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Tribal Welfare.
The main tribals in this district are the Oraons, Kharwars, Cheros, Kisans (Nagesia), Bhogtas (Ganjhus), Birhors, Paraiyahs and Mundas. The economic incidence of the tribals has been extremely low and their habits of living in some sort of seclusion have kept them considerably away from the currents of progress. Some of the missionaries and particularly the Roman Catholic missionaries had settled down decades before in Adibasi pockets such as Mahuadanr and Bhandaria and had tried to propagate education and some sort of social upgrading among them. No doubt these missionaries had also the other object of converting as many Adibasis as possible into Christianity. The Mahuadanr Revenue Thana has got a population of 36,849 souls out of which even according to a modest estimate 25,000 persons are Christians. Latehar subdivision has got most of the tribals.
The break-up figures of the main tribals supplied by the Deputy Commissioner's office are given below. These figures should be taken as approximate in 1960:-

Oraons ... ... ... 61,454

Kharwars ... ... ... 60,393

Cheros ... ... ... 17,618

Risans (Nagesia) ... ... ... 6,629

Bhogtas (Ganjhus) ... ... ... 11,638

Birjias ... ... ... 1,594

Parhaiyas ... ... ... 7,107

Mundas ... ... ... 5,217

Korwahs ... ... ... 11,203

There are smaller groups like Lohras, Birhors, Karas, Gonds, Asurs.

With the advent of Independence and the change-over of the State Government from a Police State to a Welfare State the uplift of the tribals and other backward sections was actively pursued. A special department known as the welfare Department was created at the Seeretariat level. The district administration of the Welfare Department is in the hands of the District Welfare Officers who are also under the administrative control of the Deputy Commissioner. Under the District Welfare Officer there are a number of Thana Welfare Officers whose, duties are to have closer contact with the aboriginals, to know their difficulties and to try to redress them through the District Welfare


Each Thana Welfare Officer has a mission to fulfil and it is a question of how far he has been able to do the work. His work is of diversified nature, one of which is to start a small library and provide some recreational amenities to the aboriginals. It is contemplated to pursue the scheme on a large scale so that small clubs at important centres may be evolved where the Adibasis would be encouraged to meet every evening and be acquainted with the current affairs. The Thana Welfare Officer has also to look after the economic independence of the tribals as far as possible. If the tribal needs loan to tide over some difficulties or to purchase seeds for his fields or wants to put his children into a school, the idea is that the Thana Welfare Officer should the immediate agent for getting him these facilities. He has to be the friend, philosopher and guide of the Adibasis.

One of the main items of the Welfare Section of the district administration is to improve the educational facilities provided for the Adibasis. The number of aboriginal students in all types of schools in 1950 was only 2,627 as against 11,074 in 1958-59. Stipends are granted to the aboriginals for their study. Hostel facilities are also provided for the Adibasi students. One such hostel run by the Adimjati Seva Mandal at Latehar has provision for 50 students. There is another aboriginal hostel at Latehar and one at Daltonganj.

Ghain Golas.

The Adibasis are rather improvident and their low economic incidence also stands in the way of building up a reserve or grains for seeds. More frequently the Adibasi cultivator usually finds himself in difficulties for providing seeds at sowing time as he has already eaten up all his grains. In order to tide over such difficulties grain golas have provided at different places from where a quantity of seed strictly limited to the requirement is issued to the Adibasi cultivator with the stipulation that the quantity will be returned when his grains are collected. There are grain golas at Ramgarh, Bhandaria, Ranka, Nagar, Padam, Latehar, Chandwa, Nindra, Balumath, Saryu, Chhipadohar and Mahfiadanr.

There are 15 Thana Welfare Officers working in the district.

