Old Testament Backgrounds



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Old Testament Backgrounds

BIBL 473


Dr. Donald Fowler

Liberty University

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introductory charts and illustrations 1-3

The Problem of Vertical Transference 1

The Inspirative Work of God 2

World Map 3


1a. Introduction 4

1b. The Title 4

2b. The Content 4

1c. A History Course But: 4

2c. Other Important Features 4

3b. Some Introductory Qualifications 4

1c. The Problem of Vertical Transference 4

2c. The Problem of Understanding Inspiration 5

4b. Determining where to Start 5

1c. Why not the Pre-flood World? 5

2c. What about the Post-flood World? 5

3c. The Flood at Ur 5

4c. Dating techniques 6

5c. Town Settlements in the Pre-Literate Period 7

6c. The Proto-Literate Period 8

7c. The invention of Writing and its Development 10

8c. The Early Dynastic Period 12

9c. The Old Akkadian Period 17

10c. The Period Between the OA and Ur III 20

5b. The Background of the Patriarchal Period 23

1c. Setting the Stage 23

2c. The OB Period 24

3c. The Literature of the OB Period 35

6b The Background to the Events from the Ex. –Judges 45

1c. The Kassites 45

2c. The Hurrians 45

3c. The Hittites 47

4c. The Hapiru 50

5c. The Arameans 52

6c. The Sea Peoples 55

7c. The Philistines 58

8c. Ugarit 61

7b. Early Israel 65

1c. The Period of the Judges 65

2c. The Formation of the Monarchy 66

8b. The Background of the Monarchial Period 67

1c. The United Monarchy 67

2c. The Divided Monarchy 67

3c. The rise of Assyria 67

4c. Setting the Stage for Imperial Assyria 68

5c. Imperial Assyria 68

6c. The Fall of Assyria 80

9b. The Background to the Exilic Period 81

1c. The Neo-Babylonian Period 81

2c. The Persian Period 85

10b. The End of OTB in the Fertile Crescent 98


SECTION II

EGYPT
1a. Introduction 99

1b. The Tube of the Nile 99

2b. Basic Geography 99

3b. Archaic Egypt 99

4b. The Beginnings of the Historical Era 99

1c. Rapid Urbanization 99

2c. Startling Suddenness 100

3c. The End of the Proto-Historic Period 100

4c. Foreign Contacts 101

5c. Problems of Egyptian History 105

6c. The Tools for the Study of Egyptian History 105

5b. The Early Dynasty Period 106

1c. Political Unification 106

2c. Philosophy of Kingship 106

3c. Egypt and its World 106

4c. Egyptian Religion 106

5c. Burial Practices 107

6b. The Old Kingdom Age 108

1c. Djoser 108

2c. Building a Pyramid 109 3c. ‘Memphite Theology’ 110

4c. The Fourth Dynasty 116

5c. The 5th Dynasty 116

6c. The 6th Dynasty 116

7c. The Structure of OK Government 116

8c. The End of the OK Government 116

9c. Conclusion 117

7b. The 1st Intermediate Period 117

8b. The Middle Kingdom 118

1c. Postconquest – The 11th Dynasty 118

2c. The 12th Dynasty 119

3c. The 13th Dynasty 120

9b. The 2nd Intermediate Period 120

1c. The 14th Dynasty 120

2c. The 15th & 16th Dynasty 121

3c. The 17th Dynasty 123

10b. The New Kingdom 124

1c. Completion of the Defeat of the Hyksos 124

2c. The 18th Dynasty 124

3c. The 19th Dynasty 134

4c. The 20th Dynasty 140

TABLE OF CHARTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

Example Page Number
Chart Illustrating the Rise of Civilization 6a

The Horizontal Topography of the Middle East 8a

The Anu Ziggurat at Uruk 8

Early Pottery Types 9-9d

Scenes from the Mosaic Standard of Ur 15a

A Scene from the Stela of Vultures 15a

Comparative Chronological Chart of the Ancient World 16

Naram Sin Stela 19

The Floor Plan of the Sacred Precinct of Ur 21a

Ziggurat of Ur 21

Stela of Hammurapi and Map of the OB Period 34a

A Chart of the Relationship of the Deities of Enuma Elish 36a

Philistine Pottery Sarcophagi 59

Chart of the kings and Prophets of Judah and Israel 67a

Chart of the Assyrian Kings 69

Assyrian War Chariot and Archer and Court Officials 71a

Moabite Stone 73

Isaiah and his Contemporaries 75a

The Storming of Lachish 77a

The Siege of Lachish 77

Main Siege Ramp from Nineveh 78

Moving a Colossal Bull 80a

Jeremiah and his Contemporaries 81a

Chart of the Neo-Babylonian Kins 81

Daniel and his Contemporaries 87a

The Ancestors of Cyrus 86

Ezekiel and his Contemporaries 87a

