Overarching Title: The Invention of the Telephone Narrative



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Brandi Jackson

Historical Research Project

July 22, 2011


Overarching Title: The Invention of the Telephone

Narrative: The topic of this unit is the invention of the telephone within the concept of then and now. Students will learn about the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell, how it has evolved over time, and its impact on our lives today. This unit has been developed for primary elementary grade levels with a focus on first grade. The unit length is approximately four weeks.

Title: Telephones Then and Now

Primary Concepts: Then and Now, Creation

Outcome Statements:


  • Students will learn about the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell.

  • Students will learn how the telephone evolved throughout time.

  • Students will learn how peoples’ creative use of tools continually impacts society.

Unit Organization:

Learning Outcome 1: Students will learn about the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell.

  • Comprehension Strategy—R.A.N. (Reading and Analyzing Non-Fiction) Chart

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Social Studies Strategy—Custom Boxes

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Social Studies Strategy—Interactive Bulletin Board/Timeline

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Vocabulary Strategy— Word Bank

Standards

Resources

Assessments

  • Activity—Make a telephone with cups and string and talk to your partner.


Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Writing Strategy—Whole class R.A.F.T. (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) prompt

Standards

Resources

Assessments


Learning Outcome 2: Students will learn how the telephone evolved throughout time.

  • Field Trip to the Wayne County Historical Museum

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Writing Strategy—List

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Comprehension Strategy—Graphic Organizers: Venn Diagram

Standards

Resources

Assessments


Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Math Strategy—Weight and Measurement

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Social Studies Strategy—Economics

Standards

Resources

Assessments


Learning Outcome 3: Students will learn how peoples’ creative use of tools continually impacts society.
  • Comprehension Strategy—Think, Pair, Share


Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Writing Strategy—Using technology to inform others

Standards

Resources

Assessments


  • Social Studies Strategy—Guest Speaker

Standards

Resources

Assessments


Standards

Resources

Assessments


Hook: Borrow the most original example (19th century) of a telephone from the Wayne County Historical Museum. Show it to the students and tell them to begin thinking about what it is, what its purpose is, and their reasoning. Group students and let them discuss. Each group can have a few minutes to examine it. Once the groups have shared their ideas, allow the students to generate questions about it themselves.

Overview:

Learning Outcome 1: Students will learn about the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell.

Listed below is a collection of strategies that can be used to achieve Learning Outcome 1. The strategies are listed in the order in which they should be taught to assess pre and post learning. If children’s books are listed below the strategy as a resource, they should be used as a read aloud to give students more information. There are additional children’s books listed in final Resources that are directly related to the topic and some that provide additional information about the 19th century.


  1. Comprehension Strategy—R.A.N. (Reading and Analyzing Non-Fiction) Chart (on-going throughout the unit)— Students will generate a list of things they think they know about the first telephones. Teacher will write these ideas on post-it notes to place in the “What we think we know…” column. As the unit progresses, ideas will be moved to the “Confirmed Learning…” or the “Misconceptions…” . New ideas that were not on the original list will be written on post-it notes and place in the “New Learning…”.


What we think we know…

Confirmed Learning…

Misconceptions…

New Learning…













Indiana Academic Standards

English/Language Arts

1.2.7 Relate prior knowledge to what is read.

1.4.5 Identify a variety of sources of information and document the sources.

1.4.6 Organize and classify information by constructing categories on the basis of observation.

1.7.5 Use descriptive words when speaking about people, places and things.

Social Studies

1.1.9 Use the library and other information resources to find information that answers questions about history.



Resources—

Reality Checks, by Tony Stead

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes
  1. Social Studies Strategy—Custom Boxes—The teacher will prepare multiple boxes for students to investigate in groups. The boxes will include items from the 19th century such as photographs, newspaper clippings, letters, miniatures of items, toys, etc. Students will explore the boxes in groups and become familiar with what life looked like in the 1800’s.


Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.1.1 Compare the way individuals in the community lived in the past with the way they live in the present.

1.1.9 Use the library and other information resources* to find information that answers questions about history.

Resources—

50 Social Studies Strategies for K-8 Classrooms, by Kathryn M. Obenchain & Ronald V. Morris

http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/ss/TelephonePatent.htm Bell’s Patent for the Telephone

http://store.ushistory.org/showcat.asp?cid=67 Civil War era replicas of posters, currency, etc.

“Using Bell’s Original Telephone Apparatus [Photograph].” www.allposters.com



Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes

  1. Social Studies Strategy—Interactive Bulletin Board/Timeline (on-going throughout the unit)—Students help create a bulletin board/mural with information learned throughout the unit. It will be represented in the form of a timeline with student generated writing and drawings about events. Photographs and other artifacts can also be added.

Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.2.4 Describe ways that individual actions can contribute to the common good of the community.



Resources—

50 Social Studies Strategies for K-8 Classrooms, by Kathryn M. Obenchain & Ronald V. Morris

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes
  1. Vocabulary Strategy— Word Bank (on going throughout the unit)—Students will write vocabulary words relating to the unit and display the words on the Interactive Bulletin Board/Timeline.


Indiana Academic Standards

English/Language Arts

1.2.5 Use context to understand word and sentence meanings

1.7.5 Use descriptive words when speaking about people, places, things, and events.

Resources—Use words that students will be introduced to throughout the unit by looking through children’s books and websites that you will be using to teach.

Assessment (s)— Multiple choice or matching test to assess vocabulary learned throughout the unit.


  1. Activity—Make a telephone with cups and string and talk to your partner. Then discuss if it worked and how.

Indiana Academic Standards

Science

1.1.2 Investigate and make observations to seek answers to questions about the world, such as “In what ways do animals move?”



Resources—

http://www.projects-for-kids.com/science-projects/string-phone.php How to make a cup and string phone

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes

  1. Writing Strategy—Whole class R.A.F.T. (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) prompt—Students will be given the following writing prompt: As a reporter, write a newspaper article about the invention of the telephone and Alexander Graham Bell, for readers in the 1870’s.

R

A

F

T

Reporter


Readers in the 1870’s

Newspaper

Invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell

Indiana Academic Standards

English/Language Arts

1.5.5 Write for different purposes and to a specific audience.

1.6.2 Write in complete sentences.

1.6.6 Correctly use periods.

1.6.7 Capitalize the first word of a sentence, names of people and the pronoun I.

Resources

Newspaper articles to use as examples



Assessment—6+1 writing traits rubric

Learning Outcome 2: Students will learn how the telephone evolved throughout time.

Listed below is a collection of strategies that can be used to achieve Learning Outcome 2. The strategies are listed in no specific order and can be used in their entirety or substituted/enhanced with additional strategies listed in final Resources. If children’s books are listed below the strategy as a resource, they should be used as a read aloud to give students more information. There are additional children’s books listed in final Resources that are directly related to the topic and some that provide additional information about the 19th century.


  1. Field Trip to the Wayne County Historical Museum to see examples of how telephones have changed over the years. Students will also observe other artifacts from the 19th century to gain an understanding of how life was for people living during that time. This will include automobiles and the connection to telephones in the 20th century.


Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.1.1 Compare the way individuals in the community lived in the past with the way they live in the present.

1.1.9 Use the library and other information resources* to find information that answers questions about history.

Resources—Museum director, Jim Harlan, has a lot of stories to share about our history.

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes


  1. Writing Strategy—List—As a class, list ways to communicate with friends and family in the 1800’s, then have groups of students list ways to communicate now. You may have students browse websites about 19th century life.

Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.1.1 Compare the way individuals in the community lived in the past with the way they live in the present.



English/Language Arts

1.4.6 Organize and classify information by constructing categories on the basis of observation.

1.5.5 Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person.

