This page from the “Astronomy Hyper Textbook” Web site provides QuickTime animated versions of the individual steps in the proton-proton chain. Although the animated reactions go fast (even on the “slow” scale), you can click and drag the cursor across the progress bar of each animation to focus on individual parts or sequences. (http://zebu.uoregon.edu/textbook/energygen.html)
http://www.physics.mun.ca/~jjerrett/protonproton/pp.htmlThis one page isn’t quite as flashy as the one above showing the proton-proton chain, but the animation is slower and easier to follow.
NASA has a Web site called Cosmicopia, and a page of that site contains “Nucleosynthesis in the News”, a series of more than 100 news articles in reverse chronological order, dating back to 1998. (http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/nucleo.html)
In fusion reactors/experiments—See below.
View http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fusion for a much more detailed discussion of fusion.
This page from HyperPhysics shows equations for various fusion reactions: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/%E2%80%8Chbase/nucene/fusion.html.
DocBrown’s Chemistry Web site has a page with a series of simple fusion equations, if you need more examples: http://www.docbrown.info/page03/3_54radio08.htm#heavy.
More sites on the fundamental forces of nature This single page from Carnegie Mellon University describes the four fundamental forces and summarizes their effects in a table: http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/environ/m3/s3/06forces.shtml.
HyperPhysics at Georgia State University offers a page describing the four fundamental forces of nature at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/funfor.html.
This site provides a student-prepared basic PowerPoint describing the four fundamental forces of nature. My only hang-up is that she calls the strong nuclear force the “strong atomic force”. You can’t get directly to this PowerPoint, but if you go to the Bing search page below, it will take you to a page of listings of “fundamental forces”: http://www.bing.com/search?q=fundamental+forces+science&qs=n&pq=fundamental+forces+science&sc=0-0&sp=-1&sk=&first=15&FORM=PERE. Then click on the title “Fundamental Forces”—NOT the one from Georgia State University, although that’s a good one also; see above. Under the correct title you’ll see schools.nashua.edu/.../forces/Fundamental%20Forces.ppt When the dialog box appears, you have two choices, save or open. If you save it you can avoid the domain name/password box. Or if you click “Open”, you can just hit cancel when it asks for domain name/password and it will take you right to the slide presentation.
The Khan Academy has a 10-minute video lecture on the four fundamental forces at http://www.khanacademy.org/science/cosmology-and-astronomy/universe-scale-topic/light-fundamental-forces/v/four-fundamental-forces.
More sites on history of fusion research
This site contains the 1999 24-page paper “Reflections on Fusion’s History and Implications for Fusion’s Future” by Robert Conn, of the Fusion Energy Research Program at the University of California, San Diego. It summarizes in great detail the history of fusion, essentially since the end of World War II. (http://fire.pppl.gov/3.Conn.pdf)
Here is a timeline detailing many of the giant and even small steps realized by fusion scientists:/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_nuclear_fusion.
A timeline of research efforts at Princeton University, involved with fusion research since 1951 and home of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), can be found here: http://pppl-edit.princeton.edu/about/history/timeline.
More sites onbinding energy HyperPhysics has a one-page site on binding energy that also calculates and compares energy output by fission and fusion for equal masses of fuel inputs at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html.
The schoolphysics Web site has a page that discusses binding energy. They provide the same binding energy graph two ways—one right side up and one upside down. The idea behind it is that the first way it shows how much energy it takes to split the nucleus, and the other way it shows how much energy is given off when the nucleus forms. (http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age16-19/Nuclear%20physics/Nuclear%20structure/text/Binding_energy_per_nucleon/index.html)
This site from Miami Dade College, discusses “magic numbers” of nucleons and how they have added stability. It also shows calculations for two mass defect problems: http://www.mdc.edu/kendall/chmphy/nuclear/nucplus.htm.
More sites on isotopes
Scientific Instrument Services’ Web page contains a complete list of all isotopes of all elements, arranged alphabetically or by atomic number, and an interactive periodic table that shows the isotopes of each element and their relative abundance: http://www.sisweb.com/mstools.htm.
More sites onprotium/deuterium/tritium This page from Science Daily reports on “Ultra-Dense Deuterium May be Nuclear Fuel of the Future: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090511181356.htm. It seems logical that this very dense material could help fusion researchers, who are trying to compress nuclei in high-temperature, high-pressure scenarios.
More sites on plasma This page from Plasma.org provides a nice photo of plasma contained within the Princeton tokamak reactor: http://www.plasmas.org/rot-energy.htm.
This page from the site above gives good background information on plasmas: http://www.plasmas.org/index.html.
More sites on fusion Here is a ~20-minute video (1996) from General Atomics. It is a bit slow and basic, and perhaps “middle school-ish”, but it explains fusion well, relates it to the sun, compares chemical to nuclear reactions, shows plasma and magnetic control, and mentions ITER at the end of the video. It nicely explains through animation why the torus is the shape of choice for magnetic plasma control. (http://fusioned.gat.com/images/nature_energy_source.mp4) You may be able to pull clips out for classroom use.
