Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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5. Later compositions.


The picture of stylistic consistency and homogeneity presented by the mature style gives way to one of greater diversity in the later motets. Among these, the four-part Inter preclarissimas virtutes seems to offer the closest parallel to the mature masses. It is based on a chant fragment (Estote fortes in bello, from the Common of Apostles and Evangelists) which is notated and treated exactly as in such segmentation masses as Je ne demande, Rose playsante or Malheur me bat: five successive statements in each of the first two sections, sixfold augmentation in the first statements followed by successive reduction until the notes have the same durations as the other voices. Inter preclarissimas virtutes was conceived a musical ‘letter of application’ addressed to an unnamed ecclesiastic, presumably a pope, evidently with a view to securing his patronage.

The five-part Laudemus nunc Dominum, written for the dedication of a church, must have existed by 1496, when it was singled out for its prominent declamatory writing by the theorist Johannes Herbenus of Maastricht. It is a characteristically joyful and exuberant work which, although based on a conventional scaffold tenor, sounds remarkably modern in its regular alternation between rapid text delivery in the homophonic declamations, and the breathtaking energy of the more contrapuntally involved passages. The cantus firmus drops in and out with little apparent effect on the musical argument as a whole. The five-part Mater patris is very similar in musical conception. Although one of its voices is no longer extant, the work is similarly based on a cantus firmus in long note-values, around which the other parts enunciate the text of the Marian hymn Mater patris with unrelenting energy and drive. Like many later works by Obrecht (including Inter preclarissimas virtutes and several of the mature masses) this piece is conceived in C almost throughout, with no opening section in perfect tempus as had been customary up to the 1490s. The same is true of O preciosissime sanguis, which provides perhaps the best illustration of Obrecht’s mature tendency to create musical designs that owe little or nothing to the structure of the cantus firmus: the two plainchant melodies in the tenor pursue their predetermined course within a musical context that seems to follow a logic entirely of its own.

If the four-part Salve sancta facies/Homo quidam was composed for an endowment in Bruges, as Strohm has suggested, it must surely date from Obrecht’s second period of activity there in 1498–1500. Just as in the Missa ‘Malheur me bat’, which existed by 1497, the pre-existing melody (the responsory Homo quidam for Corpus Christi) is stated in the top voice. The contrapuntal context in which it is embedded is strikingly similar to that in the mass. (Compare, for instance, bars 142–5 of the Credo with bars 22–5 of the motet.) The setting begins with a point of imitation that apparently provided the inspiration for the almost identical opening of Josquin’s Inviolata, integra et casta es (1510s), which in turn was to be imitated by several other composers.

New stylistic directions are apparent in two other late motets by Obrecht, both printed by Petrucci in 1505. The four-part Quis numerare queat is conceived as a musical sermon (addressed to ‘you Frenchmen’ in the most authoritative source), and was evidently written for a service of thanksgiving after the cessation of war – possibly the withdrawal of an invader or the ending of a civil war. The poem was set to music also by the French court composer Loyset Compère, who turned it into a conventional tenor motet based on a canonically treated cantus firmus. Obrecht’s setting, on the other hand, was freely composed, and cast in a style that can only be described as rhetorical. Syntactical units of the text are articulated by firm cadences or half-cadences, simultaneous rests or changes of musical procedure. Key phrases are projected by homophonic, declamatory writing or underlined by striking musical gestures: imitations, triple rhythms and changes in texture. The occasion for the piece may have been the Peace of Etaples (November 1492), which ended a shortlived invasion into France by Henry VII of England. Obrecht is known to have travelled through France in 1492.

The four-part Laudes Christo redemptori, a freely-composed setting of the text of a sequence for Easter, could well be among Obrecht’s latest works. The motet is almost prophetic in its consistent application of the technique of pervading imitation, with individual points of imitation articulating phrases of the text. Highly significant (and in Obrecht’s oeuvre unique) is the wider spacing of the voice-parts, and the tendency to avoid crossings between them. The motet was apparently conceived in the so-called a voce piena texture, in which each of the voices occupies a distinct modal range, which was to become universal in the 16th century.