Sunder in his Palamau Settlement Report'(1898) mentioned that there were 48,546 Oraons (23,799 males and 24,747 females). He found that the Oraons held 9,808.56 acres of land, the rent of which was Rs. 7,054-2-0. The food of the Oraons he found was pig, beef, goat's flesh, eggs, fowls, tiger, leopard, bear, all birds except vultures, fish, field-rats and large bull-frogs. He observed that roots of all edible kinds were relished.
He found that young Oraon children between the ages of seven to nine years were being married and thought they were following the example of the caste-Hindus. Ordinarily the children were named after the day on which they were born. Sometimes the name of some relative or ancestor was fixed. Many of the common names were Somra, Mangra, Budhua, Bifaiya., Sukra, Sanichara, Etwari after the particular day of birth.

Regarding funerals Sunder observed that the dead bodies were burnt after the body had been consumed, five bits of bore from the hands, ribs, and thighs were collected and put in an earthen vessel and kept at the place where the body was burnt. After twelve days, when the bhoj ceremony was to be performed the ashes were swept by the people who burnt the body and thrown into the river. After a bath the earthen vesse1containing the bones of the deceased was carried to his hut. All along the way parched rice was scattered. The earthen vessel was hung on the wall outside the hut. After this when food for the bhoj was ready a little of everything was to be taken and place in the earthen vessel to satisfy the spirit of the deceased. Then the feast was to be held. The earthen vessel would then be carried to the river and thrown. Before the vessel was to be carried pice had to be put into the vessel. After throwing the vessel in the water of the river the men will go to the nearest outstill shop and drink.

Regarding festivals Sunder observed that they were Karma, Jitia, Amawas, Dashara, Soharai, Chat and Deothan. Regarding religion he observed that the Oraon deities were (1) Darha-who was supposed to reside in Ranchi but came to Palamau annually to visit the Oraons. If he was not propitiated, he cause sickness and other troubles and so offerings of pig, cock and goat and once in three years a sheep had to the made to him; (2) Purbia-who also caused sickness and had to get a male kid; (3) Chigur- She had to be propitiated with offerings of fowl, roti, and drink; and (4) Goisali, who was the god of cattle. If he was not propitiated with sacrifice of a pig he would cause sickness and death among cattle.
Regarding clothing Sunder observed that men wore dhoti
and a chudder and some of them wore coats or jackets and a head cover. Women wore a sari, which covered their body from waist to feet, and were also used for covering their bosoms. Children were allowed to go about naked until the age of six years.

Before a detailed description of the present day Oraons in Palamau district is given, mention may be made of the fact that remarkable social changes have taken place among the Oraons. This is only expected as the Oraon areas have been well opened up and means of communications that have been provided for, brought them in touch with the outside world. There is not so much change in the food habit excepting that they are now more of rice-eaters as the fauna are getting rare in Palamau district. Early marriages which had attracted Sunder's attention are not so much in vogue. The customs that followed birth or death and the festivals have not changed but some of the Oraon deities which Sunder mentioned are not much heard of now. Regarding clothing the Orson men wear more of kurtas or jackets and the women a separate jhula or blouse.

As the largest of the aboriginal tribes in Palamau district Oraons need some more mention. The Oraons are found in large number in the thanas of Mahuadanr, Latehar and Balumath. Quite a large number of them and particularly at Mahuadanr have been converted into Christianity. The Roman Catholic Mission at Mahuadanr is a very flourishing institution and has now worked for about eight decades. The Mission has a string of Prochars or local missionaries throughout the area. They run schools for boys and girls.
The most important feature in the present day Palamau Oraons is that they have almost forgotten their own language. The Oraons have a spoken language with no written script although the Roman Catholic Mission has introduced the Roman script and recently Nagri script is being used. The Oraons today Speak a little of Oraon with a large admixture of Hindi words.
In the villages where there are more of Hindus the Oraons have lost many of their tribal traits. Left to themselves they have maintained their Dhamkuria system where the young unmarried boys and girls live separately and get ample opportunities of mixing with each other. The akhara is a spot where the young Oraons, boys and girls sing, dance and play upon musical instruments.
Marriage ceremony is negotiated in a manner which is essentially tribal. The girl has an assured position in the family and the girl's family has to be approached from the bridegroom's side and not vice versa. Omens are observed. When the matchmaker (agua) starts for the house of the prospective bride, if he comes across a jackal passing by his path or hears a crow crowing on a tree he will go back as they are considered to be bad omens. After the visit of bridegroom's party, the father of the bride in the company of match makers goes to the house of the bridegroom and usually the completion of marriage negotiation is followed by feast and drink.

