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FIGURE CAPTIONS

Fig. 1 Locator map and principal bathymetric features of the Benguela region

Fig. 2 Monthly windstress along the west coast of southern Africa, 75km offshore (modified from Boyd 1987). Note the windy areas near Lüderitz and Cape Frio and the pronounced seasonality in the south

Fig. 3 Conceptual picture of wind-induced coastal upwelling (modified from Shannon 1989)

Fig. 4 Satellite-derived sea surface temperature distribution in the southern Benguela, 9 October 1997

Fig. 5 Characteristic temperature-salinity relationships for the South-east Atlantic Ocean and Benguela region

Fig. 6 Vertical east-west sections at three locations in the Benguela, illustrating the depths of principal water masses, viz Tropical Surface Water (TSW), Subtropical Surface Water (STSW), Thermocline Water (TW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Note the absence of AABW in the area north of the Walvis Ridge, and the strongly stratified surface layer off Angola

.

Fig. 7 Physical boundaries of the Benguela and surface (upper layer) currents

Fig. 8 Satellite-derived sea surface temperature distribution in the northern Benguela,

10 April 1997

Fig. 9 Conceptual diagram showing location of zones of formation of oxygen poor water in the South-east Atlantic

Fig.10 A two-dimensional network of nitrate (and hence carbon) pathways between ocean, shelf and sediments. Numbers are grams carbon x 1013 . (Courtesy Dr H. Waldron, Oceanography Department, University of Cape Town)

Fig. 11 Ocean colour image showing chlorophyll distribution in the Benguela obtained

by SeaWiFS satellite, 9 March,1998 – Courtesy NASA and Ocean Space CC
Fig. 12 Bloom of red tide organism Noctiluca scintilans in the southern Benguela

(Courtesy D. Horstman, SFRI)

Fig. 13 Diagram showing partitioning of planktonic food between sardine and anchovy

(from Van der Lingen 1994)

Fig.14 Southern Benguela upwelling foodweb models (a) Rythers (1969) model and (b)

a revised more appropriate model incorporating the microbial foodweb (from

Moloney 1992)

Fig.15 Distribution of sea surface temperature in the northern Benguela, early in 1984,

showing the southward penetration of warm water during a Benguela Niño (NOAA image generated by and reproduced courtesy of Ms Scarla Weeks, Oceanography Department, University of Cape Town)

Fig.16 Mass mortality of rocklobsters at Elands Bay in the southern Benguela as a

consequence of the appearance of oxygen deficient water (Courtesy Dr A.

Cockcroft, SFRI)

Fig.17 The “Great Ocean Climate Conveyor Belt” (modified from Broecker, 1991)

AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMICS


OF SOME KEY MARITIME INDUSTRIES

IN THE BENGUELA CURRENT REGION



Chris Tapscott
A Report Prepared on Behalf of the

Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project

Windhoek, October 1999

Table of Contents

Page
1.0 Background 1


2.0 Objectives of the Study 1
3.0 Terms of Reference 1
4.0 Methodology 2
5.0 The Social Economy of the Benguela Current Region - An Overview 2
6.0 Angola 4

6.1 Demography and Settlement Patterns 4

6.2 Social Services 6

6.3 Physical Infrastructure 7

6.4 Fisheries 8

6.5 Diamond Mining 9

6.6 Oil and Gas 10

6.7 Other Economic Activity 10

6.8 Development Potential 11
7.0 Namibia 13

7.1 Demography and Settlement Patterns 13

7.2 Social Services 18

7.3 Physical Infrastructure 18

7.4 Fisheries 19

7.5 Diamond Mining 21

7.6 Oil and Gas 23

7.7 Other Economic Activity 23

7.8 Development Potential 24

8.0 South Africa 25

8.1 Demography and Settlement Patterns 25

8.2 Social Services 27

8.3 Physical Infrastructure 28

8.4 Fisheries 29

8.5 Diamond Mining 31

8.6 Oil and Gas 33

8.7 Other Economic Activity 33

8.8 Development Potential 34

9.0 Threats to the BCLME – Policy Issues 34
Individuals Interviewed 39
11.0 Bibliography 40
Maps
Map 1. The BCLME Study Area 3

Map 2. The Coastline of Angola Indicating Provincial Boundaries 5

Map 3. The Coastline of Namibia Indicating Regional Boundaries 14 Map 4 The West Coast of South Africa from Alexander Bay to Lamberts Bay 26 Map 5. The West Coast of South Africa from Lamberts Bay to Cape Agulhas 27

ANNEX N
BENGUELA CURRENT LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM

STAKEHOLDERS
GROUP 1 Sustainable Management and Utilization of Resources
Ministeries Responsible for :-
Fisheries

Environment

Tourism

Transport



Mining

Energy


Finance
Private Sectors:-
Fishing Companies

Mining Companies

Oil and Gas (Offshore Exploration and Production) Companies

Tourism Companies


Others:-
International Donor Agencies

Relevant NGO’s

Research Institutions and Universities

Coastal Communities

Interested Individuals
GROUP 2 Environmental Variability
Ministries Responsible for :-
Fisheries

Environment

Tourism and Health

Finance


Mining

Energy


Works, Transport and Communication
Private Sectors:-
Fishing Companies

Mining Companies

Oil and Gas (Offshore Exploration and Production) Companies

Tourism Companies

Others:-

International Donor Agencies

Relevant NGO’s

Research Institutions and Universities

Coastal Communities

Municipalities

Port Authorities

Meteorological Services

Interested Individuals



GROUP 3 Ecosystem Health and Pollution
Ministeries Responsible for:-
Fisheries

Environment

Energy

Mining


Health

Tourism


Finance

Defence


Immigration

Police


Transport and Communication

Trade
Private Sectors :-


Fishing Companies

Mining Companies

Oil and Gas (Offshore Exploration and Production) Companies

Tourism Companies

Shipping Companies
Others:-
International Donor Agencies

Relevant NGO’s

Research Institutions and Universities

Port Authorities

Municipalities

Meteorological Services

Coastal Communities

Interested Individuals



Brief Description of PDF-B Involvement

The seed for the BCLME Program was sown at a workshop/seminar held in Swakopmund, Namibia in mid-1995. This paved the way for the development of a PDF Block B Grant Proposal to GEF, and its subsequent approval and implementation in 1998. In July 1998 the First Regional BCLME Workshop, attended by approximately 100 stakeholders and regional and international experts, was held in Cape Town, followed by a formal meeting of key stakeholders. The attendance and proceedings of this workshop are attached to this document as Annex 9.

Stakeholders have and will continue to include the ministries in Angola, Namibia and South Africa responsible for the environment, marine resources, mines, energy, tourism, science and technology, transport, ports and harbours, etc.; representatives of relevant industry sectors such as diamond mining, fishing (including artaisanal fishers), oil and gas (e.g. SONANGOL from Angola); education and training establishments - universities and technikons; regional and local authorities and NGOs. The lead stakeholders are: Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Namibia; Ministries of Fisheries and Environment, Angola; Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South Africa.


The First Regional Workshop identified the issues and problems/constraints in the BCLME and possible solutions. As a follow-up, six comprehensive syntheses and assessments of information on the BCLME (thematic reports) were produced, viz: fisheries, oceanography and environmental variability, diamond mining, coastal environments, off-shore oil and gas exploration/production, socio-economics. These reports were reviewed at the Second Regional BCLME Workshop held in Namibia in April 1999, and used as a basis together with input from the First Workshop and participants for drafting the TDA and setting the SAP framework. Actions subsequently have led to the finalisation of the TDA, SAP, Project Brief and of the BCLME Program.





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