As this brief survey suggests, Obrecht seems to have shifted the focus of his creative ambitions in later years to the motet. It was in this genre that he developed new ideas and approaches, and partook in later trends. (It is perhaps significant that Cortese was to single out Obrecht as one of the major motet composers of his time, a view that has often puzzled modern observers.) In the masses, on the other hand, it would appear that the composer had made his mark by the early 1490s, and was content thereafter to continue operating within the framework of the mature style. The only major exception may have been the Missa ‘Sub tuum presidium’, a work of immense structural complexity, apparently written for the feast of the Assumption. It is based on a recurring plainchant cantus firmus, laid out in the top voice with almost uncompromising strictness, along which other plainchants are added in the course of the setting, gradually thickening the initial three-part texture until the culmination in the seven-part Agnus Dei. As Marcus van Crevel discovered several decades ago, Obrecht introduced two minor modifications into the otherwise rigid cantus-firmus groundplan, thereby fixing the overall length of the work at exactly 888 semibreves (with Kyrie and Gloria taking up 333 semibreves, and Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei 555).



If any masses could be said to date from Obrecht’s final years, they are likely to include such settings as Si dedero, Cela sans plus and especially Maria zart. While they still exemplify Obrecht’s predilection for scaffold tenors, his musical engagement with pre-existing models now extended far beyond questions of cantus-firmus treatment and layout alone. In all three settings, material from the models infuses the other voices to such a degree (whether freely elaborated or quoted literally) that one is almost tempted to speak of parody in the cases of Si dedero and Cela sans plus. To the extent that Obrecht now departed from the idiom of the mature style, he seems to have done so mainly in response to the style of the pre-existing models. Maria zart is a special case in this regard, since the model, a German devotional song, was monophonic. The mass is likely to date from 1503 or 1504, when the composer is known to have passed through the very region where the devotional song Maria zart originated, the Tyrol, and where several other settings of the melody, including an anonymous three-part mass, turn up in the 1500s. The immoderate length of the work (it takes up more than an hour in modern performance) is dictated by the cantus-firmus layout, arranged by means of Obrecht’s favourite device of segmentation. Contrary to his mature masses, however, the composer made no attempt to compose large-scale formal designs around the tenor, for instance by breaking up the counterpoint in self-contained phrase units or by introducing extended literal imitations and migrations. While the contrapuntal voices still take little notice of the presence or absence of the cantus firmus, they do so with no other apparent aim than that of extending melodic lines, or motivic imitations and sequences, almost indefinitely. In one sense this brings him closer to the ‘wall of sound’ aesthetic of earlier years – save that the voice-parts do not actually combine to create a wall so much as engage in a ceaseless interplay of sharply individualized melodic lines. A curious work, with no obvious precedent or later influence, it leaves one with the impression, as do most of his other late works, that Obrecht still had a great deal to offer when he died in his late 40s.

Obrecht, Jacob

6. Conclusion.


In 1980 it was still possible for Edgar Sparks to observe that Obrecht’s ‘influence on later music was slight’ (Grove6). This view is premissed on several assumptions that can no longer be sustained without qualification. One of these was that Obrecht was a member of ‘the Josquin generation’, and consequently that the ‘later music’ in which his influence should supposedly be apparent must include the works of Gombert, Willaert and Clemens non Papa. However, it is a simple matter of fact that Obrecht died in 1505, 16 years before Josquin, and that more than half of Josquin’s oeuvre does not actually begin to turn up in sources surviving today until after that date. Another assumption was that Josquin’s career began in 1459, and hence that several of his most significant works might have been written as early as the 1460s. However, it has now been established beyond question that no document before the mid-1470s mentions Josquin as a professional musician (or indeed at all). Moreover, less than a fourth of Josquin’s works actually survive in sources copied before about 1500. The evidence of the sources thus confirms what is already apparent from other evidence, especially the virtual absence before 1500 of contemporary comments mentioning Josquin as a composer of any eminence. Simply put, his breakthrough as a composer is likely to have come only in the very last years of the century, about 10 years after Obrecht’s breakthrough in the late 1480s. And the corollary is inevitable: that the ‘later music’ in which Obrecht’s influence could have been apparent must include about half of Josquin’s oeuvre even if the influence was only posthumous.

There is in fact a compelling case for suggesting that Obrecht was a major influence on Josquin. The style of the Missa ‘Hercules dux Ferrarie’, surely not written before the early years of the 16th century, would have been inconceivable without the precedent of Obrecht’s mature masses. Josquin borrowed and transformed the fundamental conception of the mature style, as outlined above, in a setting whose artistic merit is not diminished by its debt to Obrecht. Likewise, one can still discern in the opening of a late motet such as Benedicta es (whose transmission begins in the late 1510s, and which is likely to date from that decade) the influence of very similar openings in the masses Fortuna desperata (see ex.1) and Libenter gloriabor. Of course, the possibility of Obrecht’s influence on Josquin can only be a working hypothesis, one that cannot be fully tested until several major problems of chronology and authenticity in Josquin’s oeuvre have been resolved. For now it has the merit of being consistent with the evidence, despite the obvious conflict it poses to the long-held assumption that Josquin should be credited with every major innovation that occurred during his lifetime. On the other hand, it is unlikely that we shall ever be able to appreciate the exact nature and scope of Josquin’s contribution until we have identified the influences he underwent.

