15 It should also be noted that the DAC later enjoyed the patronage of the wealthy Countess Rosalind Wood Guardabassi, who maintained homes in Massachusetts and Palm Beach.
16 Bryson Reinhardt, “Treaties to Destroy America,” reprinted in TF, July 1954.
17 Perlstein, 9-11.
18 Ibid. Eisenhower called the fight against the Bricker Amendment “the most important” of his career.
19A personal photograph of a young Borghese appears in del Valle’s book, Roman Eagles over Ethiopia.
20 Del Valle was said to be responsible for the U.S. Navy’s decision in 1962 to invite a notorious Italian far rightist and intelligence operative named Guido Giannettini to give a three-day lecture course at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis on “Opportunities and Techniques for Coups d’Etat in Europe.” See Jeffrey M. Bale’s 1994 University of California at Berkeley Ph. D. dissertation, “The ‘Black’ Terrorist International: Neo-Fascist Paramilitary Networks and the ‘Strategy of Tension’ in Italy, 1968-1974,” 177.
21 7/19/51 letter from del Valle to Jane Graham.
22 Del Valle discusses his visits to Spain and meeting Franco in TF, Dec. 1975.
23 A 6/12/65 letter from Rockwell to del Valle thanks him for a $100 contribution.
24 In a 9/24/63 letter to Rockwell, del Valle writes: “Your kind invitation to come speak to your young patriots is an honor and I shall be happy to confer with you and [retired Admiral] John Crommelin on the subject of united effort” before raising the issue of religion. I could find no evidence, however, that del Valle addressed Rockwell’s storm troopers despite repeated requests.
25 Del Valle, Semper Fidelis, 192.
26 Del Valle’s personal contact with Smyslovsky-Holmston and his followers may have inspired his proposal to the Pentagon to create a special organization devoted to war behind the Iron Curtain.
27 Cyril’s heir, the Grand Duke Vladimir, continued the claim in the 1950s and 1960s.
28 Kevin Coogan, Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International (New York: Autonomedia, 1999), 598-615.
29 In a May 1955 TF article denouncing the idea of an Atlantic Union, Bonner Fellers writes: “As early as 1930, the Kremlin, as well as other international plotters, had made plans of how the United States could be drawn into One World. Their penetrating study disclosed the difficulty. The barrier was our Constitution.”
30 It was a reprint from the Fort Worth, Texas journal, The Southern Conservative.
31 TF, April 1955.
32 Michael Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1997), 141. On Beaty and similar figures from the 1950s, see Frank Mintz, The Liberty Lobby and the American Far Right: Race, Conspiracy and Culture (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985), 50-64.
33 The DAC interpreted the discovery of Communists like Alger Hiss and others in high government posts not as the work of the Soviet Secret Service but rather as further proof of the Khazar cabal’s power in both Washington and Moscow.
34 See Joseph Bendersky’s important book, The “Jewish Threat”: Anti-Semitic Politics of the US Army (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 405-412. Bendersky documents the remarkable influence of conspiratorial anti-Semitic thinking inside the U.S. military elite from World War I to the early 1950s.
35 One of Common Sense’s best-known broadsides was devoted to “The Coming Red Dictatorship” and was sub-headed “Asiatic [Khazars-KC] Marxist Jews Control Entire World as Last World War Commences, Thousands of Plotters Placed in Key Positions by Invisible Government, Few Were Even Elected.” See John George and Laird Wilcox, Nazis, Communists, Klansmen and Others on the Fringe (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1992), 300.
36 See Common Sense’s Catherine Littig’s 11/19/1967 letter to del Valle where she tries to convince him that many rightists including Oswald Spengler, Francis Parker Yockey, Fred Weiss, Benjamin Freedman and others shared this view.
37 TF, June 1961. Del Valle returned to the Protocols in a February 1973 TF article entitled “The Three Kings and the Protocols of Zion.”
38 See TF, July 1960. General Curtis was a freemason and a member of the Board of Directors of the National Defense Masonic Club. His running mate, Bryan Miller, was also a mason. One of the founders of the DAC, John Coffman, was also a prominent mason. This may explain the absence of attacks on freemasonry by the DAC. It should also be noted that the Constitution Party’s chairman, Curtis Dall, would later serve as a leading figure inside Willis Carto’s Liberty Lobby, one of the most important far right groups from the 1960s until the 1990s.
39 Arizona was “Zone II.”
40 8/30/63 letter from Del Valle to West Wuichet. He also told Wuichet his approach was in part modeled on the role played by the Guardia Civil in the Spanish Civil War.
41 In a 6/20/1966 letter to a Southern far rightist named John Andrew, del Valle said: “My agents who attended various public gatherings report all of them are infiltrated by FBI, other government agencies, and even some obvious Jews. Thus it happens the enemy knows what we know and what we plan to do.”
42 For a brief discussion on how an Eisenhower Administration NSC directive unintentionally helped trigger the politicizing of the military, see Daniel Bell, “The Dispossessed,” in Daniel Bell edited, The Radical Right (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002), 5-11.
