October 2011 Teacher's Guide Table of Contents



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October 2011 Teacher's Guide
Table of Contents



About the Guide 3

Student Questions 4

Answers to Student Questions (from the article) 6

ChemMatters Puzzle: Trail Blazing with the Elements 11

Answers to the ChemMatters Puzzle 13

NSES Correlation 14

Anticipation Guides 15

Sugar in the Blood Boosts Energy 16

Harnessing Solar Power 17

Demystifying Gross Stuff 18

The Skinny on Sweeteners: How Do They Work? 19

Fighting Bacteria 20

Sugar in the Blood Boosts Energy 22

Harnessing Solar Power 23

Students Build Solar Homes 23

Demystifying Gross Stuff 24

The Skinny on Sweeteners: How Do They Work? 25

Fighting Bacteria 26


Sugar in the Blood Boosts Energy 27

Background Information (teacher information) 27

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 33

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 34

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 34

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 34

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 35

References (non-Web-based information sources) 35

Web sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 36


Harnessing Solar Power 37

Background Information (teacher information) 37

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 43

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 44

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 44

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 45

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 46

References (non-Web-based information sources) 46

Web sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 47

Demystifying Gross Stuff 49

Background Information (teacher information) 49

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 63

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 63

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 64

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 64

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 66

References (non-Web-based information sources) 67

Web sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 69

The Skinny on Sweeteners: How Do They Work? 72

Background Information (teacher information) 72

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 80

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 81

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 81

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 82

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 82

References (non-Web-based information sources) 82

Web sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 83


Fighting Bacteria 85

Background Information (teacher information) 85

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 92

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 93

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 93

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 93

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 94

References (non-Web-based information sources) 94

Web sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 95

About the Guide

Teacher’s Guide editors William Bleam, Donald McKinney, Ronald Tempest, and Erica K. Jacobsen created the Teacher’s Guide article material. E-mail: bbleam@verizon.net


Susan Cooper prepared the national science education content, anticipation guides, and reading guides.
David Olney created the puzzle.

E-mail: djolney@verizon.net


Patrice Pages, ChemMatters editor, coordinated production and prepared the Microsoft Word and PDF versions of the Teacher’s Guide. E-mail: chemmatters@acs.org

Articles from past issues of ChemMatters can be accessed from a CD that is available from the American Chemical Society for $30. The CD contains all ChemMatters issues from February 1983 to April 2008.

The ChemMatters CD includes an Index that covers all issues from February 1983 to April 2008.
The ChemMatters CD can be purchased by calling 1-800-227-5558.
Purchase information can be found online at www.acs.org/chemmatters

Student Questions


Sugar in the Blood Boosts Energy


    1. According to the article, how much glucose does the body need every fifteen minutes?

    2. Name the elements that make up glucose.

    3. The article is about “blood sugar.” How much of our blood is actually glucose?

    4. How does the human body store glucose?

    5. Identify the phosphorus-containing molecules in the body that store and produce energy.



Harnessing Solar Power


  1. What are the two sources of electricity on the atoll of Utrik that are not based on fossil fuels?

  2. Cite three examples of fossil fuels.

  3. What is needed to change solar energy (sunlight) into electricity?

  4. Describe the function of the element silicon (Si) in a photovoltaic solar panel.

  5. What is the purpose of “doping” silicon in a photovoltaic (PV) panel?

  6. Name the two elements mentioned in the article that can be used as “p-type” dopants with silicon.

  7. What is meant by “n-type” dopant for silicon?

  8. How is a “p-n junction” created with dopants in silicon?

  9. What is the purpose or function of a “p-n junction” in a solar or PV cell?

  10. How does sunlight produce electricity in a solar or PV cell?
  11. What are two different ways by which the owner of a solar PV panel can get electricity at night when the sun is not shining on the solar panel?


  12. How can a PV solar panel make money for the panel’s homeowner?



Demystifying Gross Stuff


    1. What is responsible for most of the odors that emanate from your body?

    2. What is sebum?

    3. What are the two main causes of acne?

    4. What is the difference between a whitehead and a blackhead?

    5. How does soap clean your skin?

    6. What are micelles?

    7. Why does your breath smell worse upon waking?

    8. Why do cavities form?

    9. How does fluoride in mouthwash and toothpaste help to prevent cavities?

    10. Why do high-fiber foods contribute to flatulence?



The Skinny on Sweeteners: How Do They Work?


  1. On average, how much sucrose, or sugar, does an American consume in a year?

  2. Why are carbohydrates an excellent fuel for the human body?

  3. What are two negative health effects of sucrose?

  4. What was the first artificial sweetener? Who discovered it and when?

  5. What happens to saccharin in the body that makes it a calorie-free sweetener?

  6. What food products are especially suited for use with saccharin? Why?

  7. Even though aspartame does produce calories, why is it still beneficial for use as an artificial sweetener?

  8. What is a typical concern with artificial sweeteners? What has testing shown?



Fighting Bacteria


  1. What are antibiotics?

  2. Why is more than one antibiotic needed to treat some cases of bacterial infection?

  3. When did the use of antibiotics start?
  4. What is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic and what infections can it fight?


  5. How do penicillin medications fight bacterial infections?

  6. How does penicillin’s molecular structure make it highly reactive?

  7. What role does peptidoglycan play in the formation of bacterial cell walls?

  8. What role does transpeptidase play in formation of bacterial cell walls? How is it affected by penicillin?

  9. What do bacteria resistant to amoxicillin do to stop its action?

  10. How does Augmentin work to fight bacteria resistant to amoxicillin?

  11. What is one of the main reasons the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been increasing?





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