[BACKGROUND PAPER TO BE DISCUSSED IN THE WORKSHOP]
ASSOCIATION OF METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES (AMDA)
PAGE NO. 1 TO 19
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUB-STANDARD AREAS (JHUGGI CLUSTERS & SLUM AREAS)
BACKGROUND PAPER TO BE DISCUSSED IN THE WORKSHOP ORGANISED BY
ASSOCIATION OF METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES (AMDA)
ABSTRACT: There are two types of areas – i) developed as per approved plan; ii) developed without any approved plan; the former are called standard developed areas while the later sub-standard areas which includes – i) Shanty clusters (Jhuggies); ii) Slum Designated Areas; iii) Unauthorised regularised colonies; iv) Unauthorised colonies; v) Resettlement colonies; vi) Urban Villages; vii) Rural villages and viii) Pavement dwellers. Dimensions of sub-standard areas are so huge that in Delhi out of 9 million population, 6.75 million live in sub-standard areas with a break-up of 1.2 million in Unauthorised-regularised colonies; 0.5 million in Unauthorised colonies; 0.5 million in Urban villages; 0.5 million in Rural villages; 1.2 million in Resettlement colonies and 0.05 million as Pavement dwellers.
In Delhi, lot of planning and development works have been taken place, specially in 1975-76 when 1,44,262 plots each of 21 sq. mt. were developed with physical infrastructure on community basis and social infrastructure as per Master Plan-1962. In a period of 2 years, an amount of Rs. 300 million was spent.
In the last 9 years, Rs. 855.4 million has been spent. This figure is hardly 20% of the requirements to solve the problems of shanty clusters and slum areas.
Position of physical and social infrastructure in 700 jhuggi clusters is dismal and far from satisfaction.
To solve problem of these areas, details have been given of the following topics which are very important.
1. Dimensions of the problems in 1991-2001.
2. Creation of a department of “Development of Sub-Standard Areas” (DOSA). 3. Comprehensive Act on the subject.
4. Urban Land Policy
5. Integrated Physical & Financial Planning
6. Formation of Non-Government Organisation (NGOs) & Co-operative House Building Societies (CHBS).
1. FUNDAMENTALS: 1.1 Sub-standard areas are – i) jhuggi clusters; ii) Slum designated areas; iii) Unauthorised-regularised colonies; iv) Unauthorized colonies; v) Urban Villages; vi) Rural Villages; vii) Resettlement colonies and viii) Pavement dwellers. These areas constitute more than 60% of any city area with population more than 75%.
On these subjects, the then Ministry of Works & Housing (now Ministry of Urban Development) appointed a ‘Working Group’ on 9th Feb., 1979 under the chairmanship of Jt. Secy. (DD), Ministry of Works & Housing; with Jt. Secy. (Finance), Ministry of Works & Housing; VC, DDA; Commissioner, MCD; Secretary (L&B); Director (Plan Finance), Ministry of Finance; Jt. Adviser, Planning Commission; as members and Dy. Secy. (DD), Ministry of Works & Housing as Member Secretary. The ‘Group’ prepared a comprehensive Report for the development of – i) Unauthorised colonies; ii) Slum areas; iii) Squatters and resettlement colonies; iv) Rural villages; v) Urban villages; vi) Narela Township and vii) Trans-Yamuna Area, in terms of – i) internal development; ii) trunk service; iii) rehabilitation of affected persons; iv) provision of community facilities; v) construction of commercial centres; vi) construction of group housing; vii) construction of special projects and development of industrial complexes. Total cost of the project was Rs. 18.62 billion with an amount of Rs. 6.3 billion for essential ‘Core Plan’. The ‘Group’ also recommended for creation of a ‘Seed Capital’ in the form of a revolving fund of Rs. 450 million.
However the ‘Report’ could not be implemented due to change in administration in 1980 and still lying untouched. This is a good report and can be made as a base paper to discuss various components of sub-standard areas. The Author was also associated with the Report.
Modifications in various Acts: 1.2.1 Slum Areas Improvement & Clearance Act, 1956:-
Section-3 deals with the declaration of Slum Areas; Section-4, 5, 6, 7 & 8 explains how a particular area can be improved; Section-9, 10 & 11 deals with the declaration of a Slum Area as a clearance area and then how to pass slum clearance orders in order to get the area cleared and redeveloped; Section- 12 to 18 deals with the acquisition of land/property in Slum Areas on the basis of 5 years gross rent or 3 years net rent of the property in question.
