NAME: ______________________________ 1. A “pastry” is a dough made from flour, fat, and liquid that bakes in “layers”. These layers create the ___________________ of the food product. In a pie crust pastry, the fat is distributed in pieces throughout the flour. As the pie crust bakes, the fat layer melts away and air pockets form in their place. The new layers of air pockets plus the flour layers form “flakes”.
2. The layered doughs are used to make breads, candies, desserts, and _____ ____________.
3. Flour provides the structure of the pastry. Over-measuring flour causes_________________.
4. Flour contains a protein called __________________. This can also cause a “tough” product if it is over-worked.
5. The liquid mixed with the flour creates the __________________ . Water and milk are common liquids used in pastry. Too much liquid makes the product…
____________________ or ________________.
6. Ingredients may include one or more types of fat. The fat creates ______________________.
Animal fats are very rich. Examples are: ______________ and _________________. The animal fats are the most flavorful to use, but contain cholesterol (the saturated fat that contributes to heart disease) Lard is so rich that you must use 15-_____% less fat than the recipe calls for.
Vegetable fats are also used. Examples are: _________________ or _______________.
7. Adding too much fat creates a product that is ______________ or _______________.
8. Sugar and spices may be added to pastries to provide ___________________.
9. Basic pie crust dough is called 3-2-1 dough, as the _____________of the ingredients are 3 parts flour, 2 parts fat, and 1 part water.
10. Use an implement called a _____________ ______________ to “________ _______” the shortening, making coarse crumbs. Use 1/3 cup shortening per 1 cup of flour.
11. __________________________ the dough while incorporating the fat or liquid can cause the gluten to form long, tough strands.
12. The ____________________ you roll out a pie crust is very important! Always start in the center and roll outward. Pick up the rolling pin and return to the center before rolling in an outward direction again. A wooden rolling pin will “spin” if you are doing it correctly. Maintain circle shape!
13. When transferring the dough into the pie plate, unfold the dough, carefully lifting and coaxing it down into the pan…don’t push or ________________it!
14. If using a metal pan to bake a pastry, ___________________ is best.
15. If you are using glass pans for baking pastry, you may need to lower the oven temperature
16. In some pies, such as lemon meringue, the bottom crust is baked first and the cooked filling is added later. This is called ‘______________ _____________’. Before baking an empty crust, you must ____________________________________________________ to allow steam to escape and keep it lying flat in the pan.
17. The pie crust edge is always finished in a decorative manner… the most common decorative edge is ___________________.
18. _____________________ the top of a pie crust is done with milk and sugar. There are two reasons for this…
A. ______________________ B. _________________________
19. When baking a two-crust pie, the top crust must be “slashed”. This allows the ___________ to escape, and keeps the top crust flat.
20. To achieve the best pie possible, it…
A. has a bottom crust that is flaky, not soggy
21. A pie with strips of pastry woven together on top is called a ______________________ pie.
22. A roll-in dough method is used in making ____________ pastries. The dough must be rolled, folded, rolled again, layered with butter, refolded and re-rolled numerous times to create a very flaky product.
23. The famous ___________________ dessert consists of layers of puff pastry and sweetened creams.
24. _________________ (FEE-low) dough consists of paper-thin sheets of pastry. As it bakes, the layers separate into delicate sheets.
25. ____________________is a Greek dessert made of phyllo dough, nuts, and honey.
26. Pâte à ______________ (paht ah SHOE) is made by combining liquid, butter, flour, and eggs into a smooth batter. The mixture is then used to make elongated éclairs and cream puffs.
27. ___________________________ are small round pâte à choux pastries filled with ice cream.
28. A ______________ is a plain or puff pastry dish, usually filled with a sweet filling. It is most often open, without a top crust. Large tarts are made with a shallow pastry. Individual tarts are small and/or shallow. They commonly have a fruit or custard filling. They may be made in mini-muffin tins.
29. When making a fruit pie, add ______________ to fruit AT THE VERY LAST MINUTE. The sugar extracts moisture from the fruit, causing it to become juicy. A juicy filling can cause a soggy bottom crust.
30. Apple seeds are encased in shiny, hard pods called ________________. They resemble a popcorn hull, and are indigestible. Use care to remove them when coring and slicing the apple. They never soften during baking.
31. A red, _______________________ apple is a variety of apple grown for ‘eating’. They are quite sweet, and the flesh is soft. This apple would get very mushy, if cooked.
Green______________________________ and the smaller red _____________________ apples are varieties grown for baking. The flesh is firm, and retains its shape during baking. These apples are tart.
32. Name two fruits, other than apples, that are commonly used in fruit pies: