(b Prague, 13 Sept 1930; d Prague, 4 April 1987). Czech composer. Born into an artistic family, she had a short but significant musical career. She studied the piano with Berta Kabeláčová, music theory with Jaroslav Řídký and composition with Emil Hlobil at the Prague Conservatory (1949–55), where her graduation composition, an acclaimed Piano Concerto, revealed her talent for concertante forms. She worked as an editor for the Supraphon music publishing house in Prague. She was married to the guitar player Milan Zelenka. Her guitar pieces show a delicate stylization: Passacaglia-Toccata won the prize at the international guitar competition in Paris in 1972, and Hommage à Béla Bartók was the compulsory piece for the 1975 competition.
Principal publishers: Max Eschig, Panton, Supraphon
A.I.Cohen: International Encyclopedia of Women Composers (New York, 1981, 2/1987)
A.Martínková: Čeští skladatelé současnosti [Czech contemporary composers] (Prague, 1985)
(b Frankfurt, 1955). German composer. After his musical studies in Mainz, he studied piano with Alfons and Aloys Kontarsky in Cologne (1977–82). As a pianist he was one of the founder members of the Frankfurt-based Ensemble Modern, one of the leading groups in contemporary European musical life; he played with them between 1981 and 1986. At the same time he embarked on a career as a composer specializing in electronic music. He worked in the electronic music studio of the Cologne Hochschule für Musik, and then obtained commissions from and spent periods of residence with electronic studios in Stockholm (Electronic Music Studio), Cologne (WDR), Bourges (Groupe de Musique Expérimentale), Freiburg (Strobel Foundation, SWF) and Paris (IRCAM). From 1986 to 1989 he was also one of Stockhausen’s preferred interpreters, and played the electronic keyboard in Stockhausen’s operatic cycle Licht. Several of his electro-acoustic works have won prizes, allowing him to embark on more extensive collaborations, in particular with IRCAM: the institute commissioned him to write the music for acoustic instruments and electronic sound to accompany the second part of Fritz Lang’s silent film of 1922, Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler, and IRCAM also took part in the electronic realization of his chamber opera Solaris, to a libretto by Stanislav Lem, which had its première at the Munich Biennale in 1996. In 1997 he took up a teaching appointment (professor of composition) at the Musikhochschule in Weimar.
metal drop music, 1980–81; YE-NA-JE, 1982, arr. synth, elec org, tape, 1984; Inside, 1981–2; Visioni di Medea, 1983; Kristallwelt (Teil I), 1983–5; Kristallwelt – Choral (Teil II), 1984–5; Kristallwelt (Teil III), 1985–6, arr. inst ens, tape, 1986; Intermède (für den Zyklus Kristallwelt), 1986; Kristallwelt (Teil IV), inst ens, tape, 1986; Ende gut, 1987; Poèmes, 1988; Belagerungszustand, 1989; Chansons (E. Fried), Mez, b cl/contrabass cl, synth, 2 perc, live elecs, tape, 1987, arr. Mez, tape, 1988, arr. Mez, 2 perc, tape, 1989; Poèmes, perc, tape, 1989; Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler: [I] Dr. Mabuse, der grosse Spieler, [II] Inferno (film score, F. Lang), insts, elec, 1990–93; Nachtstücke, ens, live elecs, 1990; Fábrica, 4 perc, elecs, 1995; Solaris (chbr op, S. Lem), Munich, 1996
Dramatic: Jedermann (incid music, H. von Hofmannsthal)
Other: Klavierstück 3, 1980; Resonanzen 1, vc, 1980; Traumlandschaften, 2 pf, 1981–8; Klavierstück 4, 1982; Klarinettenquartett, E-cl, 2 B-cl, b cl, 1984; Dialog, b cl, perc, 1985; Qt, fl, cl, eng hn, b cl, 1985, rev. of Klarinettenquartett: Miroirs (mid–late medieval French texts), 6vv, 1989; Poèmes, d’apres image en blanc et noir, large orch, 1990–92; Fresko, cl, trbn, vc, hp, pf, 1991; Nuances, fl, perc, 1991; Diaphonia, large orch, 1994
ERIC DE VISSCHER
(b Holešov, 1 March 1904; d Prague, 26 June 1964). Czech musicologist. He studied music in Vienna with Albert Pozděna and Ferdinand Löwe and musicology, aesthetics and history at Prague University (graduated 1932), where he took the doctorate in 1946 with a dissertation on Smetana's opera Libuše. He worked first for Czechoslovak Radio in Prague (1928–50) as editor, head of music broadcasting and director of programmes, and edited the music supplements of the periodicals Národní osvobození (1928–9), Radioamatér (1933–5), Volné směry (1940–43) and Rozhlasová práce (1947). He was an editor in the music department of the publishing firm Melantrich (1939–45), and also founded and edited the musical periodical Klíč (1930–34), which played an important part in Czech musical life by defending the musical avant garde between the wars (Stravinsky, Milhaud, Berg, Schoenberg, Hindemith, Janáček, Martinů, Hába etc). In this connection Očadlík worked in the Society for Modern Music based in Prague (1927–34). He founded (1956) and edited the scholarly journal Miscellanea musicologica.
Očadlík taught from 1948 at the Prague Academy, becoming head of the music theory department in 1951. In the same year he began lecturing at Prague University, where he became professor (1952), head of the department of musicology (1952–9), dean of the arts faculty (1954–8) and director of the Institute for Czech Music History (from 1959). He received the DSc in 1956.
Očadlík was one of the leading figures in Czech musicology of his time. His orientation and methodology were similar to Nejedlý's, but with more attention to stylistic analysis. His attention to detail and his interest in documentary matters, moreover, has meant that many of his works have retained their usefulness. Such works include his edition of Smetana's correspondence with Krásnohorská, his critical editions of four of Smetana's librettos (The Kiss, 1942; The Devil's Wall, 1946; The Bartered Bride, 1951; The Two Widows, 1962) and his valuable lists of Czech librettos and of Smetana's letters. Although Smetana dominated his output he never wrote a comprehensive account and instead concentrated in pursuing a career as a many-sided popularizer, writing many thousands of articles, radio programmes and lectures. His much-used concert guide, Svět orchestru, is typical of his accessible style.