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TABLES C: MAINTENANCE OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND MANAGEMENT OF POLLUTION



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TABLES C: MAINTENANCE OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND MANAGEMENT OF POLLUTION

TABLE C1-3. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER QUALITY; PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF OIL SPILLS; REDUCTION OF MARINE LITTER


PROBLEMS

CAUSES

IMPACT

RISKS/UNCERTAINTIES

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

TRANS-BOUNDARY CONSEQUENCES

ACTIVITIES/SOLUTIONS

PRIORITY

INCRE-MENTAL COST (5y)

ANTICIPATED OUTPUTS

C1. Deterioration in coastal water quality: Coastal developments and rapid expansion of coastal cities, much of which was unforeseen or unplanned, has created pollution “hotspots”. Aging water treatment infrastructure and inadequate policy/monitoring/ enforcement aggravates the problem.

Unplanned coastal development

Chronic oil pollution

Industrial pollution

Sewage pollution

Air pollution

Mariculture

Lack of policy on waste & oil recycling

Growth in coastal informal settlements


Public health

Reduced yields

Unsafe edible organisms

Changes in species dominance

Ecosystem health and resilience

Loss of jobs at regional level


Few or no baseline data

Performance standards and thresholds

National commitment to capacity-building

Cause-effect relationships



Loss of tourism

Higher health costs

Altered yields

Reduced resource quality

Aesthetic impacts

Lowered quality of life

Loss of employment


Transboundary pollutant transport

Migration of marine organisms, e.g. seals

Negative impacts on straddling stocks

“Hotspots” common solutions



Develop standard environmental quality indicators/criteria

Establish regional working groups

Training in marine pollution control

Plan/adapt regional pollution monitoring framework

Establish effective enforcement agencies *

Demo projects on pollution control and prevention

Joint surveillance


1

1
2


1

1


2

2


$100 000

$50 000
$100 000

$50 000

(National)


$500 000


$200 000

Shared solutions for water quality management

Regional protocols and agreements

Improved pollution control

Socioeconomic uplift


C2. Major oil spills: A substantial volume of oil is transported through the BCLME region and within it, and this is a significant risk of contamination of large areas of fragile coastal environments from major accidents, damage to straddling stocks and coastal infrastructure.


Sea worthiness of vessels/ equipment

Military conflict

Sabotage

Human error



Coastline degradation

Mortality of coastal fauna and flora



Recovery period

Cost recovery mechanisms

Return to peace in Angola


Opportunity costs (e.g. tourism, fisheries, salt production)

Altered yields

Reduced resource quality

Aesthetic impacts



Resource sharing for containment, surveillance, rehabilitation, etc.

Ramsar site protection (border wetlands)

Transboundary pollutant transport


Regional contingency plan development

Research/ modeling of recovery periods

Public awareness of notification procedures

Port state control



1

3

3


3

$50 000

Regional contingency plan., shared resources, rehabilitation plans, regional protocols and agreements

C3. Marine litter: There is a serious growing problem throughout the BCLME.

Growth of coastal settlements

Poor waste management

Little public awareness and few incentives

Illegal disposal from vessels

Poverty of coastal communities

Ghost fishing

Fishing discards


Faunal mortality

Negative aesthetic impacts

Damage to fishing equipment


Accumulation zones

Illegal hazardous waste disposal


Loss of fishing income

Public health

Cleanup costs

Loss of tourism

Job creation in informal sector


Transboundary transport

Litter recycling

Harmonization of packaging legislation

Public awareness

Port reception facilities

Regulatory enforcement

Standardized policies

Seafarer education


2

3


1

1
2
2


1

$50 000
$100 000
$50 000

Cleaner beaches

Education material/ documents available regionally

Standardized policies and legislation on packaging/ recycling incentives


C1 EXPLANATORY NOTES. PROBLEM: DETERIORATION IN WATER QUALITY

Causes


Activities are mainly focused around urban centers, increasing urbanization and associated knock-on effects. Worst effected areas are Luanda, Walvis Bay and Cape Town.

Various sectors contributing to pollution, with varied degrees of cross sector co-operative management

Knock-on effect of introduced mariculture species and associated water quality pollution effects in protected embayments

Variable consistency in application of policy, both nationally and regionally

Informal and formal settlements vary in their control of pollution discharges. Pollution is increasing due to urbanization.

Shipping activities and hydrocarbon exploration and production are major sources of chronic oil pollution.



Impact

Avariety of factors are responsible for deterioration of human health and ecosystem health/resiliance (Refer to BCLME Thematic Reports 1-6)

Species invasion (poorly planned mariculture enterprises), changes in species dominance, reduced yields from ecosystem.

Loss of jobs at regional level, reduction of regional tourism potential


Risks/uncertainty


Limited data available from which to evaluate existing water quality, so it is difficult to establish a regional baseline.

Validity of existing standards and thresholds within the regional context is uncertain.

Tracing of impacts back to initial causes is difficult and causation is often unknown.

Reduction of pollution in worst affected areas may not be practicable on short/medium term.