Also from General Atomics, this site allows you to tour through a virtual Tokamak reactor vessel: http://fusioned.gat.com/virtual_dIII_d.html. It will require you to download a VRML plug-in, which is available right on the screen. Once inside the tokamak, you can move around and see inside and outside the structure.
A short 3:30-minute video from Dr. Richard Moyer of the Center for Energy Research at the University of California, San Diego very basically describes the fusion reaction and why we need fusion power. (http://cer.ucsd.edu/pages/outreach/video1.shtml)
This 28-minute video from the U.S. DOE archives (it is very dated, perhaps late 1980s, early 90s) covers the science and technology of fusion very completely. It includes onsite interviews with scientists at several tokamak and laser fusion research facilities, showing the actual machines. (http://energy.gov/articles/vintage-doe-what-fusion)
This site from HyperPhysics provides a concept map of Nuclear Energy with links that take you to various pages dealing with fission, fusion, and nuclear accidents: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nengcn.html#c1 CPEP, the Contemporary Physics Education Project, from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, offers a nice fusion chart, “Fusion—Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source”. This Web page shows the actual chart and is expandable so you can view minute details on the chart: http://www.cpepphysics.org/fusion_chart_view.html. You can print the chart on 8-1/2” x 11” paper, although you may need to resize it to fit. You can also view enlarged individual parts of the chart in pdf files as well and print those. The chart is available for sale in normal chart sizes as well through Ward’s Science, from the same Web page. There is also an instructor’s manual that accompanies the chart and can be purchased from Ward’s.
Here is another, much simpler poster depicting fusion, with a few fun facts, available for download (8-1/2” x 11”) from FusionEd (dated 1996): http://fusioned.gat.com/images/pdf/FusionPoster.pdf.
CPEP also offers an Online Fusion Course at http://fusedweb.llnl.gov/CPEP/. There are six topic pages, with each page providing links to myriad other sites for more information. The six pages deal with energy sources, key fusion reactions, how fusion works, conditions necessary for fusion, plasma, and achieving fusion conditions. This site is well worth investigating.
The October 2012 report “Assessment of Fusion Energy Options for Commercial Electricity Production” from the Electric Power Research Institute, cited in the “More on the history of fusion” is available for download here: http://cer.ucsd.edu/pages/outreach/video1.shtml.
This 9-minute video “Fusion 2100” from EFDA, the European Fusion Development Agreement, depicts a classroom of the future, with the teacher and class discussing fusion research and, naturally, everything is history of fusion research to the students. It nicely summarizes fusion developments, including the beginnings of ITER, and it gives some nice
sci-fi-like effects. It might hold your students’ interest. (http://www.efda.org/2011/08/fusion-2100/?view=vgallery-4)
EFDA, mentioned above, has an extensive Web site that offers many downloadable materials, including posters and animations. Its home page is: www.efda.org/.
More sites on how lasers work This site contains three different student/teacher interactive pages dealing with lasers: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl?Type=TOC.
Bob Becker gives students a very good, basic understanding of how lasers work in this “Question from the Classroom” article from the April 2003 issue of ChemMatters: http://portal.acs.org/portal/PublicWebSite/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/archive/CNBP_028409)
“Laser Fundamentals” provides more detail about how a laser works and gives descriptions of several different types of lasers: http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/laser/fundamhientals.htm.
More sites on National Ignition Facility (NIF) You can view a list of the videos available from the NIF here: https://lasers.llnl.gov/multimedia/video_gallery/ They include “How NIF Works” and “Take a Ride on a Beamline”, which shows in animation the path of the laser beams shot into the hohlraum, the fusion target, and the subsequent fusion blast.
This video from the Lawrence Livermore National Labs is actually in 3-D, provided you have 3-D glasses with which to view it. The video shows the NIF facility and a laser shot to make fusion happen: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qZGUy_S9Fo. It has no narration.
Edwin Moses of the NIF, presents a 54-minute plenary speech about the NIF plant at the CLEO 2009 Conference. It’s divided into 6 different approximately 9-minute-long video clips. The first is this one: Part 1 – National Ignition Facility: Exploring Matter Under Extreme Conditions at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mhlwwanlf7A. Each succeeding clip appears at the right in the upcoming videos. (Stick with the NIF following numbered parts, as other video parts appear there also.)
This may be the best of the video clips about NIF—short (5:22) and to the point. It includes information about the facility itself, and it shows the animated sequence of laser-firing and creating fusion in the target chamber. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=yixhyPN0r3g)
This series of four videos by Stevebd1 covers all angles of NIF. They play sequentially from the first one, or you can choose whichever you want. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHWetDogV8k&list=PL7E30D7D9373280AA)
Also on the NIF Web site, they offer a virtual tour of the facility (requires Java). You click on any of 18 parts/rooms in the schematic of the entire facility. It is highlighted on the schematic. Clicking on that takes you to an image of that room/part of the facility. You can then roam (360o) around the room. (https://lasers.llnl.gov/multimedia/virtual_tours/) Note, this function was not working when I visited the site, 9/5/13.