Resources—Your choice of children’s books listed in final Resources and/or websites that your students investigate.

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes


  1. Comprehension Strategy—Graphic Organizers: Venn Diagram—compare and contrast telephones then and now

Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.1.1 Compare the way individuals in the community lived in the past with the way they live in the present.


Resources—

Wayne County Historical Museum examples

“Using Bell’s Original Telephone Apparatus [Photograph].” www.allposters.com

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eJ6tV8XQUQ&NR=1 video with pictures of evolution of phones

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0n72S-EOIE video with more pictures of telephones accompanied with dates (years) of progression

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yO_yCGHr0c video with pictures along with some descriptions

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes


  1. Comprehension Strategy—Compare and Contrast—Take a look at the difference between 19th century phone books and current phone books. Talk about similarities and differences within a group. Notice the number of telephone numbers in the books as the years progress and how the numbers change.

Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.1.9 Use the library and other information resources* to find information that answers questions about history.



Resources—

Photographs of 19th century telephone books from Morrison Reeves Library

Current telephone books

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes


  1. Math StrategyWeight and Measurement—Borrow telephones and cell phones from the Wayne County Historical Museum (several different styles and forms) and have students compare them based on size, length, weight. Students can measure using inches and centimeters.

Indiana Academic Standards

Math

1.5.1 Measure the length of objects by repeating a nonstandard unit or a standard unit.

1.5.4 Measure and estimate the length of an object to the nearest inch and centimeter.

1.5.5 Compare and order objects according to area, capacity, weight, and temperature, using direct comparison or a nonstandard unit


Resources—

Telephones from Wayne County Historical Museum



Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes

  1. Social Studies Strategy—EconomicsLook at ads in the telephone books, newspaper articles, and ads from the 19th century to locate the costs of phones, telephone lines, and the services available for that price. Then students will look in current magazines, ads, websites to locate the costs of phones, land lines, cell phone packages, and the services available today. Finally compare the differences in the cost and services provided then and now. Groups can create a graph to represent their findings.

Indiana Academic Standards

Social Studies

1.1.1 Compare the way individuals in the community lived in the past with the way they live in the present.



Math

1.1.10 Represent, compare, and interpret data using pictures and picture graphs.



Resources—

Photographs of 19th century telephone books from Morrison Reeves Library

Current telephone books

Newspaper/Cellular phone ads

Magazines

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes

Learning Outcome 3: Students will learn how peoples’ creative use of tools continually impacts society.

Listed below is a collection of strategies that can be used to achieve Learning Outcome 3. The strategies are listed in no specific order and can be used in their entirety or substituted/enhanced with additional strategies listed in final Resources. If children’s books are listed below the strategy as a resource, they should be used as a read aloud to give students more information. There are additional children’s books listed in final Resources that are directly related to the topic and some that provide additional information about the 19th century.


  1. Comprehension Strategy—Think, Pair, Share—Why do you think there was a need for cell phones? What other ways do we communicate electronically? While sharing, help students make the connection between cell phones and e-mail, chatting on the internet, etc.

Indiana Academic Standards

English/Language Arts

1.2.3 Respond to who, what, when, where, why, and how questions and recognize the main idea of what is read.

1.2.7 Relate prior knowledge to what is read.

1.7.3 Give, restate, and follow simple two-step directions.



Resources—

Inside a Telephone By John Bassett

TURNING POINT INVENTIONS: TELEPHONE by Sarah Gearhart

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes

  1. Writing Strategy—Using technology to inform others—Write letters/ e-mails to family members about how the invention of the telephone has changed our lives.

Indiana Academic Standards

Writing

1.5.5 Write for different purposes and to a specific audience.

1.6.2 Write in complete sentences.

1.6.6 Correctly use periods.

1.6.7 Capitalize the first word of a sentence, names of people and the pronoun I.

Resources—

Examples of letters



Assessment (s)—6+1 Writing Traits Rubric

  1. Social Studies Strategy—Guest Speaker—Invite a local entrepreneur into your classroom to talk to students about their experiences.

