I will never speak to him again as long as I live.
Whenever/Every time (tiap kali)
The doctor always come whenever he is sent for.
Every time I kick him, I feel satisfied.
Adverbial Clauses of CAUSE – EFFECT
He went to bed because he got drowsy.
Since (=because) (karena)
Since he’s not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert.
Now that (=because now) for present/future
Now that Peggy has a car, she can drive to school.
Inasmuch as (=because) for formal using
Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote.
As (=because) (karena)
As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
Due to (=because of)
Due to the cold weather, we stayed home.
Therefore/Consequently (as a result) (sebagai akibatnya)
Al didn’t study. Therefore, he failed the test.
Ellen got angry. Consequently, she didn’t want togo to the mall.
Such – Adjective – Noun – That
(=to emphasize the great degree of something)(begitu …. sehingga) It was such nice weather that we went to the zoo.
So – Adjective/Adverb – That
(=to express result)(begitu … sehingga)
I’m so hungry that I could eat a horse.
He walked so quickly that I couldn’t keep
up with him.
So that/In order to (= to express purpose) (supaya)
I turned off the TV in order to enable my roommate to study in peace and quiet. I turned off the TV so that my roommate could study in peace and quiet. I’ll take my umbrella so that I won’t/don’t get wet. Yesterday I took my parasol so that I wouldn’t get wet.
Adverbial Clauses of RESULT
Despite/ In spite of
(to express unexpected result) (meskipun/walaupun)
Tim’s in good shape physically, even though he doesn’t get much exercise. Although I forbade this you have done it. Though it was cold, I went swimming. He wasn’t tired. Nevertheless, he went to bed. She wasn’t hungry. Nonetheless, she ate two dishes of ice cream anyway. He lied to me. However, I still trust him.
In spite of her low grades, she was admitted to the university.
Despite the noisiness, I like living in the dorm.
On the other hand
(=used to show direct opposition) (sedangkan)
Marry is rich, whereas John is poor. While Fred is a good student, his brother is lazy. Florida has a warm climate, but Alaska has a cold climate. I am poor. Yet, I am honest. Sue and Ron are expecting a child. Sue is hoping for a boy. Ron, on the other hand, is hoping for a girl.
Adverbial Clauses of CONDITION
If it rains, the streets get wet.
Even if (bahkan kalau)
(=to express the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters)
I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.
Unless (jika tidak)
(= if ….. not)
I will go to the zoo unless it’s cold.
(= I will go to the zoo if it is not cold)
Only if (hanya jika)
(= to express the idea that there is ONLY ONE condition that will cause a particular result)
You will pass the test only if you study hard.
Only if you study hard, will you pass the test.
Otherwise (kalau tidak)
(= to express the idea ‘if the opposite is true, then there will be a certain result)
You’d better hurry. Otherwise, you’ll be late.
There are many interesting places to visit in the city, for example/for instance, the botanical garden or the art museum.
Some countries, such as Brazil and Canada, are big.
Adverbial Clauses of Continuity the same idea
(= means also) (terlebih lagi)
The city provides many cultural opportunities. It has an excellent art museum. Moreover/Furthermore, it has a fine symphony orchestra. The city provides many cultural opportunities. Besides an excellent art museum, it has a fine symphony orchestra. EXERCISE TO DO
Combine by using paired conjunctions
He doesn’t have a pen. He doesn’t have paper.
Ron enjoys horseback riding. Bob enjoys horseback riding.
You can have tea, or you can have coffee.
Arthur is not in class today. Ricardo is not in class today.
The president’s assistant will not confirm the story. The president’s assistant will not deny the story.
We can fix dinner for them there, or we can take them to a restaurant.
Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource. Oil is an irreplaceable natural recourse.
Small pox is a dangerous disease. Malaria is a dangerous disease.
Her roommates don’t know where she is. Her brother doesn’t know where she is.
According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.