Historical Setting of Ezra-Nehemiah 88a

Later Achaemenians 90

Battle of Salamis 92

The Evolution of the Egyptian Crown 101

The Gebel el Arak Knife Handle 102

Mesopotamian Cylinder Seals Showing Contact with Ancient Egypt 102

Narmer Palette 103

Various forms of Egyptian Writing 103

Buttressed Walls 104

10 Major Egyptian Deities 107a

A Subterranean View of a Mastaba 107

Cross View of the Step Pyramid 108

Burial Complex of Djoser 108

Transporting Stone Blocks 109

Ramp used in Pyramid Construction 109

Cross View of Meydum Pyramid 110

Cross View of 4 Pyramids 111

Cross View of 3 Pyramids 112

Carving Monuments from the Rocks 113

Overview of Giza 113

Pyramid Complex 113

Mastabas in the Giza Necropolis 11

Bows of the Ancient World 1

Time-Line Chart of the World of the Judges 1

Moving and Egyptian Monument 1

Thutmose IV Fighting Syrians 1

Thutmose IV and His Wife 1

Disposition of Forces at the Battle of Kadesh 1

Luxor Account of the Battle of Kadesh 1

Chronological Chart of the World of the Sea Peoples 1

Ramess II Storming a City in Syria 1

East Gallery of the Rock Temple of Yazilikaya 1

Sea Peoples Scenes 1

Megiddo Ivory Scene 1

TABLE OF MAPS
World Map 3-3a

Map of the OB Period 34a

Map of the Aramean City States 54a

Map of the Persian Empire 86a

Map of the Empire of Alexander 98

Map of the Eastern Mediterranean during the Time of the Sea Peoples 142



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS


AASOR

Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research

DOTT

D.W. Thomas (ed.), Documents from Old Testament Times

AbrN

Abr-Nahrain

EI

Eretz Israel

AcOr

Acta orientalia

ETL/EThL

Ephemerides theologicae Iovanienses

AfO

Archiv für Orientforschung

HTR

Harvard Theological Review

AJA

American Journal of Archaeology

HUCA

Hebrew Union College Annual

AJBA

Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology

IDB

G.A. Buttrick (ed.), Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible


AJSL

American Journal of Semitic languages and Literature

IEJ

Israel Exploration Journal

AnBib

Analecta biblica

IOS

Israel Oriental Studies

ANEP

J.B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near East in Pictures

JANESCU

Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University

ANET

J.B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts

JAOS

Journal of the American Oriental Society

AnOr

Analecta orientalia

JBL

Journal of Biblical Literature

AOAT

Alter Orient und Altest Testament

JCS

Journal of Cuneiform Studies

AOS

American Oriental Series

JEA

Journal of Egyptian Archaeology

AOTS

Archaeology and O.T. Studies, ed. D. Winton Thomas

JESHO

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient


ARI

Assyrian Royal Inscriptions

JNES

Journal of Near Eastern Studies

ArOr

Archiv orientálni

JQR

Jewish Quarterly Review

ASTO

Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute

JSS

Journal of Semitic Studies

AUSS

Andrews University Seminary Studies

JTS

Journal of Theological Studies

BA

Biblical Archaeologist

LCL

Loeb Classical Library

BARev

Biblical Archaeologist Review

MBA

Macmillan Bible Atlast

BAR

Biblical Archaeologist Reader

Or

Orientalia (Rome)

BASOR

Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research

OrAnt

Oriens antiquus

BeO


Bibbia e oriente

OTS

Oudtestamentische Studiën

Bib

Biblica

PIASH

Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Science and Humanities

BibOr

Biblica et orientalia

POTT

Peoples of the Old Testament Times, ed. D. Winton Thomas

BJRL

Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester

RA

Review d’assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale

BO

Bibliotecha orientalis

StudOr

Studia orientalia

BZ

Biblische Zeitschrift

TZ

Theologische Zeitschrift (ThZ)

BZAW

Beihefte zur ZAW

UF

Ugarit-Forschungen

CAH

Cambridge Ancient History

VT

Vetus Testamentum

CBQ


Catholic Biblical Quarterly

VTSup

Vetus Testamentum, Supplements

CH

Code of Hammurapi

ZA

Zeitschrift für Assyriologie

ConB

Coniectanea biblica

ZAW

Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft




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