Indiana Academic Standards

English/Language Arts

1.7.1 Listen attentively.

1.7.2 Ask questions for clarification and understanding.

Resources—

Assessment (s)—Teacher observation, checklists, anecdotal notes

Final Project & Presentation—Be an inventorWhat would you change to make better? What new ideas do you have that no one has thought of before? Teacher will discuss project expectations with students and post in the classroom. Students can work individually or in groups to create a product and they will present their invention to the class.

Indiana Academic Standards

English/Language Arts

1.7.4 Stay on the topic when speaking.

1.7.5 Use descriptive words when speaking about people, places, things, and events.

1.7.9 Provide descriptions with careful attention to sensory detail.



1.7.10 Use visual aids, such as pictures and objects, to present oral information.

Resources—

The Kids' Invention Book (Kids' Ventures) by Arlene Erlbach

Three Cheers for Inventors by Marcia Williams

So You Want to Be An Inventor? by Judith St. George and David Small

Assessment (s)—Common Assessment Rubric of Student Products

Unit Resources

*Resources labeled with T=Transportation, L=Local, S=State, R=Regional. All other resources are National and most are directly related to Communication. All strategies listed were used in unit.

Writing Strategies

  • Letters/e-mails to family members

  • Create a phone book and/or address book


  • List of ways to communicate then and now

  • RAFT prompt for whole class

Vocabulary Strategies

  • Balderdash

  • Jeopardy

  • Word Wizard

Comprehension Strategies

  • R.A.N. (Reading and Analyzing Non-fiction)

  • Visualizing

  • Questioning

  • Beginning, Middle, End Chart

  • Sequencing

Math Strategies

  • Graph phones in home/family

  • Measure and/or weigh styles of telephones from different time periods

Social Studies Strategies

  • Museum Exhibit: Examples of how phones changed over time

  • Time Lines: Plot the invention of the telephone, first call, etc.

  • Graphic Organizers: Venn Diagram

  • Guest Speakers: Experts on how telephones work visit class

  • Interactive Bulletin Board: Students research in groups and record/create

  • Field Trips of Distinction: Visit local telephone company

  • Custom Boxes: Introduce students to “then” through photos, newspapers, etc.

Experiment

  • Build a cup and string phone and try with a partner

Role Play

  • Reader’s Theater—first telephone call

  • Simulation—before the telephone was invented

Field Trips

  • Train Depot—Visiting old tracks and hearing historical stories from local citizens such as Roger Richert or Jim Harlan

  • Wayne County Historical Museum
  • Visit a local telephone company or invite someone from the company to visit the class and explain how telephones work and how that technology has changed since its invention.


Children’s Books directly connected to this unit

Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone: The Invention That Changed Communication (Milestones in American History) by Samuel Willard Crompton

This book is about Alexander Graham Bell and the invention of the telephone.



Did You Invent The Phone All Alone, Alexander Graham Bell? (Scholastic Science Supergiants) by Melvin Berger

This story is told in a question and answer format teaching how the telephone was invented and the mechanics of it, as well as Bell’s life and what led to his interest in communications.


TURNING POINT INVENTIONS: TELEPHONE by Sarah Gearhart

This non-fiction book is divided into sections including: Before the telephone, The inventor’s life, Inventing the telephone, A new world, and The future of long-distance communication. Pages include primary photos, documents, sketches, and diagrams from the 19th century as well as a timeline with photos of the many forms of the telephone of the years.

No Photo Available Inside a Telephone By John Bassett

This non-fiction book includes history of communications, looking inside of a telephone, how a telephone actually works, networks, digital and analog, exchanging numbers and switching, shape and materials of phones, pay phones, modern communication—e-mail and internet and the future. The book is detailed and concise making the connection between the early invention of the telephone and our communication today and in the future.