Socioeconomic consequences


Input of nutrients and associated pollution may cause a short-term increase in production, combined with longer-term stock failure.

These consequences are interrelated: pollution decreases tourism, which reduces jobs, which increases poverty, which in turn increases pollution.



Transboundary consequences

Deterioration of water quality may cause species migration (temporary/permanent). Pollutants from industries/activities near to country borders can be transported across boundaries by prevailing currents.

Impacts are (variably) common to each of the participating countries – a “generic” project with flexibility to meet nations’ needs should be established. Establishment of common policy is necessary to minimise transboundary impacts.

Most water quality issues are common to at least two of the countries and require common strategy and collective action to address.

Activities/solutions

An overall regional working group should be established to effectively co-ordinate integrated solutions to:

Environmental quality indicators

Marine pollution control and surveillance

Regional monitoring/inspection of coastal zone

Regional enforcement of standards

Prevention of “polluters” slipping over the boarder.

Priority

Proposed activities are ranked on a scale of 1-3 in terms of their perceived priority. Except where asterisked, only those activities which address transboundary problems requiring incremental funding are listed.


Anticipated outputs

Integrated local, national, or regional system implementation with decrease in pollution and associated long-term savings in clean-up and education costs. It is anticipated that the benefits which will be demonstrated by the proposed actions will be such that leverage of national or donor funding for continued implementation following the conclusion of the BCLME will be possible in view of the benefits which will acrue from a modest investment.


C2 EXPLANATORY NOTES. PROBLEM: MAJOR OIL SPILLS


Causes

Variability of seaworthiness of vessels operational from the region, as well as transport through the region.



Impacts


General coastal degradation (temporary habitat loss), with varied recovery rate, depending on species vulnerability and spill intensity. (Associated monitoring of fauna/flora recovery is essential.)

Risks/Uncertainty

Recovery period in system is sensitivity-dependent

Regional and national peace and political stability are most conducive to programme success.

General environmental deterioration leads to aesthetic deterioration and then tourism loss.

Socioeconomic impacts


Revenue loss is a function of spill intensity and environmental sensitivity, and duration of spill.

Transboundary consequences

Regional co-operation needed in use of equipment/manpower.

Riparian/estuarine boundaries are particularly vulnerable.

Co-operative management of spills moving across borders. (Management/clean-up of a major spill near country boundary can only be effective if comensurate actions are taken by the neighbouring state)

Activities/solutions

Regional co-operation paramount in standards development: policy, equipment, and techniques.


Priority

Proposed activities are ranked on a scale of 1-3 in terms of their perceived priority. Only those activities which address transboundary problems requiring incremental funding are listed.

Anticipated outputs

Regional policy and optimal utilization of resources.




C2 EXPLANATORY NOTES. PROBLEM: MARINE LITTER

Causes


Rapid urbanization and unplanned settlement, with variable and limited/no control by authorities.

Existing formal infrastructure unable to cope with expanding formal developments.

Public apathy/indifference and difference in behavior across cultural groups.

“Lost” fishing equipment and associated “wastes.”

Non-returnable/disposabale nature of containers of packaging used in the region. (Absense of regulations and incentatives for return of containers and use of biodegradable materials)
Impacts

Aesthetic and multiple impacts are associated with economic loss, although there may be job creation in the informal sector (waste management).

Plastics and ropes (including fishing lines) present a significance amd growing hazard to marine mammals and seabirds (entanglement, ingestion)
Risks/uncertainty

Volume of hazardous substances dumping unknown.

Need to identify areas of waste accumulation through natural processes.

Positive impacts (job creation in informal sector) are balanced by lack of incentives not to litter.

Potential degree of transboundary movement.

Issues common to all three countries – create a “blueprint” and apply flexibly to all countries.

Activities/solutions

Public awareness is key to successful implementation and a sustained clean environment– primary focus is seafarers

Common policy/practice and implementation – i.e. “return” (bottles) product incentives – common policy re boundary transfer and legislation (packaging) review.

Priority

Proposed activities are ranked on a scale of 1-3 in terms of their perceived priority. Only those activities which address transboundary problems requiring incremental funding are listed.


Anticipated outputs

Clean coastal zone

Educated and up lifted public

Improved legislation and standards implementated from local/national/ regional levels ~ coordinated

Reduction in negative impacts on marine mammals and seabirds(particularly relevant to threatened/endagered species)

TABLE C4. RETARDATION/REVERSAL OF HABITAT DESTRUCTION/ALTERATION.