No such obstacles exist in Obrecht scholarship. His debts to Busnoys and Ockeghem are transparently audible in his early works, and the Missa ‘Adieu mes amours’ may well reflect a similar debt to Weerbecke and Josquin. It is precisely because of these well-established influences that we may expect to move towards a better appreciation of Obrecht’s own voice – not only in these early compositions, but especially in his mature and late works, which did so much to raise the cultural prominence of ‘the composer’s voice’ in 15th-century music.


Obrecht, Jacob

WORKS


Editions: New Obrecht Edition, ed. C. Maas and others (Utrecht, 1983–99) [M]Werken van Jacob Obrecht, ed. J. Wolf (Amsterdam and Leipzig, 1908–21R) [W]

Misse Obreht (Venice, 1503)

Concentus harmonici quattuor missarum … Jacobi Obrecht (Basle, [c1510])

masses








 





Incipit or Title

No. of parts

Edition

 





Missa ‘Adieu mes amours’

4

M i, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. monophonic chanson, or possibly Josquin’s setting




Missa ‘Ave regina celorum’


4

M i, 31

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of Walter Frye’s motet






Missa ‘Beata viscera’

4

M ii, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. plainchant comm for BVM; ‘Cum sancto’ inc.






Missa ‘Caput’

4

M ii, 33

 

Remarks :

c.f. final melisma of plainchant ant Venit ad Petrum for Maundy Thursday; modelled on anon. English mass; alternative Agnus Dei probably by Obrecht as well






Missa ‘Cela sans plus’

4

M xiii, 1

 

Remarks :

on Lannoy’s chanson






Missa de Sancto Donatiano

4


M iii, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. various chants, mostly associated with St Donatian; several references to Ockeghem’s Missa ‘Ecce ancilla Domini’; may have been composed together with a Missa de Sancto Adriano (apparently lost, but perhaps = conjecturally attrib. Missa sine nomine)






Missa de Sancto Martino

4

M iii, 35

 

Remarks :

c.f. various plainchant ants from the office of St Martin of Tours






Missa ‘De tous biens playne’

3

M iv, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of Hayne van Ghizeghem’s chanson






Missa ‘Fors seulement’

3

M iv, 25

 

Remarks :

c.f. T (top v) of Ockeghem’s chanson





Missa ‘Fortuna desperata’


4

M iv, 49

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of ?Busnoys’s song






Missa ‘Grecorum’

4

M v, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. unidentified, possibly a 14th-century monophonic chanson in the style of Machaut; sequence ‘Victimae paschali laudes’ quoted in ‘Osanna’






Missa ‘Hercules Dux Ferrarie’

4



 

Remarks :

lost; mentioned by Glarean (15471), 296; see Wegman (1994), pp.189–90






Missa ‘Je ne demande’

4

M v, 35

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of Busnoys’s chanson; segmented c.f. treatment






Missa ‘L’homme armé’

4


M ii, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of Busnoys’s mass on monophonic chanson






Missa ‘Libenter gloriabor’

4

M ii, 35

 

Remarks :

c.f. plainchant ant for St Paul, with verse (Psalm tone 8) in ‘Christe’, ‘Qui tollis’ and ‘Pleni’; Agnus Dei inc.






Missa ‘Malheur me bat’

4

M vii, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. Dc of Malcort’s chanson; segmented c.f. treatment; also attrib. Agricola






Missa ‘Maria zart’

4

M vii, 39

 

Remarks :

c.f. monophonic devotional lied; segmented c.f. treatment






Missa ‘O lumen ecclesie’ [‘O quam suavis’]

4

M viii, 1


 

Remarks :

c.f. probably plainchant Corpus Christi ant ‘O quam suavis’, retexted as Dominican ant ‘O lumen ecclesie’ in I-Rvat S.M.M.26






Missa ‘Petrus apostolus’

4

M viii, 43

 

Remarks :

c.f. plainchant Magnificat ant for SS Peter and Paul






Missa ‘Pfauenschwanz’

4

M ix, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of instrumental piece by Barbingant






Missa plurimorum carminum (i)

4

M x, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. T (and 1 Dc) of 22 chansons by Barbireau, Basin, Binchois/Du Fay, Bosfrin, Busnoys, Compère/Pietrequin, Ghizeghem, Josquin, Ockeghem and anon.