The Inventions of Alexander Graham Bell: The Telephone (19th Century American Inventors) by Holly Cefrey

This children’s book will teach students about Alexander Graham Bell’s life and is recommended for grades K-3. They will learn about his love and respect for the deaf and his years of work with the hearing disabled along with his inventions. Original photographs of Bell and his inventions along with other original artifacts will certainly interest young readers.



The Kids' Invention Book (Kids' Ventures) by Arlene Erlbach

Although this book is geared toward older elementary students, first graders will be interested in learning about children and their inventions. This book will encourage the ideas of your students. It also explains how inventors turn visions into reality, discusses patents, and includes additional resources for further information.



Three Cheers for Inventors by Marcia Williams

This cartoon illustrated book includes short biographies and discoveries of inventors from around the globe. Some of the inventors are ones we’ve heard of before and others will be new.



So You Want to Be An Inventor? by Judith St. George and David Small

This book encourages children to “find a need and fill it” and to be dreamers by referencing diverse inventors who changed the way things were done.


Children’s Books that may help provide background information about the 19th century


President Lincoln, Willie Kettles, and the Telegraph Machine (History Speaks: Picture Books Plus Reader's Theater (Quality)) by Marty Rhodes Figley and David Riley

This book is part of a series, History Speaks: Picture Books Plus Reader’s Theater. This story is told from a young boy’s point of view during the Civil War. At the age of fifteen, Willie Kettles was a telegraph operator in Washington D.C. (Washington City) at the U.S. Military Telegraph Corps. He receives a very important message. There is a reader’s theater script so that students can play out the story. It also includes a pronunciation guide, glossary, and a list of other resources to explore.



They're Off! : The Story of the Pony Express by Cheryl Harness

Theillustrations in this book are sure to capture any student’s attention, recommended for grades 1-5. Harness introduces many of the people involved in the Pony Express and elaborates on the purpose, beginning and ending of the Pony Express. She also attempts to give students historical perspective by including other facts surrounding the time era.


Whatever Happened to the Pony Express? by Verla Kay, Barry Root and Kimberly Bulcken Root

This book is recommended for K-3. The story explains the westerners need for communication across long distances. She highlights the different ways of transporting mail throughout time including wagon, stagecoach, boat, camel, horseback, telegraph, and train. Throughout the book, a brother and sister are writing letters to each other. The author depicts different lifestyles by showing a farmer, miner, soldiers, Native Americans, cowboys, and more.


Off Like the Wind!: The First Ride of the Pony Express by Michael P. Spradlin and Layne Johnson

This book is recommended for grades K-3 to learn about the first ever Pony Express rides. The author’s tale is based on historical records and illustrations do an amazing job of depicting the dangers that the riders experienced on their rides. The courage and determination exhibited by the Pony Express riders is portrayed in this exciting book about some of their adventures.



The Pony Express (We the People) by Jean Kinney Williams

This book is part of a series, We the People, and is recommended for grades 1-6. The author shares details about the Old West, the Gold Rush, and the desire for communication. Students will learn how people got mail to California and how long it took before the Pony Express and then, how the Pony Express was born and who was responsible for the idea. The first ride is described along with the adventures of the riders and the end of Pony Express when the telegraph became transcontinental. Also includes important people, dates (timeline), interesting facts, and great original photographs.



The Railroad (Life in the Old West) by Bobbie Kalman

This book describes the development of the railroad and its influence on peoples’ way of life including changes for Native Americans in the 19th century.


Ten Mile Day: And the Building of the Transcontinental Railroad by Mary Ann Fraser

This book describes the day that ten miles of track were laid in a day. The author gives a lot of detail and even addresses the Chinese laborers and how the railroad played a part in changing life for the Native Americans.