On the day of the marriage from the bridegroom's house starts a party consisting of men and women, young and old. A dancing section dressed in flowers accompanies the groom's party and the bride's village has also to provide another dancing party. Both the dancing parties provide great music, dance and mirth. After marriage the bride goes to her husband's place where she is to be visited by her father and other relations. Women play a very prominent part and the tribals have refused to imbibe the parda system from women of other sections.

Among festivals Sarhul, when the sal trees blossom heralding the New Year, is the most important one which is celebrated with abundance of music, feast, dance and drinking. Sarhul is the expression of joy of the Oraons for the home coming of the new harvest. The other festivals like Karma, Jitia, Jatras, Fagun are all agricultural festivities and they show the pastoral and agricultural complex of the tribals. Anyone who has observed any of these festivals will mark the spirit of abandon, humour and the keenness to enjoy themselves even if that verges on vulgarity.
The Oraons are very hardworking people. They are essentially a community-minded body and the whole village will turn out to cultivate another man's land, if necessary. Hunting was a great pastime before and supplemented their meagre food. An annual hunt is a great event with the Oraons and the women folk dressed in male costumes go out hunting with men-folk.
The women take a great part in the agricultural operations including heavy manual work and probably this has led the Oraons to use cows to plough fields as well. This idea of using cows for cultivation is a taboo to the Hindus.
The Oraons believe in the existence of one powerful spirit as the supreme God or Spirit and a regular graded hierarchy of spirits according to importance. They have a Pahan for invoking the aid of spirits and to propitiate them. The Pahan is the chief guest in all the community feasts.

The economic condition of the Oraons is extremely low. The incidence of literacy and education is negligible. With difficulty they eke out an existence and have been freely exploited by the zamindars, the mahajans and the big cultivators. It is only the Christian Oraons that have a little higher standard of life and they use more clothing, have a better house and some furniture. Otherwise the Oraon huts are wretched, thatched with straw and their furniture consist of a few mats, one or two charpais and probably split bamboos fixed higher for seating purposes.

They are broken up into a number of totemistic septs. Each sept bears the name of an animal, a tree, a plant or some material object, natural or artificial. The members of the sept are prohibited from killing, eating, or injuring the totem. Tirki sept, for an instance, has the totem of young mice; Ekka sept that of tortoise, etc.*

D. H. E. Surder in his Final Report on the Survey and Settlement Operations has given a detailed description of the Korwas. There has not been much of later investigation about the Korwas exclusive and Sunder’s observations have to be quoted in extenso for the future researchers. It may be mentioned here that the Korwas claim to be the original inhabitants of Palamau, Surguja and Jaspur. It is a peculiar fact that in the villages inhabited by the Adibasis the Korwa priests are more in demand to propitiate local spirits. A large number of Korwas are found in Ranka and Untari thanas.

Their physique is somewhat different from that of the other tribals. They are stodgy with narrow forehead and unattractive features. The women are extremely hardworking and practically carry out all the household chores. Some of the septs of the Korwas are well worth investigation. Agaria Korwas are said to be the offspring of Korwa and Agaria marriages. Korwas who live in the villages are known Dih Korwas while those on the hills are known as Paharia Korwas. The influence of totem is strong and a set of taboos follow the totems. Some of the totems are tiger, snake, parrot, wild goose, fish, mango, etc. They are extremely good hunters and bowmen. Their arrows have split heads, and they often use poison at the arrow heads. The Korwas still have the nomadic habit and change their homesteads frequently. They have no language of their own and speak a mixture of several dialects. They are extremely backward in all possible ways and literacy has made practical no headway among them.