Missa plurimorum carminum (ii)


4

M x, 47

 

Remarks :

c.f. Dc of five chansons by Barbireau, Compère, Martini and Rubinus






Missa ‘Regina celi’

4



 

Remarks :

lost; mentioned as having been composed for the court of Maximilian I at Innsbruck in 1503






Missa ‘Rose playsante’

4

M ix, 47

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of chanson by Dusart or Caron; segmented c.f. treatment






Missa ‘Salve diva parens’

4

M xi, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. unidentified but related, both metrically and melodically, to c.f. of Févin’s Missa ‘O quam glorifica’ (see Strohm, 1985)





Missa ‘Scaramella’


4

M xi, 51

 

Remarks :

c.f. monophonic Italian song; T and Dc missing, but c.f. layout and treatment reconstructed by Wegman (1994), p.280n






Missa ‘Sicut spina rosam’

4

M xi, 91

 

Remarks :

c.f. 2nd section of plainchant resp Ad nutum Domini for BVM; B of Kyrie of Ockeghem’s Missa ‘Mi-mi’ quoted in Agnus Dei






Missa ‘Si dedero’

4

M xii, 1

 

Remarks :

c.f. T of Agricola’s motet; segmented c.f. treatment






Missa ‘Sub tuum presidium’

3–7

M xii, 51

 

Remarks :

c.f. plainchant ant for BVM, with parts of six further chants mostly from the Assumption







Missa ‘Veci la danse Barbari’

4

M xii, 89

 

Remarks :



c.f. T of anon. chanson; all movements except Credo inc.; Credo possibly by Adam Rener





conjecturally attributed masses


Missa de Sancto Johanne Baptista

4

CMM, xcv/1 (1982), 1

anon. in I-Rvat C.S.160, attrib. Obrecht by Wegman (1989, 1994); c.f. chants associated with St John the Baptist; rhythmic layout adopted from Busnoys’ Missa ‘L’homme armé’ in a manner similar to Obrecht’s own Missa ‘L’homme armé’

Missa ‘Gracioulx et biaulx’

4

M xiii, 45

ascription removed in only source, I-MOe α.M.1.2, attrib. Obrecht by Staehelin (1973, 1975) on grounds of style and presence in a series of Obrecht masses; c.f. T of Barbireau’s chanson

Missa ‘Je ne seray plus’

3


M xiv, 1

anon. in all sources, attrib. Obrecht by Ward (1977) on grounds of close structural and stylistic similarity with Missa ‘Fors seulement’; c.f. Dc of Phillipet des Pres’ chanson

Missa ‘N’aray-je jamais’

4

M xiv, 23

anon. in all sources, attrib. Obrecht by Staehelin (1975) and Just (1975) on grounds of close structural and stylistic similarities with Missae ‘Malheur me bat’, ‘Maria zart’, ‘Rose playsante’, ‘Si dedero’ and conjecturally attrib. ‘Je ne seray plus’; c.f. T of Morton’s chanson; segmented c.f. treatment

Missa [sine nomine]

4



anon. in I-Sc K.1.2, ff.148v–156r, attrib. Obrecht by Wegman (1994), p.166n, on the basis of close parallels in c.f. layout and treatment with Missa de Sancto Martino, as well as transmission next to Missa ‘Beata viscera’

ritual works


Magnificat

4

M xv, 94

uses 5th-tone and 8th-tone melodies; questioned by Finscher (MGG1)


Ave maris stella

3

M xv, 9

1st stanza of Marian hymn

Cuius sacrata viscera

3

M xv, 25

2nd stanza of Marian hymn Assunt festa jubilea

Cuius sacrata viscera

4

M xv, 27

2nd stanza of Marian hymn Assunt festa jubilea

Hec Deum celi

5

M xv, 51

2nd stanza of Purification hymn Quod chorus vatum

Omnis spiritus

2–4

M xvi, 43

Office preces and responses

Benedicamus in laude

4

M xv, 23


troped Benedicamus Domino

motets


Alma redemptoris mater

3

M xv, 1

 

Ave regina celorum

4

M xv, 11

c.f. T of Frye’s motet, combined with extensive allusions to plainchant Marian ant in Dc

Beata es Maria

4

M xv, 17

 

Discubuit Jesus

4

M xv, 28

A lacking; questioned by Finscher (MGG1)

Ego sum Dominus

 

 

contrafactum of Alma redemptoris in 15428

Factor orbis/Canite tuba


5

M xv, 34

c.f. plainsong Advent ant; also quotes numerous other chants, mostly associated with Advent and Nativity

Inter preclarissimas virtutes/Estote fortes in bello

4

M xv, 55

c.f. beginning of plainchant ant for Common of Apostles and Evangelists

Largire nunc mitissime

 

 

contrafactum of Lacen adieu in CZ-HKm II A 7

Laudemus nunc Dominum/Non est hic aliud

5

M xv, 69

c.f. three plainchant ants from Matins of Dedication of a Church

Laudes Christo

4

M xv, 84

 

Mater patris/Sancta Dei genitrix

5

M xv, 104


c.f. unidentified; Quintus lacking

Mille quingentis/Requiem eternam

4

M xvi, 1

commemoration of Obrecht’s father; c.f. plainchant int from Mass for the Dead

O beate Basili/O beate Pater

4

M xvi, 12

c.f. plainchant ant for St Basil; also quotes other chants from this office

O preciosissime sanguis/Guberna tuos famulos

5

M xvi, 23

c.f. from plainchant hymns Christe qui lux es and Te Deum laudamus; Quintus lacking

Parce Domine

3/4

M xvi, 48

 

Parvulus nobis nascitur

 

 

contrafactum of Rompeltier in late German sources; attrib. Johann or Nikolaus Herman

Precantibus diva virgo


 

 

contrafactum of Wat willen wij in CZ-HKm II A 7

Quis numerare queat

4

M xvi, 50

poem of thanksgiving after conclusion of peace; also set to music by Compère

Regina celi

2

M xvi, 63

mensuration exercise

Requiem

 

 

c.f. of Mille quingentis, as sole incipit in 15041, I-Fc Basevi 2439

Salve crux arbor vitae/O crux lignum triumphale

5

M xvi, 65

c.f. from plainchant Holy Cross seq Laudes crucis attollamus

Salve regina

3

M xvi, 85

 

Salve regina


4

M xvi, 97

alternatim setting

Salve regina

6

M xvi, 104

alternatim setting

Salve sancta facies/Homo quidam

4

M xvi, 119

c.f. plainchant resp for Corpus Christi

Si sumpsero

3

M xvi, 134

also attrib. Agricola

Vita dulcedo

 

 

incipit of polyphony in 4-v and 6-v Salve regina

secular works


Adiu, adiu

 

 

alternative incipit of Meiskin es u in I-Fn Magl.XIX.178


Als al de weerelt in vruechden leeft

4

M xvii, 1

text incipit only

Den haghel ende die calde snee

4

M xvii, 5

text incipit only

Fors seulement

4

M xvii, 66

c.f. T (top v) of Ockeghem’s chanson

Fuga

4

M xvii, 100

probably instrumental; canon 3 in 1 + semibreves only in sixfold augmentation

Helas

 

 

alternative incipit for Nec michi nec tibi in I-PEc 431

Helas mon bien

3

M xvii, 71

text incipit only


Ic draghe de mutse clutse

4

M xvii, 8

text incipit only

Ic hoerde de clocskins luden

4

M xvii, 12

text incipit only

Ic ret my uut spacieren

4

M xvii, 17

text incipit only; ? on monophonic song

Ic weinsche alle scoene vrauwen eere

4

M xvii, 20

also attrib. Stoltzer

In hebbe gheen ghelt in mijn bewelt

4

M xvii, 23

 

J’ay pris amours

4

M xvii, 73

on Dc and T of anon. chanson

Lacen adieu, wel zoete partye


4

M xvii, 27

text incipit only; melodic texture untypical

Laet u ghenoughen liever Johan

4

M xvii, 30

text incipit only; c.f. also used in Weerbecke’s ‘O salutaris hostia’

La tortorella è semplice uccelletto

4

M xvii, 94

? on monophonic song

Ma bouche rit

4

M xvii, 84

c.f. T of 1st part of Ockeghem’s chanson; possibly a mass section

Marion la doulce

3

M xvii, 86

 

Meiskin es u cutkin ru

4

M xvii, 35

 

Moet my lacen u vriendelic schijn


3

M xvii, 36

questioned in M: melodic treatment untypical

Nec michi nec tibi

2/3

M xvii, 97

probably instrumental; Ct added; text (?title) from 1 Kings iii: 26; also attrib. ‘Virgilius’

Rompeltier

4

M xvii, 38

on monophonic tune preserved with various German texts; questioned in M: attrib. weak, textural monotony untypical

Se bien fait

4

M xvii, 89

text incipit only

Sullen wij langhe in drucke moeten leven

3/4

M xvii, 40

text incipit only; A possibly added

Tandernaken

3


M xvii, 42

text incipit only; on monophonic dance or instrumental tune

Tant que nostre argent dura

4

M xvii, 92

text incipit only; on ?monophonic chanson

Tmeiskin was jonck wel van passe

3/4

M xvii, 45

Ct added; also attrib. Isaac, Japart

Tsat een cleyn meiskin

4

M xvii, 48

text incipit only

Waer sij di Han?

