Personality Psychology psy405

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Personality Psychology PSY405


Table of Contents:








Page no.

Lesson 1

The Nature of Personality theory………………………………………

1

Lesson 2

Personality Measurement ……………………………………………..…..

8

Lesson 3

Main Perspectives………………………...……………………………….

12

Lesson 4

Sigmund Freud: A Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality…………………

17

Lesson 5

Instinct: What Motivates Human Behavior? ……………………………...

21

Lesson 6

Psychoanalytic Theory Of Sigmund Freud……...………………………....

25

Lesson 7

Theory Of Carl Jung (Analytical Psychology)… ……...…………………...

30

Lesson 8


The Psychological Types…………………………….……………………

32

Lesson 9

Alfred Adler (Individual Psychology)………………………...……………

34

Lesson 10

Individual Psychology…………. ………………………...……………….

36

Lesson 11

Karen Horney………………………...………………………...…………

39

Lesson 12

Adjustment To Basic Anxiety...………………………...…………………

42

Lesson 13

Erik Erikson……………………………………..……………………….

45

Lesson 14

Erik Erikson (Continued)…………………………………………………

49

Lesson 15

Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory …………………………………………..

53

Lesson 16

Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory (Continued)………………………………

54

Lesson 17


Constitutional Psychology……………..………………………………….

60

Lesson 18

Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory…………...………………………………...

64

Lesson 19

Maslow’s Theory………………………………………………………….

68

Lesson 20

Maslow’s Theory (Continued)……….…………...………………………

73

Lesson 21

Rogers Person Centered Approach………………………………………..

78

Lesson 22

Rogers Person Centered Approach (Continued)…………………………..

82

Lesson 23

Rogers Person Centered Approach Continued)…………………………...

87

Lesson 24

Kelly’s Cognitive Theory Of Personality Theory………....………………

93

Lesson 25

Core Concepts Of George Kelly’s Cognitive Theory Of Personality…..…

98

Lesson 26


Gordon Allport: A Trait Theory Of Personality ………………………….

104

Lesson 27

Gordon Allport: A Trait Theory Of Personality (Continued)……………..

108

Lesson 28

Factor Analytic Trait Theory (Raymand Cattell)……………………….....

114

Lesson 29

Factor Analytic Trait Theory (Raymand Cattell) (Continued)……………...

119

Lesson 30

Henry Murray’s Personology ………………………...…………………...

123

Lesson 31

Henry Murray’s Personology (Continued)…………………………..…….

128

Lesson 32

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory ……….………………………..

133

Lesson 33

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (Continued)…………………….


137

Lesson 34

He Stimulus Response Theory Of Dollard And Miller……………………

143

Lesson 35

The Stimulus Response Theory Of Dollard And Miller (Continued)……...

146

Lesson 36

Skinner’s Theory Of Personality………………………......………………

151

Lesson 37

Skinner’s Theory Of Personality (Continued)………………………...……

155

Lesson 38

Albert Ellis Theory Of Personality……..………………………………….

160

Lesson 39

The Grand Perfect Theory Of Personality ………………………...……...

166

Lesson 40

Perspectives Or Domains Of Personality Psychology…………………….

169

Lesson 41


Perspectives Or Domains Of Personality Psychology (Continued)...……...

173

Lesson 42

Perspectives Or Domains Of Personality Psychology (Continued)...……...

178

Lesson 43

The Grand Theory Of Personality………………………………………...

184

Lesson 44

Personality Appraisal…..………………………...………………………...

191

Lesson 45

Personality Psychology: New Directions In The Discipline……………….

200

Personality Psychology – PSY 405 VU





Lesson 1
THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY THEORY What sort of creatures are we?”

Ever since the beginning of recorded history, the most significant riddle or question to be answered is the “What sort of creatures are we?” A great many avenues have been explored, with an enormous variety of concepts employed yet a satisfactory answer still is not there.

1-Individual differences - Of the several billion people who presently inhabit the earth, no two individuals are exactly alike even the identical twins.
One important reason for the difficulty in getting a clear answer is that human beings come in many shapes and sizes and behave in exceedingly complex ways. There are so many differences to be accounted for biological, physical, genetics, social and psychological. The vast differences among them have made it difficult, if not impossible, to identify what they share in common as members of the human race. Personality psychology is concerned with the differences among the people.
Example:
The convicted terrorist or murderer, the priest, the corrupt politician.
Thus it is hard to imagine what “human nature” or characteristics or traits these fellow human beings have in common, and when we expand our horizons to include people of other cultures, we find even greater diversity in values, aspirations, and styles of life.
Psychology along with Astrology, theology, philosophy, and the life sciences are but a few of the many disciplines that the quest to understand human nature. Some of these avenues have proved to be dead ends, while others are just beginning to flourish.
Today the problem to understand human nature is more pressing than ever, huge population explosion, global unrest, ecological pollution, racial prejudice, poverty are brought about by the behavior of people. It may not be overstating the case, therefore, to say that the quality of human life in the future, indeed our very survival, may depend upon an increased understanding of human nature. Psychology is deeply committed to this undertaking.
Objectives of Personality Psychology

The science of psychology is directly concerned with the problem of understanding human personality within the framework of the science of psychology.

