(b c1650; d after 1704). Spanish friar and composer. From early 1673 he lived at the Augustinian friary in Madrid and for eight years carried on an active correspondence with his teacher Miguel de Irízar, maestro de capilla of Segovia Cathedral from 1671 to 1684. From 1702 until at least 1704 Ortiz de Zárate was maestro de capilla of the Mercedarian convent, Madrid. His letters contain much valuable information about the state of contemporary Spanish music; they reveal the wide use of villancicos, the difficulty of finding appropriate texts, the emphasis placed on high voices and the increasing vogue of music for ten or more parts. The compositions and activities of various Madrid musicians, including Juan Hidalgo, Cristóbal Galán, Mathías Ruiz, Carlos Patiño and Juan del Vado, are also mentioned. Three eight-part villancicos by him (one with an obbligato part for clarion) are in manuscript (D-Mbs).
J.J.Maier: Die musikalischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in Muenchen (Munich, 1879), 102–3
J.López-Calo: ‘Corresponsales de Miguel de Irízar’, AnM, xviii (1963), 197–222, esp. 198
Catálogo de villancicos y oratorios en la Bibliotheca Nacional: siglos XVIII–XIX (Madrid, 1990), 263ff
Orto, Marbrianus [Marbriano] de [Dujardin, Marbrianus]
(b Tournai, c1460; d Nivelles, Jan or Feb 1529). Franco-Flemish composer. Archival documents discovered by Jeremy Noble indicate that his surname was Dujardin, as Fétis had suspected, but he himself used the Latin form ‘de Orto’, as is shown by various autograph signatures. He was the illegitimate son of a priest; in papal registers he is called ‘citizen of Tournai’, and it is likely that he was born and received his early training there.
The earliest documents of his career name him as a member of the household of Ferry de Cluny, Cardinal-Bishop of Tournai, with whom he travelled to Rome in May to June 1482. Cardinal Ferry died in Rome in October 1483, and in December Orto was appointed a singer in the papal chapel of Sixtus IV. He continued to serve under Innocent VIII and Alexander VI until at least 1499. He was particularly favoured by Innocent VIII (1484–92), who awarded him many benefices and removed the impediment created by his illegitimacy. Orto obtained the lucrative post of procurator, allowing him to represent individuals from his own diocese of Tournai, as well as those in which he held canonries (Liège and Cambrai), at the papal court. In the papal chapel he worked closely with Josquin des Prez. In 1491–3 he and Josquin both sought certain benefices at churches in the diocese of Cambrai. The outcome is not known, but in 1494 Orto was appointed by Alexander VI to serve on a commission to assist Josquin in acquiring a canonry at Cambrai.
At some time between 1489 and 1496, while still a member of the papal chapel, Orto became dean of the collegiate church of Ste Gertrude in Nivelles. As spiritual head of the chapter of canons and canonesses, he eventually took up residence there and maintained a close connection with the community for the rest of his life. He bestowed many gifts on the church, the most lavish being a splendid bronze coffer designed to hold the saint’s reliquary (it is still displayed in the transept).
On 24 May 1505 Orto was appointed singer in the Habsburg-Burgundian chapel of Philip the Fair, who legitimized him. In late 1505 or 1506 Orto became premier chapelain and in this capacity he accompanied the court on Philip’s ill-fated voyage to Spain in 1506. The 17th-century historians Ryckel and Chifflet credited Orto with translating the medieval Latin Vita Gertrudis into French to fulfil a vow he made during the journey, but this translation does not survive.
After Philip's unexpected death in September 1506, Orto and other members of his chapel were retained in Spain by Juana, Philip's widow, until the dissolution of her court in August 1508. Returning to the Netherlands, Orto helped to reorganize the chapel for Philip's son Charles (later Charles V) under the regency of Philip’s sister, Margaret of Austria. A document of 1509 refers to him as ‘first chaplain of my gracious lord’ (i.e. Charles). From 1510 to 1517 he shared that office, on an alternating six-month basis, with Anthoine de Berghes.
In 1510 Orto was recorded as a canon at the church of Our Lady, Antwerp, and in 1513 as a canon at Ste Gudule, Brussels. Although his name is crossed out on the list of payments of Charles’s court on 21 June 1517, in a document dated 18 May 1518 he is called ‘councillor and first chaplain of Charles's chapel’ and in 1522 he was engaged for Charles's voyage to England and Spain. He died at Nivelles in 1529, possibly during the epidemic that ravaged the town in that year.
Until 1940, when Ste Gertrude suffered severe bomb damage, Orto’s tomb inscription could be seen in the pavement of the choir: ‘Here lies Marbrianus Orto, dean and canon of this church, who decorated it with the present bronze coffer and other gifts, February 1528’ [new style 1529].
Among his works the masses are the most important. All five published by Petrucci in Misse de Orto (Venice, 1505) are of the cantus-firmus type, but the treatment of the borrowed melodies is varied. Liturgical chants of the Ordinary are paraphrased in the tenor of the Missa dominicalis. Missa ‘L’homme armé’ presents the well-known tune schematically in various mensurations, diminution and transposition, generally in the tenor but sometimes in one or more of the other voices. Missa ‘La belle se sied’ treats the popular melody more freely, whereas Missa ‘Petita camusetta’(also called ‘Mi mi’) borrows only the first five notes of the tune, using them as head-motif and ostinato. Missa ‘J’ay pris amours’, with two different Credo settings, is built on both the tenor and superius of the anonymous chanson in a technique approaching that of the parody mass.