EXERCISE TO DO
Combine by using CAUSE – EFFECT
You just had your sixteenth birthday. Now you can get a driver’s license. (now that)
Monday is Bob’s birthday. Let’s give him a party. (inasmuch as)
My parents are generous. All of the children in our family have received the best of everything. (due to)
I couldn’t understand her. She talked too fast. (so – that)
The audience booed the actors. It was a bad performance. (such – that)
Bob used to live in the dorm, but a couple of weeks ago he moved into an apartment. Now he can cook his own food. (now that)
Monday is a national holiday. All government offices will be closed. (since)
We have to wear warm clothes. It’s winter now. (now that)
I am going to leave the party early. I want to be able to get a good night’s sleep tonight. (so that)
The car was expensive. We couldn’t afford to buy it. (such – that)
I’ve met too many people in the last few days. I can’t possibly remember all of their names. (so – that)
Bill’s wife is ill. Bill has to do all of the cooking and cleaning all alone. (because of)
Whew! I’ve finally finished painting the house. Now I can go fishing. (now that)
The guys I live with don’t know any Arabic. I have to speak English with them. (inasmuch as)
I unplugged the phone. I didn’t want to be interrupted while I was working. (so that)
I can get a job as a bilingual secretary. I know English now. (now that)
The children stayed home. A storm was approaching. (therefore)
When it started to rain, Harry opened his umbrella. He wanted to be sure he didn’t get wet. (so that)
Dr. Robinson has done excellent research on wolves. We know much more today about the endangered species than we did even five years ago. (due to)
Even though Jack wasn’t feeling good, he went to class. (however)
He is happy even though he has a vast fortune. (in spite of)
Sally was very sad, but she smiled and pretended to be having a good time. (nevertheless)
In the United States, gambling casinos are not legal in most states, while in my country it is possible to gamble in any city or town. (on the other hand)
George didn’t panic even though he was alone and lost in the woods. (nevertheless)
They wanted to climb the mountain even though it was dangerous. (despite)
Elizabeth is not a citizen of the United States, but she has to pay income taxes anyway. (nonetheless)
Old people in my country usually live with their children. The old in United States often live by themselves. (whereas)
The weather was extremely hot. They went jogging in the park. (in spite of)
Even though the work was hard, they enjoyed themselves. (yet)
EXERCISE TO DO
Combine by using CONDITION
Sam’s uncle tells a lot of jokes. Sometimes they’re funny, and sometimes they’re not. But Sam always laughs at the jokes. (even if)
If I don’t get some film, I won’t be able to take pictures when Ann and Rob get here. (unless)
John must get a scholarship in order to go to school. That is the only condition under which he can go to school. (only if)
Your approval doesn’t matter to me. I’m going to marry her. (even if)
Mary can go to school only if she gets a scholarship. (otherwise)
EXERCISE TO DO
Combine by using CONTINUITY of the same idea
I like to read that newspaper. One reason is that the news is always reported accurately. It has interesting special features. (furthermore)
There are many ways you can work on improving your English outside of class. For example, you should speak English as much as possible, even when you are speaking with friends who speak your native language. You should read as many magazines in English as you have time for. Watching television can be helpful. (besides)
ANOTHER EXERCISE I
Combine by using appropriate pattern!
The teacher has explained the lesson several times. The pupils still do not understand it.
The food is expensive. It is not delicious at all.
The inside of the cave is dark. It smells of bats too.
They searched everywhere for it. They could not find it.
Jim switched on the fan. He was feeling very hot.
The river was flooded. It had been raining continuously for several days.
He ran after the bus. He caught it just as it was about to move off.
Marianne worked hard for the test. She got through with flying colors.
His sickness is very serious. The doctors have not given up hope.
We could not enter by the front. The gates were locked already.
He is the richest man in the country. He is not a contented man.
“Look through the binoculars. You will see the bird up on the tree.”
The machine would not work. Some of the screws have come off.
I knocked at the door several times. No one answered me.
The rooms given to us were large. They were airy too.
His grandfather is sixty years old. He has white hair all over his head. He is still very healthy.
She would not agree to do it. We persuaded her. We even begged her.
She is an intelligent girl. She failed in the examination. She is lazy.
I was hot. I was tired. I had been walking under the sun for two kilometers.
