(b Hessle, E. Yorks, 22 Feb 1943). British broadcaster and critic. He studied English at the University of Bristol (BA 1965, MLitt 1967) and in 1970 became a contributor to BBC Radio 3. In 1971 he began an association with the programme ‘Record Review’, of which he was the presenter from 1988 until it ceased to be broadcast in 1998. From 1967 to 1972 he was a reviewer for Records and Recording and since 1973 he has reviewed regularly for Gramophone. Since 1992 he has been the music critic for The Oldie. He also writes for Opera, the Times Literary Supplement and The Independent.
As a broadcaster and reviewer, Osborne is well known to a generation of musicians and their audiences. His Master Musicians monograph on Rossini (1986) was acclaimed for its scholarship and readability and is still the standard work in English on its subject. He has also written two books on Karajan, the second a sympathetic, detailed biography, rich in documentation, including assessments of every significant performance and recording.
‘Beethoven’, A Companion to the Symphony, ed. R. Layton (London, 1993), 80–106
Herbert von Karajan: a Life in Music (London, 1998)
Osculati, Giulio [Iulio; Osculatus, Iulius]
(b Lodi; d after 1615). Italian composer. About 1601 he entered the chapel of the Polish king, Zygmunt III, at Kraków, probably as a tenor; he left before 1614. His two collections of works dedicated to Polish patrons (1604–9), as well as one piece included in the collection Melodiae sacrae (ed. V. Lilius, Kraków, 1604), containing works by King Zygmunt's musicians, date from this period. He returned to Lodi, where in October 1614 he was maestro di cappella of the church of the Incoronata. The textures of his works are those of classic a cappella polyphony but they also include polychoral pieces, some of which were reprinted in anthologies and also copied into manuscripts. (See A. and Z.M. Szweykowski: Włosi w kapeli królewskiej polskich Wazów [Italians in the Chapel Royal of the Polish Vasa Kings]; Krakow, 1997.)
Missae, liber primus, 5vv (Venice, 1604)
Liber primus motectorum, 5–10, 12vv (Venice, 1609)
Sacra omnium solemnitatum vespertina psalmodia cum cantico Beatae Virginis Mariae tam vocibus quam instrumentis concinenda (Venice, 1615)
(bNuremberg, 15/16 Dec 1534; d Stuttgart, 17 Sept 1604). German theologian and composer. He was the son of the famous Nuremberg Protestant Andreas Osiander. His study of theology began after his father had moved to Königsberg, and continued in 1553 in Tübingen. After serving for three years as a deacon in Göppingen, he was promoted to the coveted position of Spezial-Superintendent in Blaubeuren (1558). In 1563 he became city pastor at St Leonhard's in Stuttgart and in 1569 court minister and member of the consistory in the same city. His position as private tutor to Prince Ludwig of Württemberg gave rise to certain difficulties with Ludwig's successor, Prince Friedrich. In 1594 he was appointed chaplain of the collegiate church in Stuttgart, and two years later prelate in Adelberg near Göppingen. As a result of a disagreement with the prince in 1599, however, he was exiled. From then until 1603, when he was allowed to return from exile, he was a cleric in Esslingen near Stuttgart.
In 1569 Osiander (then court minister) wrote the preface to Sigmund Hemmel's four-part Der gantz Psalter Davids, wie derselbig in teutsche Gesang verfasset; this expressed the intention of the collection to render the chorale melody ‘understandable to the entire Christian communion’. Hemmel's edition may have given Osiander the initial idea for his own Fünffzig geistliche Lieder und Psalmen mit vier Stimmen auff contrapunctsweise (für die Schulen und Kirchen in löblichen Fürstenthumb Würtenberg) also gesetzt, das eine gantze Christliche Gemein durchaus mit singen kann, published in Nuremberg in 1586 (modern edn by F. Zelle, Berlin, 1903; see also Schuler). The latter consists entirely of purely homophonic settings (contrapunctsweise) which might enable choir and congregation to sing together easily; as such it soon came to be used in Lutheran churches following Reformation precepts. The cantus firmus is placed in the soprano, unlike the Reformation metrical psalm settings in which the melody is given to the tenor. Osiander's settings, harmonized throughout with 5-3 chords, are of slight musical value, but the Kantionalsatz principle used here was taken up and improved by Raselius, Eccard, Franck, Vulpius and others up to and including Schein who published a Cantionale in 1627. The prefaces to many of these later works repeat Osiander's title almost word for word. The Kantionalsatz principle was later superseded by that of thoroughbass accompaniment. Two reports on organs that he wrote bear witness to his musical expertise in other directions.
MGG1 (W. Brennecke)
E.Emsheimer: ‘Lucas Osiander als Orgelbauer’, Musik und Kirche, iii (1931), 180–87, 236–43
E.Wolf: Der vierstimmige homophone Satz: die stilistischen Merkmale des Kantionalsatzes zwischen 1590 und 1630 (Wiesbaden, 1965)
L.E.Schuler: Lucas Osiander and his ‘Fünfftzig geistliche Lieder und Psalmen’: the Development and Use of the First Cantional (diss., Washington U., 1986)