NIF has a nice collection of resources for teachers that includes outside sites as well as their own, at https://lasers.llnl.gov/education/resources.php.
Here is a July 2012 NIF press release reporting on the 500 terawatt and 1.89 MJ shot from their bank of 192 lasers: https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2012/Jul/NR-12-07-01.html.
Here’s an October 2010 report from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories about its first successful shot. There is a before and an after photo of the hohlraum; the damage is quite impressive. https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2010/nnsa/NR-NNSA-10-10-02.html More sites onmagnetic fusion confinement This 20-second QuickTime video clip shows plasma generation inside the Tore Supra Tokamak fusion reactor: http://fusioned.gat.com/images/ToreSupraTurco.mpg.
More sites on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) The official site for ITER is http://www.iter.org/. It contains much news about progress of ITER. Other pages from the site are referenced below.
This page from the site, http://www.iter.org/mach shows a large diagram of the interior of the proposed machine that has links that appear as you scroll over the parts of the machine.
These can then open to more information about each part.
This page from ITER provides detailed schematics of many parts of the proposed design, including very large enlargements of the schematics: http://www.iter.org/album/media/7%20-%20technical.
Another ITER page has available over 120 video clips of various facets of the project, including design, construction, international cooperation, and science and technology. The clips are also organized by topic. Unfortunately the clips are high resolution and don’t seem to buffer well; they are very choppy. You do have the option of downloading high resolution copies of the videos, but they too download very slowly. (http://www.iter.org/video) (I think the other countries funding and building the reactor have higher internet speeds than we do here in the U.S.)
An 8-page booklet from the Euratom Branch of the European Commission, entitled “Nuclear Energy Research: The Sustainability Challenge” provides a bit of background on ITER and a nice timeline of both fission and fusion research and development, from 1930 – 2010: http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/pdf/sustainability.pdf.
Here is a poster describing how ITER will produce a fusion reaction: http://www.futureleap.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/sungraphic-kath.jpg.
A 6:23 video clip describing the development and construction of the ITER facility in Aix-en-Provence, France can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdfQUftpv1Q. This clip focuses primarily on the international cooperation needed to get it constructed, rather than the science behind it.
Here’s another one about ITER: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdfQUftpv1Q. The first 25 seconds are done by a British narrator. The next 2-1/2 minutes describe ITER; this portion of the clip may be done in the U.S., since we are listed first in the group of countries cooperating to construct the reactor. It has more technical content than the previous clip. The last 3 minutes returns to the original narrator. Audio level is inconsistent between the three sections.
More sites on cold fusion This page provides a 38-minute video of parts of the actual 1989 press conference at the University of Utah at which Pons and Fleischmann made the (in)famous announcement of their discovery: It includes questions from the audience and answers from both the researchers and university administrators.
http://coldfusioninformation.com/cold-fusion-press-conference-at-university-of-utah-1989/. The last eight minutes are video taken in the basement of the research lab where Pons and Fleischmann did their work. Fleischmann and another scientist explain the actual experiment, equipment and analytical instruments used in it. Note: be careful in your choice of other information from the host site upon which the video is stored: it is a very pro-cold fusion site; just look at the first sentence of the caption under the video.
Here is a 12:24 video of the April 2009 airing of a CBS “60 Minutes” report by Scott Pelley called “Cold Fusion is Hot Again” that interviewed scientists about cold fusion research being done presently: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4967330n.
This site is very obviously pro-cold fusion: http://coldfusionnow.org/.
Here is an almost-2-hour video on cold fusion research. The first hour is one television show hosted by James Doohan, Scotty of Star Trek fame. The second hour is a pseudo-investigative show, one of the series Phenomenon: The Lost Archives, hosted by Dean Stockwell. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j8jR2N6TP_0) This portion treats the cold fusion debate as a conspiracy. The video provides much information for students to evaluate.
The Natural Philosophy Alliance 19th annual conference, July 27, 2012, featured Edmund Storms as its guest speaker. He presented a 1-hour talk on “What is Cold Fusion and Why Should You Care?,” which can be found here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QE1W8NcYsSE&list=TLmTSGUY9cmYw This BBC production is said to be “an old documentary (1994),” re-published on September 27, 2012. It provides documentary clips from various researchers at the time of the Pons-Fleischmann publication, as well as follow-up interviews at later times, of both skeptics and supporters alike. This video also will give students much information to evaluate. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kb_T8sCWL8&list=TLmTSGUY9cmYw More sites on fusion in stars For a very brief, but clever, discussion of the life cycle of stars and where elements come from, see “They Came from Outer Space” at http://www.astrocentral.co.uk/stardust.html.