4

M xvii, 53

text incipit only

Wat willen wij metten budel spelen

4

M xvii, 57

text incipit only

Weet ghij wat mijnder jonghen hert deert

4


M xvii, 62

text incipit only; questioned in M: dissonance treatment and form untypical

[textless] (i)

3

M xvii, 102

instrumental piece, possibly mass section

[textless] (ii)

3

M xvii, 104

c.f. not identified; instrumental piece, possibly mass section

[textless] (iii)

3

M xvii, 108

c.f. not identified; instrumental piece, possibly mass section

[textless] (iv)

3

M xvii, 111

probably conceived as a song

[textless] (v)

?3

M xvii, 114

only B extant

doubtful and misattributed works







 





Incipit or Title

No. of Parts

Edition

 





Benedictus

2

M xviii, 31

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :

G. de Baena: Arte novamente inventada (Lisbon, 1540)






 

Remarks :

intabulation of duo from unidentified mass; unique source suspect






Judea et Jerusalem

4

M xviii, 1

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



D-Dlb 1D/505





 

Remarks :

chant treatment, form untypical; possibly by Issac







Passio Domini nostri Jesu Christi

4

M xviii, 9

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :

15381 and dependent MSS






 

Remarks :

probably by Longueval; also attrib. ‘Jo. ala Venture’, La Rue






Pater noster

4

W vi, 131

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



D-LEu Thomaskirche 49, 51






 

Remarks :

by Willaert; ed. in CMM, iii/2 (1950), 10






Si dedero (i)

3

M xii, p.xvii

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :

153613, 15389 (D-Bhm copy)







 

Remarks :

by Agricola; also attrib. Isaac, Verbonnet; see Picker (1965), pp.161–2






Si dedero (ii)

3

M xviii, 48

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :

G. de Baena: Arte novamente inventada (Lisbon, 1540)






 

Remarks :

intabulation of work based on Agricola’s motet; parody in motet untypical of Obrecht, and he is unlikely to have composed two masses on Si dedero






Si oblitus fuero

4

W vi, 97

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



D-Dlb 1/D/505






 

Remarks :

by Ninot le Petit; see Smijers (1935)






Een vraulic wesen

3/4


W vii, 61

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



CH-SGs 462, 463






 

Remarks :

3 original vv probably by Isaac; also attrib. Barbireau; added A possibly by Obrecht (alternative added Ct not ascribed to him)






La stangetta

3

W vii, 45

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



D-Z LXXVIII, 3






 

Remarks :

probably by Weerbecke; also attrib. Isaac






Mijn hert heeft altijt verlanghen

4

W vii, 64

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



CH-SGs 463





 

Remarks :

by La Rue; see Picker (1965), p.122







O vos omnes

4

W vi, 173

 

Sources of attribution to Obrecht :



CH-SGs 463






 

Remarks :



by Compère (with primary text O devotz cueurs or Tant ay d’ennuy); see Picker (1965), p.143






Obrecht, Jacob

BIBLIOGRAPHY


AmbrosGM

Grove6 (E.H. Sparks)

LockwoodMRF

MGG1(L. Finscher)

ReeseMR

biography


A.C. de Schrevel: Histoire du Séminaire de Bruges (Bruges, 1883–95)

A. Smijers: ‘Jacob Obrecht’, TVNM, xii/1 (1926), 63–6

A. Pirro: ‘Obrecht à Cambrai’, TVNM, xii/2 (1927), 78–80

A. Piscaer: ‘Jacob Obrecht’, Sinte Geertruydsbronnen, xv (1938)

A. Piscaer: ‘Jacob Obrecht, geboortendatum en andere bijzonderheeden’, Mens en melodie, vii (1952), 329–33

B. de Keyzer: ‘Jacob Obrecht en zijn vader Willem: de Gentse relaties’, Mens en melodie, viii (1953), 317–19


B. Murray: ‘Jacob Obrecht’s Connection with the Church of Our Lady in Antwerp’, RBM, xi (1957), 125–33

B. Murray: ‘New Light on Jacob Obrecht’s Development: a Biographical Study’, MQ, xliii (1957), 500–516

E. Sindona: ‘E Hubert Naich e non Jacob Hobrecht il compagno cantore del Verdelot nel quadro della Galleria Pitti’, AcM, xxix (1957), 1–9