Like his masses, Orto’s motets are generally based on cantus firmi. The five-part Salve regis mater celebrates the election of Pope Alexander VI in 1492. Although anonymous in I-Rvat C.S.35, it is placed among Orto’s works in that manuscript and is almost certainly by him. His two hymn settings are included in Rvat C.S.15 together with hymns by Dufay and Josquin, and along with anonymous hymn settings in late 15th-century style. Gerber and Osthoff have suggested that Dufay’s hymn cycle (composed around 1430) was revised jointly by Josquin and Orto when both were members of the papal chapel.
Some of his chansons exhibit retrospective traits. D’ung aultre amer and Fors seulement are built on voices from rondeaux by Ockeghem, and the three-part rondeau Venus tu m'a pris is an accompanied duo in the Burgundian manner. Other chansons are more forward-looking: Je ne suis poinct, Mon mary m'a diffamée and Se je perdu mon amy treat popular tunes in lively imitation. Et il y a trois dames a Paris is similar; its homogeneous four-part texture, fluent imitation and attractive themes suggest the ‘modern’ French chanson style of the early 16th century. Standing apart among Orto’s works is Dulces exuviae, a setting of Dido’s lament from the Aeneid. Its chromatic inflections and expressive dissonance, evoking the tragic queen's grief and despair, make this one of the outstanding examples of musical humanism in the Renaissance.
F.X.Haberl: ‘Die römische “schola cantorum” und die päpstlichen Kapellsänger bis zur Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts’, VMw, iii (1887), 18–296; repr. as Bausteine für Musikgeschichte, iii (Leipzig, 1888/R)
G.van Doorslaer: ‘La chapelle musicale de Philippe le Beau’, Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art, iv (1934), 21–57, 139–65
H.Osthoff: ‘Vergils Aeneis in der Musik von Josquin des Prez bis Orlando di Lasso’, AMw, xi (1954), 85–102
R.Gerber: ‘Römische Hymnenzyklen des späten 15. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, xii (1955), 40–73; repr. in Zur Geschichte des mehrstimmigen Hymnus (Kassel, 1965), 63–95
A.-M.Bragard: ‘Musiciens flamands et wallons à la cour du pape Léon X’, Bulletin de l’Institut historique belge de Rome, xxxii (1960), 75–112
E.Brouette, ed.: Les ‘Libri annatarum’ pour les pontificats d’Eugène IV à Alexander VI, iv, Analecta Vaticano-Belgica, xxiv (Brussels and Rome, 1963)
M.Picker: The Chanson Albums of Marguerite of Austria (Berkeley, 1965)
H.Hewitt: ‘Fors seulement and the Cantus Firmus Technique of the Fifteenth Century’, Essays in Musicology in Honor of Dragan Plamenac, ed. G. Reese and R.J. Snow (Pittsburgh, 1969), 91–126
A.Dunning: Die Staatsmotette 1480–1555 (Utrecht, 1970)
J.Noble: ‘New Light on Josquin's Benefices’, Josquin des Prez: New York 1971, 76–102, esp. 89
R.Miller: The Musical Works of Marbriano de Orto (diss., Indiana U., 1974) [inc. edns of all securely attributed works which survive complete]
R.Sherr: The Papal Chapel ca. 1492–1513 and its Polyphonic Sources (diss., Princeton U.,1975)
M.Duggan: ‘Queen Joanna and her Musicians’, MD, xxx (1976), 73–95
E.Lowinsky: ‘Humanism in the Music of the Renaissance’, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, ix (1982), 87–220; repr. in Music in the Culture of the Renaissance and other Essays (Chicago, 1989), i, 154–218
A.Roth: ‘Primus in Petri aede Sixtus perpetuae harmoniae cantores introduxit’, Un pontificato ed una città: Sisto IV (1471–1484) [Rome 1984] (Vatican City, 1986), 217–41
R.Sherr: ‘Illibata Dei Virgo Nutrix and Josquin's Roman Style’, JAMS, xl (1988), 434–64; repr. in Music and Musicians in Renaissance Rome and Other Courts (Aldershot, 1999)
M.Picker: ‘The Career of Marbriano de Orto (ca. 1450–1529)’, Collectanea II: Studien zur Geschichte der päpstlichen Kapelle [Heidelberg 1989], ed. B. Janz (Vatican City, 1994), 529–57
A.Roth: ‘Liturgical (and Paraliturgical) Music in the Papal Chapel towards the End of the Fifteenth Century: A Repertory of Embryo’, Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome [Washington, 1993], ed. R. Sherr (Oxford, 1998), 125–137, esp. 133
R.Sherr: ‘A Biographical Miscellany: Josquin, Tinctoris, Obrecht, Brumel’, Musicologica humana: Studies in Honor of Warren and Ursula Kirkendale , ed. S. Gmeinwieser, D. Hiley and J. Riedlbauer (Florence, 1994), 65–73