Ronnie fell down from his bicycle. He hurt himself. He didn’t cry.
Bobby is in the army. Peter is in the navy. Adam is only a clerk.
They postponed the badminton match. It looked like raining. The wind was too strong to play in.
She was very drowsy. She finished the work. She had promised her brother to finish it for him.
I didn’t put on the lamp. I used to torchlight instead. I didn’t want to disturb anyone.
The current was quite strong. He managed to bring the child to the bank. He saved the child from drowning.
We could not come in time. We started early. There was a traffic jam on the highway.
Our school team tried its best. We did not win the match. The opposite team was too strong.
That old man is blind. He is lame. He can move very fast with his wooden leg.
I was tired. I couldn’t sleep. The night was warm. Mosquitoes were buzzing round me.
The bell had rung for school to begin. Simon has not come yet. He woke up late. He slept late the night before.
You can _________ write in English ________ Malay _______ both are accepted.
Jimmy missed the bus ________ he had to walk ________ luckily someone gave him a lift.
The boys are afraid to go near the house ___________ of the dog _________ they have to go up to deliver a message.
He can speak ________ cannot write English ________ he studied Chinese at school ______ learned English only when he started working.
You must hold the rope tight _________ I can cut through it easily.
I couldn’t afford to buy it _________ I liked it very much.
_________ we had set up the net already, we couldn’t play badminton _______ it was too windy.
Aileen couldn’t come with us _______ she had a bad cold, _________ we came without her.
You should put your shoes out in the sun ______ they will dry faster ________ you need them tomorrow.
_______ it rained when we were coming home, James did not get wet _________ he had a raincoat _________ I didn’t ________ I got wet all through.
I left the light on ________ he can find his way up the stairs ________ he usually comes home very late.
Mr. Steven had to pay a fine _______ stay in jail for a month ______ breaking a traffic rule.
_______ Sally ________ Joyce is coming to the meeting ________ because both of them are kept in at school.
He wanted to join us _________ his father would not allow him.
________ of you are to blame _______ both of you didn’t understand the situation.
HOWEVER – FURTHERMORE – OTHERWISE – DUE TO – THEREFORE – BUT – BECAUSE OF
Paula often throws a meaningful smile to any boy that asks her out for a date; ________ always turns it down at last.
Indonesia has already faced a lot of problems – economical, political and social - __________ the conflicts among the politicians.
Mark always has his office computers repaired here _________ the excellent quality of service given.
Flying planes is so dangerous and _________, requires very experienced-pilot.
I could have taken Jane’s bags to her car, ________ I didn’t help her to take them.
Vivian was disappointed _________ not being able to cease her literature test on time.
The kids didn’t study. _________, they failed on the course.
You must buy the tickets, _________, we won’t be able to see that play.
We live in the same building, _________, we hardly see each other.
That house isn’t big enough for us, and _________, it’s too expensive.
THEREFORE – HOWEVER – SO THAT – BECAUSE – SO – WHEREAS – EITHER – SINCE – NOT ONLY – AS THOUGH
I went to bed early __________ I would be able to get up early.
It’s an excellent course _________ I’m very lucky to get a place in it.
I don’t really want to go to the cinema ________ because I can’t afford it,
There’s very little that he can do about this ________ it’s not his responsibility.
I’ve known her for a long time. ________, I don’t know much about her.
She’s extremely generous _________ her husband is the exact opposite.
The suspect is ill in the hospital. _________, we can’t interview him at the time being.
I like working here _________ the people are very friendly.
__________ I could do the work tonight, or I could wake up early to do it.
He looks __________ he were sick.
ALTHOUGH – HOWEVER – BECAUSE – BUT – DUE TO
The space program has been expensive. ________ it has advanced science and created jobs.
Smoking in indoor public places is becoming extremely rare in the US. This is largely ___________ widespread public awareness of the health hazard caused by the smoking itself as well by “second hand smoke” – smoke inhaled by someone who doesn’t smoke.