43 For a representative liberal book from this period, see Tristram Coffin, The Passion of the Hawks: Militarism in Modern America (New York: Macmillan, 1964).
44 The John Franklin Letters appeared in 1959 and was distributed by The Bookmailer in New York City.
45The John Franklin Letters as summarized in Bell, 11.
46 On Get Ye Up Into the High Mountain, see an article by Mike Newberry in the 5/20/1962 issue of The Sunday Worker, published by the American Communist Party. Roquemore’s name appears in del Valle’s correspondence in a 2/4/1972 letter from R.A. Craighead, an instructor in unarmed self-defense combat, who reported that a Texan named Roy Brown said he intended to kill Roquemore and “take his place in Goff’s underground religious organization.”
49 8/24/1963 letter from del Valle to West Wuichet.
50A 12/2/63 letter from Frank Capell to del Valle mentions Swift, whom Capell described as “wildly anti-Catholic.” Capell, a rightwing Catholic, published his own one-man intelligence journal entitled The Herald of Freedom. In 1963 articles attacking British Israel appeared in rightwing Catholic papers such as The Tablet and The Wanderer. Del Valle’s archives include correspondence with Mrs. Helen Peters from the Muskegon, Michigan-based Defenders of the USA Republic. She followed British Israel doctrine closely and condemned it as part of the Jewish conspiracy.
51 In his 8/30/63 letter to West Wuichet, del Valle writes regarding Gale:
Your spy did a good job of reporting on Gale’s activity but came to erroneous conclusions. Gale is charged with doing exactly what he is doing, even to the collection of donations. It does not follow that the money is for Gale, and to say so is a libel. The system as set up is to be self-financing, to prevent infiltration and control by the Bankers. Whatever measures can be taken to cover the process of preparing White Christian Americans to defend their country, their homes and their families against the now imminent Red takeover is up to local organizers, as the movement is completely autonomous within the premises postulated by the high command.
For more on Gale, see Daniel Levitas, The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002). Gale’s leading role in the paramilitary California Rangers is discussed on pages 66-7. Also see Para-Military Organizations in California (Sacramento, CA: California Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation, 1965).
52 One question involves the possible role of the International Services of Information Foundation (ISI) based in Baltimore, Maryland, and headed by an ex-OSS man named Ulius Louis Amoss. The foundation included on its board of trustees Brig. Gen. Bonner Fellers, the head of the DAC’s Executive Council. The ISI’s mission, as outlined in the first issue of its privately circulated journal INFORM, was to keep “the eyes and minds of people open to the schemes, subversive ideas, plans and actions of Soviet Communism which is now preparing the last phrases of World War III and is arming for a possible World War IV.” The ISI used the term “leaderless resistance” to describe underground networks behind the Iron Curtain. In the early 1980s Texas KKK leader Louis Beam popularized the term to describe how he believed far right groups should operate to avoid detection.
53 George Thayer, The British Political Fringe (London: Anthony Blond, 1965), 55.
54 Del Valle became involved in intelligence work while serving under Admiral Freeman in Cuba in the 1930s. In the June 1961 TF, del Valle said that in 1933-34, “I participated in the special service squadron, under Admiral Freeman’s command, in the operations concerned with the revolution which brought Batista into power in that troubled country. Orders from Moscow and money from New York we again traced by our intelligence.”
55 Against Mosley’s postwar Union Movement, the LEL saw England and its colonies as a united power bloc that should be maintained separate from an alliance with Continental Europe. Mosely, however, endorsed the idea of merging England into a new Continental Imperium that he called “Europe a Nation.”
56 David Baker, Ideology of Obsession: A.K. Chesterton and British Fascism (London: Tauris, 1996), 198. Baker, however, only devotes a few pages to Chesterton’s postwar career.
57 Baker, 197.
58 Thayer, 56.
59 See the December 1954 TF for a report on Pomeroy’s visit.
60 A.K. Chesterton, The New Unhappy Lords (London: Candour Publishing, 1965), 19.
61 Baker, 198.
62 Chesterton, 138.
63 Ibid., 204.
64 Ibid., 208-9.
65 Baker, 197. In 1971 Chesterton abandoned the NF when it turned to violent street protests and Hitler nostalgia among some of its followers. Chesterton died on August 16, 1973.
66 The financial troubles arose due to a dispute over the will of Candour’s major financial backer; a wealthy British expatriate named R. K. Jeffery who had made a fortune in Chile mining nitrate.
67 4/26/62 letter from Chesterton to del Valle asking for support. See the 5/9/62 letter from del Valle to Chesterton giving him some names. On Brooks’ tour, see Thayer, 64.
68 See the 2/4/66 letter from Chesterton to del Valle asking him to contact Devin Adair on his behalf, as Chesterton hadn’t heard from the firm about its decision on New Unhappy Lords.
69 Joseph Serpico, a devout Catholic and former Marine, headed OMNI, which published books denouncing Vatican II (such as The Plot Against the Church) and tracts such as a pamphlet denouncing British Israel. Chesterton raised funds in England to finance OMNI’s edition of NUL after it became clear that it would be cheaper to reprint the book than to ship the English version to America. OMNI later published del Valle’s memoir, Semper Fidelis.