Scientifically based concepts and methods of personality psychology will ultimately prove to be of most value in understanding the complex nature of human behavior.


  1. To have a general, integrated and clear concept about Personality




  1. To understand personality assessment




  1. To identify several important Theories of Personality




  1. To identify key themes in Theories of Personality.


What makes personality psychology a science?
The process of converting speculations or opinions or beliefs about human nature into concepts that can be studied and tested empirically it is a process beset by many hazards; indeed, efforts to establish a “science of persons”. It may seem fascinating to try to gain insight into the causes of our behavior and development.
Psychologists resist to objectifying personality within the field of psychology, because it undermines human uniqueness and complexity instead, they concentrate on the qualities of human beings such as literature, art, history and religion which may each provide valuable insights into human behavior.
A second objective of personality psychology is to help people live their lives more fully and satisfyingly by finding ways to promote more healthy patterns of growth. These efforts include new forms of

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Personality Psychology – PSY 405 VU


psychotherapy, various special learning programs, and changes in the psychological environment intended to permit people to develop to their full potential.


Theories of Personality
Different systems of consistent constellations of concepts called theories of personality. Each theory is about human nature and the goal of each theory is the understanding of the diversity and complexity of the whole person functioning in the real world. Theory refers to unsubstantiated hypothesis or speculation concerning reality that is not definitely known but when a theory has confirmatory data or evidence it is a fact.


  1. A theory is useful when it can efficiently generate predictions and propositions




  1. A theory should contain two parts a cluster of relevant assumptions systematically related to each other and a set of empirical definitions


What purpose do theories of personality serve?
Theories of personality represent elaborate speculation or hypotheses about why people behave as they do and they serve the following functions

  1. A personality theory is descriptive. In other words, a theory provides a meaningful framework (i.e. a kind of map) for simplifying and integrating all that is known about a related set of events. For example, without the benefit of theory, it would be very difficult to explain why 5-year-old boy has a romantic attraction to his mother along with undue resentment toward his father. Armed with a theory that posits the universality of these emotions at a certain stage of personality development (along with a rationale of their emergence), but at least we would be consistent in making sense of these feelings in children. A good personality theory, then, provides a meaningful context within which human behavior can be consistently described and interpreted.





  1. A theory should not only describe past and present events but also predict future ones. The second function of a personality theory is therefore to provide a basis for the prediction of events and outcomes that have not yet occurred.

3 This purpose clearly implies that a theory’s concepts must be testable and capable of being confirmed or disconfirmed. For example, a theory should furnish a basis for predicting specific changes in Raymond’s behavior as a function of parental treatment. What will happen if his mother actively encourages these feelings? Not only should such general predictions be possible but, ideally, the concepts of a theory should be formulated to permit rigorous and precise empirical testing. A good personality theory directly stimulates psychological research. Conversely, the scientific value of theories that are untestable is still unknown.


What does it means to be a human being?

  1. Personality theorists are people, and, like the rest of us, they hold divergent views about human nature. Some theorists, for example, believe that human actions have their roots in unconscious motives whose true nature is outside the individual’s awareness and whose sources lie deeply buried in the distant past. Others believe that people are reasonably aware of their real motives and that their behavior is primarily a result of present conditions. Whatever each theorist’s specific beliefs may be, we contend that personality theorists have different basic assumptions about human nature, and that their theories can be distinguished from one another on this basis (Abraham Maslow and Sigmund Freud) - Our point is simply that the foundations of a personality theory are rooted in the basic assumptions of the theorist; a theory’s implications about human nature, i.e., about what humans are? or what it means to be a human being?



How we can evaluate Personality Theories?
Given the sheer number of alternative personality theories, how do we evaluate the relative merits of each? The most puzzling question that comes to your mind is what criteria can be used to evaluate a theory? We believe that six major criteria can be employed to evaluate personality theories and each personality theory should satisfy each of these criteria to some extent in order to receive a positive and satisfactory evaluation. We will describe these criteria, compare and contrast the theories in terms of these six criteria.

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1. Verifiability:
A theory is positively evaluated to the degree that its concepts lend themselves to verification by independent investigators. This means that a theory must be stated in such a way that its concepts are clearly, explicitly defined and logically related to one another so that the theory can be empirically tested.
This requirement has been exceedingly difficult for personologists to demonstrate even a moderate amount of empirical validation for their theoretical positions. A good theory should be empirically testable, leading to modification of the theory if necessary.
2. Heuristic Value:

The degree to which a theory directly stimulates a research. A theory by translating its core concepts into a form of operationalization can allow for relevant research activity. Personality theories differ immensely in their capacity to fulfill this goal. Some of the most provocative theoretical formulations of personality (e.g., Maslow’s self-actualizing theory) are practically devoid of empirical support. This state of affairs usually results from the theorist’s failure to define his or her concepts operationally i.e., in manner whereby they can readily be subjected to empirical test.