__________ they were not that well-known, the Incas built an incredible system of roads and an amazing bridge.
My parents were very strict with me, _________ they believed children needed a lot of discipline,
NEVERTHELESS – THEREFORE – IF – HOWEVER – MOREOVER
It has recently come to my attention that some students have not been attending classes regularly. This is a very serious situation. You can’t get good grades _________ you don’t attend classes. __________ you can’t qualify for a good job. It’s true that many employers don’t look at grades. __________, employers do want employees who are well-educated, responsible, and have a positive attitude. I’ve heard several students say that classes are boring. _________, ________ you have a positive attitude toward the material, you will see that it can be interesting. A good education is the most valuable of all possessions. __________, I urge all of you to attend classes regularly.
FOR – IF – FURTHERMORE – BECAUSE – DURING – MOREOVER – HOWEVER
The time has come to extend the school year to 12 months. _________ students attend school all year, they won’t have the usual 3 months of summer vacation to forget what they have learned ________ the previous nine months. _________, there will be less risk of students getting into trouble _________ they have too much unstructured-time. ______________, a twelve-month school year will allow us to make full-use of our school public facilities. We, taxpayers, shouldn’t have to pay for the un-kept buildings that go un-used _________ three months every year. Students may not like the idea of going to classes all year round. __________, teachers and taxpayers will agree that it makes more sense than the traditional academic year.
DUE TO – DESPITE – THOUGH – BECAUSE – BECAUSE OF – YET – HOWEVER
Mark has finally given up his ambition to be a sculpture or _________ the realization of his talent limitation.
English is so easy, _________ French is so difficult.
___________ the movie was welcomed with the extra ordinary number of moviegoers flooding the cinema it would be on cinemas for another week.
__________ her low grades, she was admitted to the Chicago University.
I don’t like geometry too much. I’m going to enroll in a School of Architecture _________.
Nobody has noticed Sandra’s talent in music. _________, she keeps on practicing playing piano.
_________ both of them had been engaged for almost 4 years and they had already had a stable career they decided to get married next month.
Shirley was so disappointed ___________ not being able to accomplish her final exam on time.
__________ the reality that he’s only an adopted child, Harry still loves his foster parents and does not want to live with his real parents.
Mr. Walberg has blamed himself for not educating his son much better. __________, he actually feels that it can’t be him who has made his son a bank robber.
BECAUSE – FIRST – THEN – NEXT – ONCE – WHEN – AFTER – IN CASE – BY THEN – BEFORE
_________ of a serious cut, always apply a tourniquet _________ you do anything else. Don’t wait for an ambulance _________ _________ the injured-person might have already lost too much blood. To apply a tourniquet, ________, place wide cloth close to the wound. ________, wrap the cloth around the arm or leg and tie a half knot. ________, place a stick on top of the knot and tie a square knot. _________ you’ve done that, twist the stick. __________ the bleeding stops tie the stick in place. _________ you’ve secured the tourniquet, go to the hospital immediately.
ALTHOUGH – BUT – DUE TO – YET – IN CASE – THEREFORE – ALTHOUGH – WHILE – AS – AS A RESULT
_____________ their own economies stumble, Malaysia and other countries, that once welcomed foreign workers, now tell them to go home.
Justice Syaifuddin was shot dead on the morning of July 26 by four men riding on two motorcycles, ___________ he has driving through Kemayoran, Central Jakarta, on his way to work.
Most students from well-off families had submitted back up application to private universities, which obviously charge the students much more in fees, ___________ they failed the state entrance examination.
In rural China, women are abducted and sold. This is a practice that will escalate __________ the skewed to female ratio, resulting in a dire shortage of available brides. According to sociologist, Korea will experience a similar predicament in the not too distant future, __________ on a smaller scale.
Free copies about the results of State Universities’ entrance examination were provided at every State University campus, __________ in Surabaya, some were being sold at between Rp 2,000 and Rp 5,000 per copy.
__________ John F. Kennedy, Jr was American royalty; he had an effortless common touch-helping the helpless, working with disadvantaged-children and having a kind word for everyone he encountered along his way.
Some Asian nations now have quota policies to ensure women’s voice in government. ___________, women hold 21% of China’s parliamentary seats. Taiwan women hold 10% of elected local government seats.