Sunder's observations on the Korwas are as follows:-

“A Dravidian tribe of Palamau. As to their origin, the tradition is that Korwas originally came from Lanka (Ceylon); but how or when or under what circumstances, is not known. They are well built, strong, and hardworking. In appearance, both in features and dress, as well as in the ornaments they wear, they rather resemble Kherwars. In height they are just about 5 feet 6 inches, the women seldom being higher than 5 feet. The complexion of both is a dark brown, but I have seen some of a much lighter colour. They wear beard and moustache, and keep long hair, which is shaved only a little way just over the forehead. Both ears are bored by the Sonar. The hair is combed with a wooden kanki, which is made in Palamau. Korwas whom I have questioned allege that they are divided into seven clans or sub-castes, viz., Rajkorwa, Manraji, Samat, Edgi, Murung, Birjia, and Birhor. Each sub-caste is obliged to marry among themselves. They do not eat or drink with those outside their sept.

"Homesteads.-Houses are generally built facing northwards. Walls of huts are of sal posts plastered with earth. The frame of the roof is made of bamboo, and is thatched with straw (phus). Before occupying a new house the owner performs puja by making offerings to Debi, Raksel, Muchukrani and Duarpar, the deities of Korwas. The floor of the hut is plastered with cowdung, after which a lamp is lit, and kept in the centre. Five plates of new earth are made and placed round the lamp. The plates are marked with sindur, and some cooked arwa rice as also milk and ghi together with a puri made of wheat and rice flour mixed with ghi, are placed on each plate. After this the following lines are repeated by the owner of the house:-

'Dekho Maharaj, pait parwani, Loge Lachmi paral lotal rabi, Je mange ei waste tohara ke manat hae, Rahin bane jhare kusal mangal rahe, Tub jane Maharaj asaldeo.'

(Oh King, should any member of my family be in the forest or my cattle be grazing there, keep them safe. To obtain this I make these offerings to you, and if all be quiet and happy, then I will know that you are the real King.)
After this a kid is killed. Muchakrain must always have a black one. Water is poured over the kid's head, and the following lines are repeated:

'Dekho Maharaj, baen dhar, Tab, jane asal deo, ghar ke pujari. '

(Oh King, let me feel you holding my hand, then I will know that you are the real deity who should be worshipped in this house.)

If the head of the dead kid quivers, it is considered that the offerings are accepted, and that the prayer is answered. The kid is then skinned, and the flesh is cooked and eaten by the family. No work in the field is done on that day. It is considered a day of rest.

"Marriage.-There are two marriage systems: (1) The runaway or love marriage. Two young people take a fancy to each other, and run off and live together in the boy's hut at his father's homestead without further ceremony. This is called dahura patura bia and is generally adopted.

