason chorus. Some early Twelfths, however, were more Nasard-like, especially in England c1725.

Twenty-second (It. Vigesimaseconda). A Principal stop of 1' pitch.

Uccelli (It.). See under Vogelgesang.

Unda maris (Lat.). A term applied in south and central Germany during the 18th century – and hence through Walcker (c1830) to most major builders of the 19th century – to denote a rank of narrow, open 8' metal pipes, tuned slightly sharp or flat (either to a second rank standing with it or to the organ as a whole) and so producing an undulating effect. In some 18th-century central German organs it was a double-mouthed pipe with an internal divider (see under Bifara). The effect was known more widely than the name, being mentioned by Mersenne (1636–7), found in the classical Italian organ as Piffaro, and impressing the many 18th- and early 19th-century builders looking for colourful Flute and string stop varieties.

Untersatz (Ger.). The term for pipes placed on a chest below (and at the back of) the main chest of organs in north and central Germany c1575–1825, i.e. pipes of the larger pedal stops. In practice, the term thus denotes various 16' or 32' pedal stops, particularly stopped wood 32' ranks.

Viejas (Sp.). The ‘old women’s voice’, or thin Vox humana of Spanish organs c1750, often en chamade. Other fanciful names for particularly thin Vox humana stops were Viejos (Spain, c1750), Jungfernregal (Germany, c1625) and Vox pueri/tauri (Italy, c1600).

Viola da gamba. The name for a large number of stop-types whose only common characteristic is their claiming to imitate the string instrument. (1) In c1620, often a Tolkaan.

(2) During the 17th century in central Europe as a whole, many narrow cylindrical stops bore the name Viola da gamba or Viol d’amour as well as Salizional, Dulciana, etc.

(3) Many Gamba stops contained conical pipes, like narrow Spitzflöten – Saxony c1725, England and south Germany c1850, northern Italy c1800.

(4) Many Gamba stops of the 18th century are either very flute-like (south Germany) or soft stops of sweet, breathy Diapason tone (G. Silbermann), but 19th-century examples are often stronger in tone.

(5) In Italy and Spain from c1750, ‘Viola’ often denoted a regal stop of one or other kind.

Vigesimaseconda (It.). See under Twenty-second.

Viola pomposa. A broad and fairly strong string-toned stop, developed by G.D. Harrison in the 1930s, and used since in American organs.

Viole d’orchestre. A very narrow-scaled, keen-sounding string stop, found mostly in organs built in the first half of the 20th century.

Violetta (It.; Sp. violeta). (1) Regal stops, with very small, open, conical resonators of 4' or 2', made in the late 18th century.

(2) Miscellaneous string-toned flue stops, 8', 4' or 2', on various of the later 19th-century organ types.

Violina. A medium-scaled 4' stop of string tone, frequently found in the Swell division of 19th-century English and American organs.

Violón (Sp.; Ger. Violon). (1) In Spain, an important term for the Stopped Diapason on the Baroque organ, manual or pedal. Thus ‘Flautado violón’ was the Bourdon.

(2) A common German open, wood, pedal stop of medium volume and nondescript tone, found during the 18th and 19th centuries. Often a substitute for the Prinzipal 16'.

Violoncello (It.). (1) A Venetian regal stop at 8', with small rectangular cross-section resonators of boxwood or pine, placed vertically in front of the case pipes, and in use from c1750 onwards.

(2) Narrow flue stops of various periods and areas in Germany, c1700–1900.

(3) An 8' pedal stop frequently found in 19th- and 20th-century English and American organs.

Voce umana (It.). A very important stop in Italian organs from the 17th century to the 19th. Composed of one or two mildly voiced Principale ranks tuned to undulate gently, it was usually of treble compass only, and intended for use with the Principale 8', especially in the playing of music for the Elevation.

Vogelgesang, Kuckuck, Nachtigall (Ger.; It., rusignolo, uccelli; Fr. rossignol). National names for the bird-imitating toy stops popular from at least 1450 to 1800 and again in theatre organs from about 1925. Each builder had his own way of planning such quasi-automata; if the tiny pipes were suspended in water, the twittering was thought to resemble a nightingale; if two were involved and stood a 3rd apart, a cuckoo resulted; if air supply allowed it (and often so much air was taken that no other stops could be drawn), moving statuary might complete the picture; and so on. An important example was the ‘Vogelgesang durchs ganze pedal’ (Praetorius) which was not a toy stop so much as either a tiny high Mixture of indeterminate pitch adding a soft glitter, or a regular, high Flute stop. See Bird instruments.