Under this Act, in the last 33 years, Slum Wing, DDA is able to clear and acquire only few pockets, and for this, thousands of court cases are going on.
The Act should be modified to the extent – i) to modify the definition of slum areas; ii) to add shanty clusters (jhuggies); iii) to prepare a comprehensive physical and financial plan taking into consideration of physical, social, economic infrastructure; iv) profits from the commercial projects which are part of slum areas should be used for the losses in the development of urban spaces for slum dwellers; v) separate planning norms for these areas; vi) formation of Non-Government Organisations and vii) constitution of Cooperative House Building Societies.
1.2.2 The Delhi Development Act, 1957:- With the help Section-37 (power of authority of levy betterment charges), Section-38 (assessment of betterment charge by authority), Section-39 (Settlement of betterment charge by arbitrators) and Section-40 (payment of betterment charges); betterment charges from the sub-standard areas can be collected, but after completing the development. Modifications should be with respect to levy of betterment charges simultaneously along with the development and collection as arrears of land revenue.
1.2.3 The Delhi Municipal Corporation Act, 1957: This Act should also be modified as suggestions given for the Delhi Development Act, 1957.
Other Acts namely – i) Urban and (Ceiling & Regulation) Act, 1976; ii) Transfer of Property Act, 1982; iii) The Delhi Development Authority (Disposal of developed nazul land) Rule-1981; iv) Land Acquisition Act, 1894; v) The Registration Act, 1908; vi) Building Bye-laws, 1983; vii) Delhi Urban Art Commission Act, 1973; viii) The Delhi Lands (restriction on transfer) Act, 1972; ix) The Delhi Fire Prevention & Fire Safety Act, 1986; x) Builders Obligation under Delhi Apartment Ownership Act, 1986, etc. also solve the problems of sub-standard areas, but in an indirect way.
2. SCOPE OF THE PAPER:
Present population of Delhi is 9 million with a break up of 6.75 million (75%) people living in sub-standard areas and 2.25 million (25%) in standard (planned) complexes. 6.75 million population in sub-standard areas is with a break-up of 1.2 million in jhuggi clusters, 1.8 million in slum designated areas,1.2 million in unauthorised-regularised colonies, 0.5 million in unauthorised colonies, 0.5 million in urban villages, 0.5 million in rural villages, 1.2 million in resettlement colonies and 0.05 million as pavement dwellers.
In this paper, only two components, i.e. i) jhuggi clusters – 1.2 million and ii) Slum designated areas – 1.8 million have been dealt with.
3. CHRONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS & ACHIEVEMENTS WITH REGARD TO JHUGGI CLUSTERS AND SLUM DESIGNATED AREAS: 3.1 Implementation of shifting of JJR Scheme/development of resettlement colonies/jhuggi clusters and their rehabilitation with different names is going on since more than 30 years. Initially, the scheme by the name of JJR (Jhuggi Jhompri Resettlement) scheme was approved by the Cabinet in 1960-62, then modified from time to time specially in terms of size of residential unit, quantity and quality of physical and social infrastructure, cost of development and magnitude of the problem. Number of jhuggies were 12749 in 1951, increased to 22415 in 1956, 42815 in 1961, decreased to 42668 in 1966, increased to 98709 in 1980, 1,13,386 in 1983, 1,71,000 in 1985 and 2,40,000 at present. These figures are after subtracting the number of families already resettled on developed sites. So far, about 2,16,041 plots have been developed for resettlement of jhuggi dwellers indifferent parts of Delhi. In the last 30 years, 2,16,041 plots with a break-up of 3854 of 67 sq. mt. 7285 of 26 sq. mt. and 204902 of 21 sq. mt., were developed in 35 large resettlement colonies/JJ colonies. These developments were done in following three phases, as details given at the end of the paper.
Phase-I –It was upto 1974, developing 18 JJ colonies in a total area of 598.4 hect. with 52864 plots with a break-up of 49019 of 21 sq. mt. and 3845 of 67 sq.mt.
Phase-II – It was during 1975-80, developing 16 large resettlement colonies in a total area of 968 hect., carving out 1,48,262 plots each of 21 sq. mt.