PROBLEMS

CAUSES

IMPACT

RISKS/UNCERTAINTIES

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

TRANS-BOUNDARY CONSEQUENCES

ACTIVITIES/SOLUTIONS

PRIORITY

INCRE-MENTAL COST (5y)

ANTICIPATED OUTPUTS

C4. Habitat alteration/ destruction (see also A4). Several habitats have been altered or lost as a consequence of development and other human impacts. Impacts can be categorized into three areas, viz.:

1. Coastal – progradation/ redistribution;

2. Nearshore (< 30m)

3. Shelf/slope (200 m)


Diamond mining

Demersal trawling

Variable river sediment input and changing land use

Oil/gas exploration/ production and spills

Mariculture

Natural sediment transport (altered erosion)

Built coastal structures

Human settlement and resource use

Mangroves/coastal deforestation

Coastal vehicle tracks



Increased turbidity (sediment plumes, etc)

Benthic community destruction

Mobilization of heavy metals

Faunal impacts e.g. reproductive failure

Increased frequency of HABs

Coastal erosion

Organic loading/anoxic conditions


Near-complete lack of data

No framework for impact monitoring

Cumulative local vessel impacts

Climate change

Distinguishing impacts from natural spatial and temporal variation


Costly infrastructure, rehabilitation & maintenance

Loss in mariculture production

Decreasing human health via heavy metal contamination

Loss of fisheries productivity/ revenue, e.g. rock lobster

Opportunity costs


Sediment transport

Common problems, e.g. erosion

Redistribution of marine fauna as a consequences of habitat alteration e.g. hakes, seals

Document fully presented status

Adapt & apply regional marine and coastal early warning system and action plan

Assess causality of habitat alteration.

Adapt & apply standard environmental quality criteria

Adapt & apply regional structure to address problems

Adapt & apply expertise in coastal processes


1

1

2



1

1


1/2


$ 50 000

$150 000


$100 000

$50 000

$100 000

[$50 000]



Comprehensive status report
Regional early warning system ad action plan
Transboundary causality established
Regional structures and agreements
Improved coastal planning



C4 EXPLANATORY NOTES. PROBLEM: ECOSYSTEM HEALTH DECLINING

Causes


Coastal progradation ~ former mining activities, subsequent longshore redistribution of sands – sedimentation of mangroves and other natural processes.

Coastal destabilization due to anthropocentric activities.

Natural sediment movement (natural rehabilitation of mined areas ~ masking actual impacts, which may possibly occur later and be more severe.

Various fishing activities



Impacts


Mining-generated sediment plumes ~ potential re mobilization of heavy metals (food chain impacts) and water quality deterioration.

Mariculture can cause local organic loading and anoxic conditions.

Habitat modifications impact on HABs.

Risks/uncertainty

Incomplete/lack of data ~ severely limiting ~ but increasingly available due to mining companies’ existing programmes.

Should standardize framework for evaluation of impacts.

Impacts from multiple vessels in close proximity unknown ~ carrying capacity to be determined.

Necessary to distinguish anthropogenic impacts from natural variability.

Altered sediment structure and particle size composition with consequence for benthos and remobilization of certian minerals(metals).


Socioeconomic consequences


Unknown costs of rehabilitation and subsequent evaluation of rehabilitation success.

Human health affected through knock on effect in food chains.

Loss of revenue from renewable resources.

Transboundary consequences


Marine fauna migrating due to habitat loss.

Sediment remobilization.



Activities/solutions


The present status requires proper documentation, and establishment of baseline at regional level.

Establish/identify regional parameters for approach to early warning systems and associated quality performance standards.

Develop mechanisms of co-operation between industries, ministries and other stakeholders, and strengthen capacity

Needs-assessment to improve coastal management expertise.


Priority

Proposed activities are ranked on a scale of 1-3 in terms of their perceived priority. Only those activities which address transboundary problems requiring incremental funding are listed.


TABLE C5. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY.

PROBLEMS

CAUSES

IMPACT

RISKS/UNCERTAINTIES

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

TRANS-BOUNDARY CONSEQUENCES

ACTIVITIES/SOLUTIONS

PRIORITY


INCRE-MENTAL COST (5y

ANTICIPATED OUTPUTS

C5.Loss of biotic integrity: This refers to ecosystem impacts including changes in community composition, species diversity, and introduction of alien species – a set of measures of ecosystem health.


Introduction of alien species

Selective fishing mortality (targeted fishing)

Incident mortality bycatch/ discharges

Pollution impact

Over-harvesting

Habitat alteration (e.g. destruction of mangrove areas)

Lack of implementation of international laws


Local extinction especially of benthic species

Introduction of pathogens

Genetic impoverishment (loss of resilience)


Source of alien commensals?

Invasive ability?

Beneficial or harmful?

No baseline data



Loss in community income from fishing and mariculture

Potential public health impacts

Opportunity costs, e.g. tourism

Political pressure to over-harvest

Lost income – prolonged recovery time

Uncertainty of sustainable livelihoods

Modification of food source of consumers


Transfer of alien species via shipping/ mariculture

Natural processes

Fisher migration

Shared stocks


Harmonize regional policies

Link with GEF ballast water project

Regional fishing policies co-management

Identification of MPAs (incl. Transboundary areas)

Identify genetic populations structures

Develop forum for stakeholder participation and negotiation of biodiversity code of conduct


1
2

1


1

2

1




$50 000

$30 000

$150 000

$20 000


$50 000


Harmonized regional policy

Co-Financing

Regional protocols
Establishment of negotiated marine protected areas

Biodiversity conservation baseline

Reduction/ control of alien introductions, policy decisions, forum established





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