R.B. Lenaerts: ‘Jacob Obrecht’, Musica, xv (1961), 255–8

L.G. van Hoorn: Jacob Obrecht (The Hague, 1968)

L. Lockwood: ‘Music at Ferrara in the Period of Ercole I d’Este’, Studi musicali, i (1972), 101–31

K.K. Forney: ‘Music, Ritual and Patronage at the Church of Our Lady, Antwerp’, EMH, vii (1987), 1–57

R.C. Wegman: ‘Music and Musicians at the Guild of Our Lady in Bergen op Zoom, c1470–1510’, EMH, ix (1989), 175–249

D. de Vos: ‘Een belangrijk portret van Jacob Obrecht ontdekt’, Jaarboek: Stad Brugge, Stedelijke Musea, v (1989–90), 192–209

R.C. Wegman: ‘Het “Jacob Hobrecht” portret: enkele biografische observaties’, Musica antiqua, viii (1991), 152–4

other studies


P. Wagner: Geschichte der Messe, i (Leipzig, 1913/R)

O. Gombosi: Jacob Obrecht: eine stilkritische Studie (Leipzig, 1925/R)


H. Besseler: ‘Von Dufay bis Josquin: ein Literatur-Bericht’, ZMw, xi (1928–9), 1–22

A. Smijers: ‘De Mattheus-Passie van Jacob Obrecht’, TVNM, xiv/3 (1935), 182–4

A. Smijers: ‘Vijftiende en zestiende eeuwsche muziekhandschriften in Italië met werken van Nederlandsche componisten’, TVNM, xiv/3 (1935), 165–81, esp. 180

W. Stephan: Die burgundisch-niederländische Motette zur Zeit Ockeghems (Kassel, 1937/R)

O. Strunk: ‘Origins of the L’homme armé Mass’, BAMS, ii (1937), 25–6

W.R. Nef: ‘Der St Galler Organist Fridolin Sicher und seine Orgeltabulatur’, Schweizerisches Jb für Musikwissenschaft, vii (1938) [whole issue]

M. van Crevel: ‘Verwante sequensmodulaties bij Obrecht, Josquin en Coclico’, TVNM, xvi/2 (1941), 107–24

A. Smijers: ‘Twee onbekende motetteksten van Jacob Obrecht’, TVNM, xvi/2 (1941), 129–34

H. Hewitt, ed.: O. Petrucci: Harmonice musices odhecaton A (Cambridge, MA, 1942/R)

A. Smijers: ‘Het motet “Mille quingentis” van Jacob Obrecht’, TVNM, xvi/3 (1942), 212–15

M. Bukofzer: ‘Caput: a Liturgico-Musical Study’, Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music (New York, 1950), 217–310

A. Smijers: ‘De Missa carminum van Jacob Hobrecht’, TVNM, xvii/3 (1951), 192–4


M. Kyriazis: Die Cantus firmus-Technik in den Messen Obrechts (Berne, 1952)

B. Meier: ‘Die Harmonik im Cantus firmus-haltigen Satz des 15. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, ix (1952), 27–44; Eng. trans. in Counterpoint and Compositional Process in the Time of Dufay, ed. K.N. Moll (New York, 1997), 149–70

B. Meier: Studien zur Messkomposition Jacob Obrechts (diss., U. of Freiburg, 1952)

B. Meier: ‘Zyklische Gesamtstruktur und Tonalität in den Messen Jacob Obrechts’, AMw, x (1953), 289–310

M. Antonowycz: ‘Renaissance-Tendenzen in der Fortuna-desperata-Messen von Josquin und Obrecht’, Mf, ix (1956), 1–26

H. Hewitt: ‘A Study in Proportions’, Essays on Music in Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison (Cambridge, MA, 1957), 69–81

M. van Crevel: Introduction to Jacob Obrecht: Opera omnia, editio altera, i/6–7 (Amsterdam, 1959–64)

A. Salop: The Masses of Jacob Obrecht (1450–1505): Structure and Style (diss., Indiana U., 1959)

L. Lockwood: ‘A Note on Obrecht’s Mass “Sub tuum praesidium”’, RBM, xiv (1960), 30–39

E.H. Sparks: Cantus Firmus in Mass and Motet, 1420–1520 (Berkeley, 1963)

A. Salop: ‘Jacob Obrecht and the Early Development of Harmonic Polyphony’, JAMS, xvii (1964), 288–309


M. Picker: The Chanson Albums of Marguerite of Austria (Berkeley, 1965)

J.A. Bank: ‘Some Comments on the Transcription of “Pleni sunt coeli” in Jacob Obrecht’s Missa Maria zart’, TVNM, xx/3 (1966), 170–77

