(b Trapani, Sicily, 1543; d Palermo, Dec 1623). Italian composer. According to Di Ferro he studied in Palermo at an early age; he spent the rest of his career there and on 7 June 1574 was appointed temporary fife player to the senate. His position, which he held until 21 March 1586, was made permanent on 29 July 1581. The dedication of the now lost Primo libro de madrigali a sei voci (Venice, 1586; MischiatiI; JoãoIL) stated that he was then maestro di cappella of the Accademia degli Uniti in Palermo. On 31 August 1593 he was appointed, by viceregal decree back-dated to 3 April, organist to the royal Palatine chapel, a post he held until his death.
Oristagno’s Primo libro de madrigali a cinque voci (Venice, 1588), his only complete surviving publication, closes with an Airo [sic] sopra il pass’e mezo and a ten-voice echo madrigal. The style is characterized, as in the music of Pietro Vinci, by continuous variations of mode and final. But Oristagno’s melodies are shorter-breathed than Vinci’s and are often broken up into short motifs that can assume thematic importance, as, for example, in Amatemi ben mio. Of a volume of four-part sacred music, Responsoria nativitatis et epiphaniae Domini (Palermo, 1602) only the cantus part survives (S Paul Cathedral, Malta, see Ficola). The lost anthology Infidi lumi (Venice, 1603) also contained one madrigal by Oristagno.
A.Mongitore: Bibliotheca Sicula, i (Palermo, 1708/R), 415
G.B.Caruso, ed.: Rime degli accademici accesi di Palermo (Palermo, 1726), ii, 177–95
G.M.Di Ferro: Biografia degli uomini illustri trapanesi, i (Trapani, 1830), 174–6
O.Tiby: ‘The Polyphonic School in Sicily of the 16th–17th Century’, MD, v (1951), 203–11
O.Tiby: ‘La musica nella Real Cappella Palatina di Palermo’, AnM, vii (1952), 177–92, esp. 188
O.Tiby: I polifonisti siciliani del XVI e XVII secolo (Palermo, 1969), 66ff
L.Bianconi: ‘Sussidi bibliografici per i musicisti siciliani del Cinque e Seicento’, RIM, vii (1972), 3–38
D.Ficola: ‘Stampe musicali siciliane a Malta’, Musica sacra in Sicilia tra Rinascimento e Barocco: Caltagirone 1985, 69–86, esp. 78
A term (from the Dut. orkest: ‘orchestra’) used throughout Indonesia and parts of Malaysia for a variety of relatively recent instrumental groups. It is most common in Minahasa, North Sulawesi, where it refers to any kind of instrumental ensemble. The orkes bambu melalu or orkes bambu suling comprises about 12 to 20 suling (bamboo flutes) and trumpets. It has become known as a national Indonesian ensemble under the name ‘Musik bambu’. Similar ensembles are called pompang in Ambon, Maluku, and bas-suling in the Toraja area of Central Sulawesi. The orkes bambu seng consists of about 20 bamboo and zinc flutes and trumpets. Other ensembles found in Minahasa include the orkes bia, an ensemble of about 20 conch-shell trumpets of various sizes, which have holes pierced in the shells to control pitch and volume; orkes kolintang, an orchestra of xylophones; orkes oli, comprising two oli (jew's harps), one arababu (fiddle), two sasahaeng (bamboo idiophone-aerophones) and two bansi (duct flutes); and the orkes papurungan, an ensemble consisting of bia, rebana (frame drum) or gendang (double-headed cylindrical drum), kolintang, bansi and six sizes of momongan (gong). In the Ngada area of Flores and on Lembata island, the orkes suling consists of at least 40 bamboo ring flutes in six sizes and two drums.
Ensembles are often used on specific occasions such as accompanying theatre performances, festive occasions and weddings. Theatre ensembles include the orkes Abdul Muluk, which accompanies Abdul Muluk theatre shows on the South Sumatra and Jambi coasts, and the orkes lenong, which accompanies all-night lenong theatre performances in Jakarta, Java.
The orkes penggual of the Karo area of North Sumatra is used to accompany festive outdoor occasions, such as Independence Day celebrations. It consists of one large sarune (oboe) or biola, two gung (gongs), of which one is a gung penganak (small gong), two gendang Melayu (double-headed Malay drums) and a singer. It plays mostly popular Karo or Malay songs, often to accompany the Karo version of the Malay ronggeng dance as it is practised on the east coast of North Sumatra. The orkes gambus is found in Muslim areas of Malaysia and Indonesia, including the northern coast of Java and the coast of West Sumatra. It consists of gambus (lute), other string instruments, percussion and vocalists. The repertory consists of religious and love songs which generally show Middle Eastern influence.
The orkes Melayu plays harmonic music developed in the past few centuries in Malay-speaking coastal areas of Indonesia and Malaysia. It is also often referred to as dangdut (seeIndonesia, §VIII, 1) after the most common sound pattern of one of its drums; other recently developed ensembles include the orkes talempongof Padang Panjang, West Sumatra, a large modern orchestra mainly of bronze instruments, which was specially created for the academy and conservatory there.
MARGARET J. KARTOMI
Orkest van de Achttiende Eeuw
(Orchestra of the Eighteenth Century).
Orchestra based in Amsterdam, founded in 1981 by Frans Brüggen. SeeAmsterdam, §3.