  1. Internal Consistency: This criterion stipulates that a theory should not contradict itself that is a good theory is internally consistent way. On the whole, theories of personality reasonably satisfy this standard,




  1. Parsimony (simple):

A theory may also be judged on the basis of the number of concepts it requires to explain events within its domain. The law of parsimony states that the preferred explanation is the one which demands the fewest number of concepts, i.e., is most economical.


5. Comprehensiveness:
This criterion refers to the range and diversity of phenomena encompassed by a theory. The more comprehensive a personality theory is the more behavioral ground it covers. The theorist should include behavioral events such as biological, emotional, cognitive, social, and cultural in human behavior. At the same time, it must be recognized that no present theory can account for all human functioning.
6. Functional Significance:
Finally, a theory may be evaluated on the basis of how useful it is in helping people to understand everyday human behavior. All of us are interested in knowing more about ourselves and other people. Indeed, knowledge of the personal and social insights provided by personality theorists can greatly help one’s understanding and appreciation of human nature.
What are the influences Personality development?


  1. Genetics




  1. Environment ( learning)




  1. Culture and Society




  1. Self awareness




  1. Traits



  1. Unconscious Mechanisms


The Meaning of “Personality”
Personality has many meanings, even within psychology there is disagreement about the meaning of the term. In fact, there may be as many different meanings of the term “personality” as there are psychologists who have tried to define it


  • We often hear remarks that some people have a pleasing personality while others have charming and fascinating personality.




  • Some political leaders have charismatic personality while others have repulsive and annoying personality.

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  • So the question comes to your mind that

In our daily language hear such comments as “A lot of personality” and “B has a great personality and C has more personality.”

Personality has also been viewed as the individual’s most striking or dominant characteristics. In this sense, a person may be said to have an “aggressive personality” or a “shy personality,” meaning that his or her most distinctive attribute appears to be aggressiveness or shyness. So personality refers to the overall impression that an individual makes on others, that is, a sum total or constellation of characteristics that are typical of the individual and thus observable in various social settings. When one describes T as having a “terrific personality,” one may be referring to his pleasant disposition, his sincerity, or his willingness to help others.

What is personality?
Personality refers to characteristic ways a person behaves and thinks. So, personality refers to the overall impression that an individual makes on others, that is, a sum total or constellation of characteristics that are typical of the individual and thus observable in various social settings.
Example:


  • A is shy and timid




  • B is sensitive and gets upset easily




  • C is suspicious of friends and family




  • D is confident and successful

The word “personality” in English is derived from the Latin persona It the masks worn by theatrical players in ancient Greek dramas term came to encompass the actor’s roles as well. Thus, personality is the public personality that people display to those around them. This view is similar with that of the layperson who equates personality with charm, social poise, popularity, physical attractiveness, and a host of other socially desirable characteristics.

A quick overview of the meaning of personality in psychology can be gained by briefly considering the views offered by a few recognized theorists in the field. For instance, Carl Rogers views personality in terms of self, an organized, permanent, subjectively perceived entity which is at the very heart of all our experiences. Gordon Allport defines personality as that which an individual really is, an internal “something” that guides and directs all human activity. For Erik Erikson, life proceeds in terms of a series of psychosocial crises, and personality is a function of their outcome. George Kelly regards personality as the individual’s unique way of “making sense” out of life experiences. Still another conception is that of Sigmund Freud who described the structure of personality as composed of three elements- the id, ego, and superego.

These different conceptions clearly indicate that the meaning of personality in psychology extends far beyond the original “superficial social image” concept. It refers to something much more essential and enduring about a person. Beyond this basic point of agreement, theoretical definitions of personality have other features in common.


  1. Most definitions depict personality as some kind of hypothetical structure or organization. In other words, personality is an abstraction based on inferences derived from behavioral observation.




  1. Most definitions stress the need to understand the meaning of individual differences. With the word “personality,” the palpable uniqueness in all individuals is indicated.




  1. Most definitions emphasize the importance of viewing personality in terms of a life history, or developmental perspective and social experiences, and changing environmental circumstances. -- Personality Psychology as a Field of Study

What distinguishes personality psychology from the other psychological domains is its attempt to synthesize and integrate the principles of other areas of psychology. For example, in the psychology of perception, the basic structures and processes underlying how people perceive and interpret the world



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Personality Psychology – PSY 405 VU


around them are examined. The personality psychology as a field of study combines these principles in an effort to understand human behavior.


To be comprehensive, a personality theory must incorporate all the principles of general psychology that influence or determine an individual’s behavior and experience fall within the domain of the personologist, a term that has been used to designate both personality theorists and researchers (Murray, 1938).
In light of all this, it is evident that no other area of psychology attempts to cover as much territory as the field of personality the focus of study has been nothing less than the total individual. Given such an ambitions goal, YOU can rightfully expect the study of personality to be an exciting and challenging undertaking.



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