70 Del Valle established contact with other White Russian exiles in America like Prince Serge Belosselsky of the Russian Anti-Communist Center in New York. See the 12/14/1950 letter from Belosselsky to del Valle.
71 See TF’s February 1962 tribute to Pomeroy that states that he spent many years in the Far East on intelligence assignments for the U.S. government.
72 See TF’s September 1957 issue for del Valle’s article calling on the US to recognize anti-Communist governments-in-exile.
73 For more on the murky 1950s world of the White Russians, the intelligence community, the far right, and Knupffer, see Coogan, 598-615, and Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty’s Secret Intelligence Service (New York: The Free Press, 2000), especially chapters 20 and 21.
74 Knupffer based his views on the idea that the CIA, acting at the behest of Wall Street Jews, was committed to balkanizing Russia. The White Russian right associated with the Grand Duke Cyril argued for maintaining the territorial integrity of the old Russian empire.
75 TF, August-September 1956. On Huxley-Blythe, see both Coogan and Dorril.
76 After Colonel Pomeroy met Knupffer on 11/6/1954, he sent del Valle a detailed report from Knupffer attacking NTS. Knupffer had also sent an earlier letter to Pomeroy on 5/25/1954 critical of NTS.
77 Knupffer claimed he had an especially important contact with the Duke of Montrose, Rhodesia’s Minister of Defense and Foreign Affairs.
78 This strange story starts in the mid-1960s and involves Colonel Michel Goleniewski, a high-ranking defector from Polish intelligence who had given the CIA invaluable information about Soviet “moles.” Pichel declared Goleniewski the Shickshinny Knights’ “Grand Master” after Goleniewski (a hemophiliac) announced that he was really the last remaining Czar of All Russia, Alexi Romanov. His claims flew in the face of the Grand Duke Vladimir’s assertion of his right to the throne. Knupffer, not surprisingly, declared that Goleniewski was an imposter. As for Pichel, Knupffer – a genuine specialist on chivalric orders – stated that anyone “who had any dealings with this mentally deranged and obviously criminal type (I mean this quite literally)” should abandon the Shickshinny Knights. Del Valle, however, ignored his advice. Del Valle’s friend and fellow “knight,” Frank Capell was especially taken with Goleniewski’s claim that Henry Kissinger was a Soviet agent who had been recruited in Germany in 1946 under the codename “Bor.” Capell’s book, Henry Kissinger: Soviet Agent, received wide notice in rightwing circles. On Goleniewski, see Guy Richards, The Hunt for the Czar (New York: Doubleday, 1970).
79 The Liberty Lobby, for example, sponsored a celebration of del Valle’s 80th birthday in 1973.
81 Avoiding wild anti-Semitism, more mainstream rightwing tracts attribute the failure of the Eastern elite to naïve do-gooders, ivory tower intellectuals, the influence of the British Fabian Society, Communist penetration of elite institutions, fear of military confrontation with the Russians and the like.
82 TV shows like The X-Files play with conspiracy theory almost as a literary genre.
83 Of course by so doing, I do not want to deny the real existence of conspiracies in history (such as the existence of the P2 Lodge in Italy, the role East Germany played in aiding the “Carlos” network, or the role the CIA played in covertly aiding the Contras in Nicaragua). On these issues, see Jeffrey M. Bale, “Do Paranoids Have Actual Enemies? Bogus ‘Conspiracy Theories’ vs. Real Covert and Clandestine Politics,” in Hit List, Vol. 1, No. 3 (June/July 1999) also available in an updated form on the web.
84 Some American Christian fundamentalists, for example, believe that the Brussels headquarters of the European Union is actually the literal home of the Anti-Christ.
85 On the issue of rightist groupuscules, see Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 36, No. 3 (2002), which devotes its entire issue to this subject.
86 As the American right has shown itself incapable of crystallizing into a significant third party source, I leave it out of this analysis. It should also be recalled that the lack of a parliamentary system in America dramatically increases the difficulty of successful third party formations, from the Greens to the Reform Party.
87 Roger Griffin, “Interregnum or Endgame? Radical Right Thought in the “Post-fascist Era,” In The Journal of Political Ideologies, Vol. 20, and available on the web at Griffin’s home page at Oxford Brookes University.
88 A reexamination of the Poujadist movement might be of some interest in this context.
89 On this vast subject, see Richard Webb, The Occult Establishment (La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Press, 1976); Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity (New York: NYU Press, 2002); and Eduard Gugenberger, Franko Petri, Roman Schweidlenka, Weltverschwörungstheorien (Vienna: Deuticke, 1998).
90 The PCI’s official abandonment of its support for the “dictatorship of the proletariat” symbolically underlined this shift.
91 For a deeper exploration of the entrenched rightwing and anti-Semitic culture inside the U.S. military elite, see Bendersky. As for more contemporary models, it is not hard to imagine the popularity of such views inside military elites in Argentina and the former Soviet Union to cite just two examples.
92 See Daniel Pipes, The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fears of Conspiracy (New York: Saint Martin’s Press, 1996) for a rare English-language attempt to explore this phenomenon.