The second system is as follows: The father of the boy sends two men of his own caste to the girl's father, and asks for his daughter. If agreeable, as is generally the case, consent is given, and the marriage is arranged. The dali or purchase money has to be paid, and a day is fixed for this. It is usually within 8 or 10 days of the first interview. On the appointed day relatives and friends come, each family bringing with them a gift of rice and dal. In their presence the dali, consisting of Rs. 5, as also a mai-sari are given by the boy’s father to the girl’s parents. The money is taken by the father, the mai-sari by the mother. This binds them as far as giving the girl is concerned. After this there is feasting and drinking and the night passes in revelry. Early next morning the girl is conveyed in a dooly to the boy’s house. Her parents do not accompany her; but follow later in the same day. After this the young couple are made to sit together in the angina or courtyard and are anointed with haldi (turmeric) by the boy's sister. She then gives them a bath and new garments are worn by them. After this the pahan or baiga takes some rice flour and makes four lines with it on the ground under a marwa (canopy) which had been previously erected in the angina. This is the chowka. Two pathals or leaf plates are made and placed within the chowka.The boy's brother-in-law who is called lokanda then acts the part of the napit. He takes some arua rice and causes it to be scattered on the ground in front of the young couple by the boy's sister who is called lokandi. After this they enter the chowka and sit on the pathal side by side in front of the altar of two kalsis (earthen vessels) which are placed in the centre of the marwa. They sit with their faces looking eastwards. Their hands are joined and kept open in front of them with the palms upwards. The boy sits to the left of the girl. The lokanda then ties the boy's chudder to the girl's sari by a knot and after these places arua rice in each of their hands. Some of this rice is then scattered by him over the pair and on the ground in front of them. This is the chumaon ceremony. After this the remaining rice is placed by the boy and girl, respectively, on their leaf plates and they then stand one behind the other, the girl being in front of the boy. She holds a soupli in her right hand and the boy holds, her, wrist, while still behind her. The lokanda then places lawa (fried rice) on the soupli while the boy shakes her hand and causes the lawa to scatter on the ground. The two then do bhanwar, by walking round the chowka five times. After each turn the boy bends and with his right hand touches the small toe of the girl's right foot and thus salutes her.* This completes the bhanwar ceremony. After this the couple sit together as before on the leaf plates within the chowka. The lokandi then brings some sindur in a vessel called sindhora and while the girl is covered with a piece of cloth the boy marks her on her forehead five times with sindur. This is called the sindur-bandhan and is the binding part of the ceremony. After this the couple stand and, on the two baskets being placed on the ground in front of them, they step into one basket and then into another and so on until they reach the door of the hut. Here they are stopped by the boy's sister, the lokandi, who refuses to allow them to enter the hut until a present is given to her. This amounts to two annas, which are paid or promised by the boy's father, after which the lokandi moves away and the young couple go into the hut. Here eating jhuta bhat ceremony is performed. The boy eats some rice and milk and aftor him the girl does so out of the same plate. The knot binding their clothes together is untied by the boy, who then moves out of the hut leaving the girl behind. She is unable to come out from there during the whole of that day; but is visited by her friends and relatives and congratulations follow. In the evening the boy returns to the hut, and the marriage is consummated the same night. The girl's age at the time of marriage is between 12 and 14 years. Puberty is said to begin at 12 years. On the following morning the pair come one after the other, the bride being behind the bridegroom. The lokandi then again ties their clothes together as on the previous day, and a party of four, comprising the lokandi first, then the bridegroom, behind him the bride, and lastly the lokandi, walk in line. The lokandi and the bridegroom salute each of the people seated in the angina by touching the right foot of every person and also bowing to them. Each person who is thus saluted has to give a dahej (present)of money, according to circumstances, which is placed in the bag (khoincha) formed by the bride in front of her by her sari. This ceremony which is called gor-lagan, being completed, the young couple return to their hut and the friends leave after feasting and drinking.

A Korwa may marry three wives, but not more. Polygamy is, however, practised only when the first wife is childless. A man may marry two sisters, provided the elder one becomes his wife first. He may marry his elder brother widow, but not his younger brother's widow. Marriages of this sort take place by the sagai form and are not compulsory.
"Births.-In childbirth a. Korwa woman is attended by an elderly female of her

own caste, or if one is not available, by another Korwa woman who takes the place of the chamain. She is removed from the hut here meals are cooked (rasoi ghur) to the adjoining one and has to remain there 12 days. Six days after birth of the child the chatti takes place. The woman's clothes are washed and the father and other male members of the house have to shave their heads. On the lapse of twelve days the Barhi takes place. This consists of the father killing a fowl or kid and offering it to the deity. In doing this he repeats the following lines:-

He Maharaj, e barhi ke bakra puja tohara ke det bae Kusal mangal rahe.'
(Oh king, this kid is offered to you for this Barhi; grant that all joy and

happiness may continue here.)

