October 2013 Teacher's Guide Table of Contents

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October 2013 Teacher's Guide
Table of Contents



About the Guide 3

Student Questions (from the articles) 4

Answers to Student Questions (from the articles) 6

ChemMatters Puzzle: Fluster for Chemists 12

Answers to the ChemMatters Puzzle 13

National Science Education Standards (NSES) Correlations 15

Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Correlations 16

Anticipation Guides 19

Chilling Out, Warming Up: How Animals Survive Temperature Extremes 20

Why Cold Doesn’t Exist 21

Sports Supplements: Helpful or Harmful? 22

The Fracking Revolution 23

Nuclear Fusion: The Next Energy Frontier? 24

Chilling Out, Warming Up: How Animals Survive Temperature Extremes 26

Why Cold Doesn’t Exist 27

Sports Supplements: Helpful or Harmful? 28

The Fracking Revolution 29

Nuclear Fusion: The Next Energy Frontier? 30

Keeping Cool, Staying Warm: How Animals Survive Temperature Extremes 31

Background Information (teacher information) 31

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 51

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 52

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 54

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 54

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 57

References (non-Web-based information sources) 57

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 59


Why Cold Doesn’t Exist 63

Background Information (teacher information) 63

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 76

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 77

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 77

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 77

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 78

References (non-Web-based information sources) 79

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 79

Sports Supplements: Helpful or Harmful? 81

Background Information (teacher information) 81

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 97

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 98

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 98

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 99

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 99

References (non-Web-based information sources) 99

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 100

The Fracking Revolution 103

Background Information (teacher information) 103

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 110

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 111

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 111

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 113

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 114

References (non-Web-based information sources) 115

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 116


Nuclear Fusion: The Next Energy Frontier? 119

Background Information (teacher information) 119

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 140

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 140

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 141

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 142

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 145

References (non-Web-based information sources) 146

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 147

About the Guide

Teacher’s Guide editors William Bleam, Donald McKinney, Ronald Tempest, and Erica K. Jacobsen created the Teacher’s Guide article material. E-mail: bbleam@verizon.net


Susan Cooper prepared the national science education content, anticipation guides, and reading guides.
David Olney created the puzzle.

E-mail: djolney@verizon.net


Patrice Pages, ChemMatters editor, coordinated production and prepared the Microsoft Word and PDF versions of the Teacher’s Guide. E-mail: chemmatters@acs.org

Articles from past issues of ChemMatters can be accessed from a CD that is available from the American Chemical Society for $30. The CD contains all ChemMatters issues from February 1983 to April 2008.

The ChemMatters CD includes an Index that covers all issues from February 1983 to April 2008.
The ChemMatters CD can be purchased by calling 1-800-227-5558.
Purchase information can be found online at www.acs.org/chemmatters

Student Questions (from the articles)


Keeping Cool, Staying Warm: How Animals Survive Temperature Extremes


    1. List three ways camels have adapted to their environment.

    2. Why are almost all large animals warm-blooded?

    3. Explain the role that shape has in determining whether an animal is warm- or cold-blooded. Give examples.

    4. According to the author, how has the human species adapted to environmental conditions of temperature?

    5. List one disadvantage and one advantage of being warm-blooded.

    6. Since the internal temperature of cold-blooded animals approximates that of their surroundings, how do they avoid freezing to death in very cold surroundings?

    7. List four examples of insulation in warm-blooded animals.

    8. Explain the countercurrent heat exchange process.

    9. How does sweating help a person maintain a fairly constant internal body temperature when the body gets hot?

    10. List three ways animals maintain their body temperature in the heat.



Why Cold Doesn’t Exist


    1. What happens when an ice cube is added to a soft drink?

    2. What is the rule about how energy is transferred between two objects that are in contact?

    3. (T-F / Explain) All particles of a substance have the same kinetic energy.
    4. What is the definition of temperature?


    5. Name the three kinds of motion that a particle can have.

    6. Describe the results of collisions between faster-moving particles and slower-moving particles.

    7. What term is applied to the situation in which energy has been transferred from faster particles to slower ones and as a result the particles end up traveling at the same speed?

    8. Explain why evaporation of a liquid from our skin makes us feel cooler.



Sports Supplements: Helpful or Harmful?


    1. What are some of the benefits claimed on sports supplement labels?

    2. Which three frequently used sports supplements are highlighted in the article?

    3. What is an argument for using whey protein powder?

    4. What is an argument against using whey protein powder?

    5. What is an argument for using creatine?

    6. What is an argument against using creatine?

    7. What is an argument for using L-arginine?

    8. What is an argument against using L-arginine?

    9. What is some advice for how to decide whether or not to take a supplement and which sports supplements are useful and safe?


The Fracking Revolution


    1. What is the meaning of the word “fracking”?

    2. What is involved in the new technique called fracking?

    3. What are the several steps that are followed when fracking takes place?

    4. When the fracking fluid returns to the surface from a gas well, what new chemicals are found in it besides methane gas?

    5. How is fracking wastewater processed after it returns to the surface from a well?
    6. If methane gas contaminates well water (drinking water), how can the source of the methane be determined, i.e., that it came from a natural gas well rather than from bacterial action in the soil around the water well?


    7. What is the concern about injecting waste water from the fracking operations into so-called injection wells?



Nuclear Fusion: The Next Energy Frontier?


    1. List three reasons that fusion is considered the ultimate energy source.

    2. What form of energy does the fusion reaction produce, and what will be the ultimate form of energy we use from the fusion reaction?

    3. What constitutes “success” in the race to achieve fusion?

    4. What is binding energy?

    5. How many protons and neutrons does tritium have?

    6. Why do scientists have such a tough time getting deuterium and tritium nuclei to get together to undergo fusion?

    7. Name the two approaches currently being used to create fusion energy.

    8. Describe the difference between these two approaches.

    9. What is plasma?

    10. How does the heat of fusion become useful energy?

    11. What is the difference between the plasma in a plasma TV and the plasma of a fusion reaction?




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