Voix céleste (Fr.). A term apparently dating from the 1840s to denote a long-familiar effect achieved in the same way as Unda maris and Piffaro. Narrow-scaled pipes are usual for such stops from the late 19th century onwards.

Vox angelica (Lat.). (1) Small reed stops of 2' found in the organs of some German builders c1750 (Stumm).

(2) Soft, small-scaled, 8' flue stops on various 19th-century organ-types, including Italian ones.

(3) A free-reed stop used by Walcker and other 19th-century German builders.

Vox humana (Lat.; Fr. voix humaine; Sp. voz humana). The name for numerous stops whose common characteristic is the claim to imitate the human voice, particularly its thin, undulating quality, and always at 8'. (1) The Renaissance Voce umana was the same as Piffaro. See also under Piffaro and Voce umana.

(2) Some 16th-century builders used the term for a registration (e.g. Regal + Nasard + Larigot) or for the Regal ‘helping to make the Vox humana effect’.

(3) Many Regal types during the 17th and 18th centuries were invented for the purpose, with resonators open, closed; of brass, hardwood; short, half-stopped, cylindrical, capped and pierced, double conical, bulbous, etc. Some had their own tremulant.

(4) During the late 19th century and the early 20th the standard Vox humana was a quarter length cylindrical reed, sometimes enclosed in its own expression box.

Waldflöte (Ger.). A ‘forest flute’ stop. (1) A wide-scaled, conical, metal Flute of 2' (sometimes 22/3' or 11/3') in 17th-century German organs. Praetorius referred to open pipes, although instruments in Eastern European countries have stopped ones; most were wide-scaled.

(2) Open Flutes, of 8' or 4' pitch, in English and German and American organs of the 19th century, sometimes metal but usually wood.

Zimbel (Ger.; Eng. Cimball, Cymbal; Fr. cymbale; Sp. cimbala, zimbala; Port. resimbala). The high chorus Mixture separated from the basic Mixture as the Blockwerk became divided; in many cases the same as Scharf. (1) Some early Zimbeln contained a Tierce (Terzzimbel), c1450–1550 or later, Praetorius recommending such high Mixtures (15.17.19).

(2) The classical French Cymbale was a high Mixture of octaves and 5ths, the ranks breaking twice per octave (cymbalisée) (compare with Fourniture).

(3) The ‘repeating Zimbel’ was a single-rank or compound stop repeating the same pitches in every octave, c1600–1750 in Germany, perhaps in reference to the medieval cymbala or small, tuned bells. This type of Zimbel was a colour stop, rather than a chorus stop.

Zimbelstern (Ger.). A very common toy stop, found mostly in northern Europe c1490–1790 but occasionally elsewhere, and consisting of a revolving star placed towards the top of an organ case to whose wind-blown driving-wheel behind the case is attached a set of bells, tuned or (before c1700) untuned. Mattheson (1713) thought the effect good for feast days.

Zink (Ger.). Like Cornet, Zink denotes an imitative stop achieving a cornett-like tone either with reed pipes or as a compound flue stop. (1) A Tierce Mixture of the latter type in some early 16th-century contracts.

(2) A reed or Regal stop in others of the same period; later, ‘Zinken oder Cornett’ was normally a reed stop of the Schalmei kind, particularly a pedal 2' reed stop useful for cantus firmus melodies in Lutheran Germany.



Organ stop


C. Locher: Erklärung der Orgelregister (Berne, 1887; Eng. trans. as An Explanation of the Organ Stops, with Hints for Effective Combinations, 1888)

J.I. Wedgwood: A Comprehensive Dictionary of Organ Stops (London, 1905)

N.A. Bonavia-Hunt: Modern Organ Stops (London, 1923)

C. Mahrenholz: Die Orgelregister: ihre Geschichte und ihr Bau (Kassel, 1930, enlarged 2/1944/R) [incl. further bibliography]

G.A. Audsley: Organ-Stops and their Artistic Registration (New York, 1949)

W.L. Sumner: The Organ: its Evolution, Principles of Construction and Use (London, 1952, rev., enlarged 4/1973/R)

T. Schneider: Die Namen der Orgelregister (Kassel, 1958)

P. Smets: Die Orgelregister: ihr Klang und Gebrauch (Mainz, 1958)

S. Irwin: Dictionary of Pipe Organ Stops (New York, 1962)

P. Williams: The European Organ 1450–1850 (London, 1966/R) [incl. further bibliography]

R. Lüttman: Das Orgelregister und sein instrumentales Vorbild in Frankreich und Spanien vor 1800 (Kassel, 1979)

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