The lives of JFK’s children were something of a paradox-lived in plain sight, largely on the streets of Manhattan, ___________ shielded from the public, press, and even the Kennedy clan itself.
The role and status of women in Asia are often traced to the hierarchy for respect and obedience put forth by conflicts. It’s currently thought, __________, that such teaching should “be considered politically incorrect in modern society”.
BECAUSE – IN ORDER TO – SO-THAT – HOWEVER – DESPITE – BECAUSE – AS SOON AS – THOUGH – SO-THAT – IF
The teacher suspected him cheating __________ he noticed the pupil’s furtive glances at his classmate’s paper.
_________ you listen carefully, you can hear this simple motif throughout the entire score.
Many educators argue that a homogenous grouping of students would improve instruction ___________ it would limit the range of student abilities in the classroom.
___________ he was a misanthrope, he shunned human society.
Hroswitha, the nun, ___________ hidden among the cloisters and obscured by time is now considered an important literary figure of the medieval period.
__________ the mixture’s volatile, we found that by lowering its temperature in the laboratory we could dramatically reduce its tendency to vaporize.
His olfactory sense was __________ highly developed _________ he was often called in to judge perfume.
She has sufficient tact to handle the ordinary crises of diplomatic life; __________, even her diplomacy is insufficient to enable her to weather the current emergency.
You should delete this paragraph ________ make your essay more succinct.
The plot of this story is ________ trite ______ I can predict the outcome.
FOR – DUE TO – THEREFORE – HOWEVER – DESPITE – THEREFORE – BECAUSE OF – UNLESS – ALTHOUGH – BECAUSE – WHILE – ALTHOUGH – BUT – BEFORE
Tens of thousands of workers on Batam Island may eventually lose their jobs _________ continuing low demand for products from the island.
“___________ the national economy improves, dozens of foreign investors will leave the island by May 2012,” Mark said.
The North Jakarta Police are seeking five men __________ their allege roles in the Kidnapping of Billy Dharmawan, brother of the owner of PT. Matahari Putra Prima. On Thursday Billy was released ___________ it still remains unclear whether the kidnappers were paid any money. ____________ the police are still continuing to probe the case __________ the family has not yet paid any ransom.
Residents of Munjul Village in Cipayung sub-district, East Jakarta, are still consuming polluted water from their wells ____________ the source of pollution had been removed from their area seven months ago.
The wells belong to 70 families in the neighborhood were all-polluted. ___________, many residents had abandoned consuming water from their own wells.
The residents suspected that the waste had polluted the water ___________ they operated here, the water was fine.
The residents’ complained resulted in the decision of local authorities to evict UD Kurnia from the area in October last year. _________, the water still tastes bitter.
Tests conducted by Labiomed, a laboratory owned by the Indonesian Army, also show that the water in the area failed to meet the clean water requirements __________ it had a high percentage of metal and gas.
The water contained 5 ppm of iron and 3 ppm of nitrate, ___________ the highest acceptable levels are 0.3 ppm of iron and 1 ppm of nitrate.
___________ the continuing problem, residents have opted not to take the case to court as local authorities have responded to their demand.
Djafar’s lawyers told the South Jakarta District Court that their client would continue with the lawsuit against the National Police _________ failed negotiations.
AND – BUT – OR – BECAUSE – SO
I did not buy the ball ___________ I did not have enough money.
He wanted to buy some salt ___________ the shop was closed.
I like chocolates ___________ cakes.
He walked to the door ___________ opened it.
They went fishing ____________ did not catch anything.
You must not go near the fire __________ you will be burnt.
My brother is ill __________ he cannot go to school.
He scalded his hand badly __________ he went to see the doctor.
She opened the cupboard __________ took out a book.
We couldn’t hear what he was saying _________ he was speaking very softly.
Michael did not study for his test __________ he failed it.
I searched everywhere for the key _________ could not find it.
Do you want the red dress __________ the blue one?
You must hurry ___________ you will miss the train.
You must keep quiet _________ you will have to leave the room.