The kid's head is then chopped off. After this the relatives and friends who may be present are feasted and the woman is then permitted to leave the hut. During the 12 days that she is there she is unclean and is not permitted to come out; but she does so privately and only in presence of women by a small back door which exists in every Korwa's hut. This door is also used for the purpose of escaping in case of danger of any kind. On the expiration of six months the an-prasan ceremony takes place. This is feeding of the child with rice. Its feet are washed in unboiled milk. Some arua rice, gur and milk are cooked together and brought out in a chipi (plate). The child's mother's elder brother (mama) then feeds it and also names it. For this he is presented with a piece of cloth or some money, according to circumstances. A woman is known to have given birth to 12 children, but, this is exceptional. A woman is said to generally have about seven children.

The mode of addressing parents and others is mentioned below:-

Father- Appa.

Mother- Inga.

Elder sister- Didi.

Younger sister- By her name.

Elder brother- Dada.

Younger brother- Babu.

Father's elder brother- Nunu.

Mother's elder brother- Mama.

Wife's brother- Babu.

Grandfather- Aja.

Grandmother- Nani.

"Clothing.-Among Korwas, men wear a dhoti round the loins. It is supported on the waist by a string called danda. In lieu of dhoti some men simply wear a bhagwa, which is a piece of cloth supported the danda and tied between the legs. It covers the front and back. A piece of cloth measuring about three yards in length is worn on the head as a pugree. Some also occasionally wear an angna (coat) over the body. Two dhoties are worn annually and cost Re. 1. Women wear in a sari, which goes round them and also covers the body above the waist. The length of the sari is five yards. It is purchased from the Jolaha at one rupee per piece. Sometimes thread twisted by women is given to the Jolaha for weaving the sari. Each seer of thread gives four yards of cloth. The Jolaha charges two Gorukhpuri pice per yard for weaving the cloth.
"Personal ornaments.-Of ornaments Korwas wear kanousi of brass or silver on both ears. The coat is about 4 annas. They wear bera (bracelet) of silver en the right hand and occasionally on both bands. The cost is Rs. 4. Bijait (armlet) of silver is rarely worn. A string with two metal tokens is worn on the neck and is called sirjaner. Iron finger-rings called anguti are worn on third finger of left hand.

The ornaments worn by Korwa women are-


English. Vernacular. Value.


Rs. a. p.