K. Vellekoop: ‘Zusammenhänge zwischen Text und Zahl in der Kompositionsart Jacob Obrechts: Analyse der Motette Parce Domine’, TVNM, xx/3 (1966), 97–119

C. Dahlhaus: ‘Zu Marcus van Crevels neuer Obrecht-Ausgabe’, Mf, xx (1967), 425–30

W. Elders: Studien zur Symbolik in der Musik der alten Niederländer (Bilthoven, 1968)

J.E. Buning-Jurgens: ‘More about Jacob Obrecht’s Parce Domine’, TVNM, xxi/3 (1970), 167–9

A. Dunning: Die Staatsmotette, 1480–1555 (Utrecht, 1970)

R. Nowotny: Mensur, cantus firmus, Satz in den Caput-Messen von Dufay, Ockeghem und Obrecht (diss., U. of Munich, 1970)

M.E. Nagle: The Structural Role of the Cantus Firmus in the Motets of Jacob Obrecht (diss., U. of Michigan, 1972)

M. Staehelin: ‘Möglichkeiten und praktische Anwendung der Verfasserbestimmung an anonym überlieferten Kompositionen der Josquin-Zeit’, TVNM, xxiii/2 (1973), 79–91

M. Just: Der Mensuralkodex Mus.ms.40021 der Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz Berlin (Tutzing, 1975)


M. Staehelin: ‘Obrechtiana’, TVNM, xxv/1 (1975), 1–37

C.J. Maas: ‘Towards a New Obrecht Edition: a Preliminary Worklist’, TVNM, xxvi (1976), 84–108

T. Noblitt: ‘Problems of Transmission in Obrecht’s Missa Je ne demande’, MQ, lxiii (1977), 211–23

T.R. Ward: ‘Another Mass by Obrecht?’, TVNM, xxvii (1977), 102–8

R.L. Todd: ‘Retrograde, Inversion, Retrograde-Inversion, and Related Techniques in the Masses of Obrecht’, MQ, lxiv (1978), 50–78

R.D. Ross: ‘Toward a Theory of Tonal Coherence: the Motets of Jacob Obrecht’, MQ, lxvii (1981), 143–64

T. Noblitt: ‘Chromatic Cross-Relations and Editorial Musica ficta in Masses of Obrecht’, TVNM, xxxii (1982), 30–44

T. Noblitt: ‘Obrecht’s Missa sine nomine and its Recently Discovered Model’, MQ, lxviii (1982), 102–27

C. Broekhuijsen: Obrecht in Missa? (thesis, U. of Amsterdam, 1983)

M. Bent: ‘Diatonic Ficta’, EMH, iv (1984), 1–48

R. Strohm: Music in Late Medieval Bruges (Oxford, 1985, 2/1990)

B. Hudson: ‘Two Ferrarese Masses by Jacob Obrecht’, JM, iv (1985–6), 276–302

M.J. Bloxam: A Survey of Late Medieval Service Books from the Low Countries: Implications for Sacred Polyphony, 1460–1520 (diss., Yale U., 1987)


B. Hudson: ‘Obrecht’s Tribute to Ockeghem’, TVNM, xxxvii (1987), 3–13

B. Hudson: ‘On the Texting of Obrecht’s Masses’, MD, xlii (1988), 101–27

A. Leszczyńska: ‘Kadencja w fakturze motetów Jacoba Obrechta’, Muzyka, xxxiii/2 (1988), 41–51

M. Picker: Johannes Ockeghem and Jacob Obrecht: a Guide to Research (New York, 1988)

W. Elders: ‘The Performance of Cantus Firmi in Josquin’s Masses based on Secular Monophonic Song’, EMc, xvii (1989), 330–41

R.C. Wegman: ‘Another “Imitation” of Busnoys’s Missa L’homme armé – and some Observations on Imitatio in Renaissance Music’, JRMA, cxiv (1989), 189–202

M.J. Bloxam: ‘Sacred Polyphony and Local Traditions of Liturgy and Plainsong: Reflections on Music by Jacob Obrecht’, Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony, ed. T.F. Kelly (Cambridge, 1992), 140–77

M.J. Bloxam: ‘Plainsong and Polyphony for the Blessed Virgin: Notes on Two Masses by Jacob Obrecht’, JM, xii (1994), 51–75

R.C. Wegman: Born for the Muses: the Life and Masses of Jacob Obrecht (Oxford, 1994)

R.C. Wegman: ‘From Maker to Composer: Improvisation and Musical Authorship in the Low Countries, 1450–1500’, JAMS, xlix/3 (1996), 409–79




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