Phase-III – It was from 1981 onward, developing 9 colonies mostly parts of old colonies, except Kondli carving out 14,915 plots with a break-up of 7285 of 26 sq. mt. and balance of 21 sq. mt.
3.2 Largest development works done so far:
In 1975-76, the biggest resettlement programme of development of 1,44,262 plots each of 21 sq. mt. in a total area of 968 hect. in 16 large resettlement colonies was done; in these colonies, there was a provision of 90 plot for higher secondary schools, 136 plots for primary schools, 140 plots for nursery schools, 9860 plots for shops, 3 plots for colleges, 5 plots for general hospitals, 3 plot for fire stations, 5 plots for police stations, 30 plots for dispensaries, 55 plots for community halls/barat ghars, 28 plots for libraries and some other plots for cremation and burial grounds. In these colonies, at that time, 500 parks with 60 tube-wells and 15 lakh trees were developed. 250 km. of roads, 600 km. of drains were constructed, 80 km. of water supply lines were laid, 14,000 lavatory seats were constructed and several buildings for social infrastructure were also constructed. Total amount spent for all these works during 1975-77 was about Rs. 300 million at the rate of Rs.2090/- per family at that time. Now this figure is 10-times at 1990 price level.
Even after planning and development of 35 large resettlement colonies, carving out 2,16,041 plots and resettling same number of jhuggi families, another 2.4 lakh jhuggi families have come up in about 700 clusters in Delhi.
3.3 In May, 1989, the Department of Urban Basic Services, Delhi Administration conducted a survey with regard to availability of social infrastructure. The position is as given under. From the surveys, It is clear that availability of social infrastructure is grossly inadequate, and need either upgradation of infrastructure or shifting of jhuggi families from the present location to developed plots. The survey is with regard to health, sanitation and hygiene services viz. – i) maternity and child welfare centre; ii) daies; iii) Private Practitioners; iv) Govt. health workers; v) Private health workers; vi) Shallow and deep hand pumps; vii) Latrine seats; viii) water taps; ix) dhalao; x) Septic tanks; xi) Sullage points near hand pumps; xii) Safai Karamcharis; xiii) water tankers; xiv) Sulabh Shauchalayas. Results of these 14 points have been given below and show that standards of available facilities in these jhuggi clusters are far from satisfaction.
In these jhuggi clusters, there are 2,27,117 households with 11,35,585 population.
47,101 households (20.7%) are in east Delhi, 61,121 (26.9%) in West Delhi, 56,291 (24.8%) in North Delhi and the balance 62,604 (27.6%) in South Delhi.
70.5% of the clusters have access to maternity and child welfare centres whereas 29.5% have no such facility.
There were 136. Private practitioners at the rate of one for 166 households.
139 trained daies at the rate of one for 1634 households.
798 untrained daies at the rate of one for 284 households.
528 Govt. Health workers at the rate of one for 430 households.
171 private health workers at the rate of one for 1328 households.
1045 shallow public hand pumps at the rate of one for 217 households.
3475 shallow hand pumps at the rate of one for 65 households.
424 mark II (deep) hand pumps at the rate of one for 536 households.
314 sullage water points near hand pumps at the rate of one for 723 households.
1032 MCD water taps at the rate of one for 220 households.
5921 water tankers visit per month at the rate of one for 38 households
3233 community latrines at the rate of one for 70 households.
3241 sulabh shauchalayas at the rate of one for 70 households.
953 individual latrines at the rate of one for 238 households.
498 Safai Karamcharis at the rate of one for 456 households.
1289 sullage points at the rate of one for 1706 households.
80 septic tanks cleaned at the rate of one for 2838 households.
346 septic tanks uncleaned at the rate of one for 656 households.
3.4 Under Slum Clearance & Improvement Programme:
Tenements have been constructed from time to time for rehabilitation of families shifted from slum area. In chronological order, position is as under:-
From 1942 to 1.1.60 (the date of transfer of scheme from DDA to MCD)
1.1.60 to 18,2,74 (the date of transfer of scheme from MCD to DDA)
From 18th Feb., 1974 to March, 1977 (the date of transfer of scheme from DDA to MCD)
From March, 1977 to 1980 (the scheme was transferred from MCD to DDA)
From 1980 – present position
= 5704 tenements
Names of localities and number of flats constructed are as under:-