Steam, Smoke, and Steel: Back in Time with Trains by Patrick O'Brien

This story is told from a child’s point of view telling about the modern train his father engineers going back to his ancestors and trains that they engineered.



Websites

http://www.projects-for-kids.com/science-projects/string-phone.php

How to make a cup and string phone



http://www.history.com/search?search-field=telephone

History Channel documents on telephone



http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/recon/jb_recon_telephone_2.html

Library of Congress: America’s Story—The First Telephone Call



http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=28347

Phoneton, Ohio landmarker with info



http://www.indianahistory.org/

Indiana Historical Society



www.readingquest.org

Graphic Organizers

“Using Bell’s Original Telephone Apparatus [Photograph].” www.allposters.com

This black and white photograph shows a man using Bell’s original telephone. He is holding one piece to his ear and the other to his mouth. You can see the wires attached to both and connecting to a box on the table. There is another wire running from the other end of the box up the wall where it would connect to another telephone.



http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/ss/TelephonePatent.htm Bell’s Patent for the Telephone

http://store.ushistory.org/showcat.asp?cid=67 Civil War era replicas of posters, currency, etc.

danieljbmitchell. You Tube: Watson Describes Invention of Telephone by Bell. August 11, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rerNEK2wWts (accessed March 17, 2011).

This is a recording of Alexander Graham Bell’s assistant, Thomas A. Watson, made in the 1920’s. The picture is a sketch of a woman using the telephone and does not change. The recording is about four minutes and twenty-seven seconds long and describes their somewhat accidental discovery, the first telephone call between the two men, and then the first transcontinental phone call, first between President Woodrow Wilson and the Governor of California and then Bell in New York and Watson in California.

footagefile. You Tube: ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL INVENTS TELEPHONE. October 26, 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfLWtebubtY&feature=related (accessed March 17, 2011).

This video is black and white and has no sound, but it is a recording of the actual invention/discovery of the telephone. It shows Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant, Thomas A. Watson, testing the invention. You can read what is being said between video clips and you can see the excitement on their faces when they can hear each other on the first operating telephone.


http://inventors.about.com/od/bstartinventors/a/telephone.htm Alexander Graham Bell’s Invention

http://inventors.about.com/od/bstartinventors/a/Alexander_Bell.htm Timeline of Bell’s life

http://inventors.about.com/cs/inventorsalphabet/a/martin_cooper.htm Martin Cooper and invention of cell phone

http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa070899.htm History of cell phones

http://transition.fcc.gov/cgb/kidszone/faqs_cellphones.html cell phone facts for kids

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7bQENrpfBZw&feature=related 7th graders role playing to demonstrate the evolution of the telephone

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eJ6tV8XQUQ&NR=1 video with pictures of evolution of phones

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0n72S-EOIE video with more pictures of telephones accompanied with dates (years) of progression

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yO_yCGHr0c video with pictures along with some descriptions

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query

Library of Congress: American Memory



  • Alexander Graham Bell's design sketch of the telephone, ca. 1876.

  • Letter from Alexander Graham Bell to Mabel Hubbard Bell, May 18, 1879

  • Central Union Telephone Company Building, 311 North Wayne Street, Piqua, Miami, OH

  • [Chicago Daily News telephone operator, wearing a white blouse, face slightly obscured by the telephone, writing on a pad]
  • The "Germproof" Glass Telephone Mouthpiece


  • [William H. Taft, full-length portrait, standing, facing left, with hand on telephone]

  • The city of Richmond, Indiana 1884.

Other

  • Richmond Home Telephone Company Phone Books dating back to 1899 found at Morrison-Reeves Library

  • Richmond 2011 Phone Book

  • Local newspaper articles with interesting news about telephones in the late 19th and early 20th century found at Morrison-Reeves Library.

Teacher Resource Books

50 Social Studies Strategies for K-8 Classrooms, by Kathryn M. Obenchain & Ronald V. Morris

Reality Checks, by Tony Stead















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