A stanzaic form of Italian poetry often used by composers of the frottola. Each stanza consists of four iambic lines, the first three with seven syllables and the fourth, of varying length, with usually four, five or 11 syllables. In some examples the fourth line is identical with the first. All stanzas are linked by common rhymes, as in the scheme abbc cdde effg, or less frequently, aaab bbbc. The Italian oda bears no relation to the classical odes of Pindar or Horace but was thought, from the time of 15th-century poet-theorist Francesco Baratella, to represent the kind of ‘frottola’ decried by Landini in his madrigal Musica son (‘Musica son che mi doglio piangendo, / Veder gli effetti miei dolci et perfetti / Lasciar per frottol’i vagh’intelletti’). Musically, it comes close to the barzelletta in its lively rhythms and clear phrases (see, for example, Chi l’aria mai creduto by Marchetto Cara, 15092, with eight stanzas, in which the voices engage in simultaneous declamation). When the last line is short (e.g. with four syllables) it is usually absorbed into the phrase for line 3, thus three phrases for four lines as in the anonymous Audite vui fenestre, F-Pn Rés.Vm7 676, ff.54v–55. As in other stanzaic frottola types, music is supplied for the first stanza only. SeeFrottola, §2.
Odăgescu [Odăgescu-Ţuţuianu], Irina
(b Bucharest, 23 May 1937). Romanian composer and musicologist. After studying composition with Mendelsohn and Olah at the Bucharest Academy (1957–63), she became an editor for Editura Muzicală then taught at the Music Lyceum no.5. In 1965 Odăgescu became an assistant lecturer at the Academy, later rising to a professorial position. She studied in Darmstadt in 1972 and 1976. Her compositions blend world music traditions with more modern techniques including serialism. Characteristic elements of her scores include melodic lines of a modal character, blurred harmonic textures and a mood of lyrical contemplation which does not exclude moments of dramatic climax. In her later works, many for choir, she has employed cluster techniques. Odăgescu's writings include didactic books on score-reading.
Orch: Passagalia, 1966; Piscuri [Peaks], 1970; Improvizaţii dramatice, 1972; Momente, concertino, 1974; Bătălia cu facle [Battle with Torches], choreographic poem, 1977; Cântec înalt [High Song], choreographic poem, 1983
Chbr and solo inst: Variaţiuni pe o temă populară din Bihor [Variations on a Popular Theme from Bihor], pf, 1961; Str Qt, 1963; Sonata, vn, pf, 1967; Scherzo-Toccata, pf, 1968; Sonata, va, 1982; Muzică pentru 2 piane şi percuţie, 1983
Choral: Tinereţe [Youth] (M. Dumitrescu), chorus, orch, 1963; Oglindire [Mirroring] (Dumitrescu), 1970; Zi de lumină [Day of Light] (M. Negulescu), chorus, orch, 1974; De doi [Of Twos] (trad. text), 1976; Cântând plaiul Mioriţei [Singing the Realm of the Mioriţa], 1977; Rugul pâinii [The Stake of the Bread] (I. Cranguleanu), chorus, perc, 1977; Balada (I. Melinte), 1978; Pe nimb de vulturi [On a Circle of Vultures] (V. Voiculescu), 1981; Urare de dragoste [Good Wishes for Love] (trad. text), 1983; Iia românească [The Romanian Shirt] (trad. text), 1985; 7 cântece de nuntă [7 Wedding Songs] (trad. text), 1989; Tatăl nostru [Our Father], 1996
(b Siverić, nr Drniš, 20 March 1888; d Zagreb, 4 Nov 1965). Croatian composer. After some music lessons, with private teachers, Odak joined the Franciscan order in 1906, and when he arrived in Munich in 1911 to study theology, he continued studies in composition and organ with Hartmann (1912–13). After he left the order, he moved to Prague to study there at the conservatory with Novák (1919–22). He taught at the Zagreb Academy of Music (1922–61). His output, consisting of over 200 works, reflects the aesthetically diverse style typical of Croatian composers influenced by the modernism of the 1900s, the nationalist style prevalent between the two world wars, and the beginnings of the new music in the 1950s. All three stylistic trends are present in his works: the radical polyphony with extended tonality used in his early works, such as Radosna noć u gradu (‘A Merry Night in the Town’) (1922) and the Madrigal (first performed at the ISCM, Frankfurt, in 1929), hints of dodecaphony in his String Quartet no.5 (1962), the modality in his two Old Slavonic masses and numerous other sacred vocal compositions written in the period of his String Quartet no.2 (1927, which was well-received when the Amar-Hindemith Quartet performed it at the Festival of Chamber Music in Baden-Baden) and no.3 (1935), a well as the national style of Dorica pleše (1933) based on Croatian folklore. His fundamentally romantic Expressionism – outlined already in his op.1, the Violin Sonata (1922), awarded first prize at the diploma concert in Prague – provided a pointer towards polyphonic monumentality reminiscent of Reger and a certain programmatic element in his symphonies, particularly dominant in Symphony no.3 (1961).
Stage: Dorica pleše [Dancing Dorica] (op, 3, D. Vilović), op.18, 1933, Zagreb, 16 April 1934; Konac svijeta [Doomsday] (comic op, M. Fotez), op.40, 1944, unperf.; Majka Margarita [Mother Margaritha] (radio op, 1, V. Rabadan), op.60, 1953, Zagreb, 25 March 1955, staged 9 Feb 1957; Leptirica i mjesec [The Butterfly and the Moon] (ballet), 1958, Zagreb, 18 March 1959
K.Livljanć: ‘Odrednice skladateljstva Krste Odaka’ [The co-ordinates of Krsto Odak’s works], Arti musices, xix/2 (1988), 173–84
J.Vysloužil: ‘Hudební centrum Praha v době moderny a Vitězslava Novaka, učitele Krsto Odaka’ [Prague as a musical centre in the time of modernism and of Vitězslav Novák, the teacher of Krsto Odak], Zprávy společnosti Vítězslava Nováka, no.14 (1989), 19–24
E.Sedak, ed.: Krsto Odak: život i djelo [Krsto Odak: life and works] (Zagreb, 1998) [incl. complete list of works]