Brass finger-ring worn on left hand ... Armguti .. .. 0 4 0

Anklets of kasa(bell-metal) .. .. ... Pairi .. .. 1 8 0

Armlets of brass .. .. ... Tar .. .. 1 4 0

Ditto of glass .. .. ... Churla .. .. 0 6 0

Bracelet of brass .. .. ... Lasunia .. .. 0 12 0

Ditto of Kasa .. .. ... Bera .. .. 0 4 0

Ditto of glass .. .. ... Churi .. .. 0 6 0

Ear-rings of brass .. .. ... Tor .. .. 0 4 0

Nose-ring of silver or brass .. ... Nathia (silver) .. .. 1 0 0

Ditto ditto .. .. ... Ditto (brass) .. 0 4 0

Necklace of beads .. .. ... Harsa .. .. 0 4 0

Great toe-ring of kasa .. .. ... Angta .. .. 0 2 0

Second toe-ring of bras .. .. ... Boturi .. .. 0 1 0


Customs at death.-The dead are burnt and also buried. Those who have no relatives and people who die of colera are always buried, as this disease is feared by all castes throughout Palamau. Nisakia are people who have no relatives. When burnt the corpse, called matti, is placed between a pile of wood after which the nearest male relative of the deceased takes five bundles of kher (straw) and after lighting them, applies the fire to the head of the corpse. Each time he does this he walks round the pyre and sets fire thereto. When the pyre is well ablaze, the party go off to the bank of the river. Here they sit too deep and pass handfuls of sand from one to another over each shoulder on to the ground behind. This is done five times and is called the kandkati ceremony. After this they return to the pyre and collect the bones, etc., of the deceased that may remain unburnt and cover them up with ashes and earth. Having done so they have a bath and return home. Here a katauth (wooden basin) is filled with water and a tangi (iron are) is placed alongside it together with some barni grass with its roots. The grass is dipped in the water and is applied to the right foot while it is on the tangi, and then over the left shoulder. This is done five times and is supposed to purify the people who had attended the funeral. After this, food consisting of rice and milk is cooked and eaten by them. On the expiration of 10 days the daso ceremony takes place. The relatives have to shave their heads and wash their clothes. On the following day the bhoj follows and relatives and friends are fed according to circumstances. They assemble under a jhala (shed made of leaves) and a tahalu, being a member of the caste and a resident of the village, then washes the feet and legs of each person present. There are two tahalus, one of whom does the washing while the other pours water. After this all sit under the jhala. Another person called barik places tobacco on a leaf before each person. On food being ready, the barik stands on one leg before them and holds out his hands palm upwards and performs the angia ceremony. He says to all present take angia of a handful of food in the name of (name of the deceased is here mentioned). We agree is the reply of the guess. This completes the ceremony and the feasting with drinking then begins.

Religion.~The deities of Korwas are (1) Debi, (2) Raksel, (3) Duarpar, and (4) Manusdeva or Nunku. All these have to be appeased at different seasons of the year by the killing of kids and offering of roti made of flour, else theyare supposed to be offended and to cause sickness and trouble in the house, if not in the entire village. All deceased relatives are worshipped.

"Food.-Almost anything is eaten by Korwas. Beef, goat's flesh, venison, sheep, fowls, turtles, fish, cattle that die a natural death, hare, tiger, leopards hanuman monkeys, milk, butter, ghi, buttermilk and all edible roots. Birds of all kinds, except kites and vultures, are eaten. Blood of any animal is also drunk after being cooked. At the beginning of the day before going to work the first meal called lookma, which consists of mahua, is eaten. The meal is a light one and the quantity taken is expressed as pao-bhar (1/2seer). The next meal kalewa is taken at about noon in the field, where it is brought by the wife or some other member of the house. It consists of mahua and buttermilk (matta), as also vegetables and boiled roots and bhat of sawan, gandli,kodo or any other cereal. It is a hot meal and a full one. Rice is not eaten as a rule. If obtainable, it is eaten, but is not depended on. The last meal, called biari, is taken at nightfall, and consists of rnahua, vegetables and bhat made from some cereal or makai, or whatever may be cooked. Dori (seed of the mahua fruit) oil, til, mustard and keoti oil are used for cooking food. When oil is not available food is simply boiled in water. Oil is expressed by the Teli, who charges for doing so at the rate of two Gorukhpuri pice per ghani (mill); or more frequently oil is expressed by enclosing the seed in a small bamboo basket called putla. The putla, is placed between two blocks of wood called patri. The operation of pressing the upper patri over the lower one is called sunnum. The outturn of oil is a quarter seer from a seer of seed. The oil-cake is called khari. keoti and dori oil-cake are used as fuel. Til and mustard oil-cake are eaten by Korwas. Sugar and gur are eaten, but chiefly as medicine. Salt is purchased from the market and eaten daily, except on Sundays, when neither salt nor buttermilk is eaten.

Meals are common to a household. If there be old parents or friends in the house, they are attended to first, after which the husband, wife, and children eat together in the same room; but the wife has to sit a short distance away from her husband. Meals are eaten on donas (plates) made of leaves of the sal, korea, chirchiri or mahulan tree. Drinks are obtained from the outstill shop. Water is procured for all purposes from the nearest river."

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