Interest of this Material Within the context of the proposed plan of work for postulants of the disciplinary works, it’s of interest that they are aware of it basic notions so that a summaryynthesisd a synthesis starting with a description.
It is of interest that the postulants can make summaries and synthesis not only for their study and work on each of the proposed themes but also for the final reports required for each retreat.
Therefore we offer some brief explanations of what we call description, summary and synthesis.
The descriptions, summaries, and synthesis are ancillary training and educational resources. They are practices for ordering one’s thinking.
A description is a story, a narrative that brings together the characteristics of the themes. It is the raw material which will be later used for the summary and the synthesis. For example, the extensive account of your life in the practice of self-knowledge is a description.
It is good to keep in mind that every description is always made from a certain point of view or a particular interest. So we could describe an object from a geometric point of view, an aesthetic, chemical, or physical one, etc.
As the point of view changes, the object is presented to us in one way or another (from one point of view or another). In this way there can be different descriptions of a given theme or object. As we change our point of interest, chanlaceme could change as well as our way of our way of seeing the objcthe object of study itself..
A summary is a shortening of the exposition of an idea. It seeks for the economy of words, of resources, but without losing the sense of the description.
It doesn’t change the point view. It removes things without changing anything. It is the same thing already expressed, but less extensively.
It is a short story in which the continuity, sequence and the process are not lost.
In the summary I compress the description. I don’t fix a point of view but rather I faithfully reduce the description and eliminate the insubstantial.
The synthesis is a restructuring of the summary based on a fixed point of interest. The synthesis is elaborated based on a summary. While the summary should maintain the order of exposition of the description, the synthesis can lose that continuity.
In terms of length, the synthesis is much shorter than the summary.
The way the synthesis is structured can vary, but it never loses what is substantial.
It may not maintain continuity, but it should address the essential.
The synthesis is more creative than the summary which necessarily maintains the description. In the synthesis the various elements are mutually implied; they are interrelated and form part of a new structuring.
Because it is a structuring, the synthesis already involves interpretation.
The synthesis allows us to understand the structure of what is being studied from the chosen point of view.
In the synthesis, the interest is set and it doesn’t matter whether it is manifest, or explicit. We construct the synthesis according to the interest we have fixed.
In the autobiography, for example, we begin by writing an extensive narrative. After that we summarize the story, that is to say, we go removing words without losing the order of events or key aspects. First we make a description, next we summarize it and finally we are interested in the structure, in other words, the synthesis.
For example, when we produce the autobiographical synthesis on the basis of the repetitions, accidents, general tendencies, projects, deviations, changes of reveries, modification of the nucleus, etc. we are restructuring the narrative or summary according to the interest we have fixed. We are trying to understand how these elements relate to each other. We are structuring a synthesis.
This is no longer a short story, it loses the anecdotal, we are searching for meanings, for the internal plot, we are giving it structure.
The synthesis might be very arbitrary but it has a structure, a coherence that can be grasped.
Appendix 1 – An example of a (press coverage or news article)
Description (42 lines) The governing party is expected to win the referendum in Bolivia.
The most important exit polls showed that the Yes vote would be victorious, with almost 60% of the votes. The Constitution promoted by Evo establishes greater State participation, greater rights for the marginalized, and the reelection to the presidency.
Today’s referendum approved the new Constitution of Bolivia, promoted by the government of President Evo Morales. The initial exit polls indicated that the “YES” vote would receive between 56 and 65 percent, and the “NO” 35 to 44 percent. According to state run Channel 7, the YES should get 65 and NO 35 percent of the votes.
On the other hand, La Razon, a La Paz newspaper, has published the data from Apoyo, Opinion and Mercada exit polls, and forecasts 56 percent for the YES vote to 44 for the NO. Channel ATB estimates the support for the new Constitution as 63 percent, and NO as 36 percent of NO.
At the same time, according to the digital newspaper Erbol, the first polls show that a majority of Bolivians (62 to 80 percent) said they would favor limiting the amount of land that can be purchased to a maximum of 5,000 hectares, as opposed to the other option that would permit up to 10,000. As a rule, Bolivian exit polls are taken in the country’s larger cities resulting in rural votes being underestimated. In the last elections for example they favored the governing party indicating that these percentages are still not definitive.
Last August 10th President Morales’ position was ratified with 67 percent of the votes. According to his own statements, he expects to maintain and surpass this mark in today’s constitutional referendum. According to a number of analysts and leaders connected to the sectors that oppose Morales, should the percentage of support for the new constitution fall below 67 percent, the opposition would interpret this as a weakening of the government.
On the other hand, the first unofficial results by departments (provinces) grants the victory to the No in Santa Cruz and Beni, the departments governed by the opposition. However, in Tarija and Pando, which are also in the hands of Morales’ detractors, the information provided by the state channel shows results close to a tie.
Channel 7, however, gives the victory to the YES by a narrow margin in Chuquisaca. The governor, Savina Cuellar is a dissident of the governing Movement towards Socialism (MAS), and now carries the same banner as the opposition in wealthy Eastern Bolivia.
Today, Branko Mainkovic, the La Cruz opposition leader, alluded to the possibility of government fraud, but in spite of this, he called for massive participation in the referendum. The government rejected the accusation of a potential fraud, and this was confirmed by the first daily reports of observers for the Organization of American States (OAS), who attested to the normalcy of the elections. But last week, Marinkovic and other opposition legislators warned that if the proposed constitution were rejected by even one of the departments, it would lose its “legitimacy” and as a result could not be applied in the country.
It is certain that the government has not issued a statement regarding the results of the constitutional referendum, and in a few hours, President Morales is expected to speak to Bolivia on TV.
The attention of analysts was also drawn to the forcefulness of the “dirimitorio” referendum (a separate question in the referendum) regarding the agrarian aspect, specifically in terms of the extent of land ownership. This would imply that in the future certain properties could be considered large estates, and consequently subject to expropriation. In this regard, 62 to 80 percent of the votes supported decreasing the maximum legally allowable expanse of agrarian property to 5,000 hectares.
Summary (18 lines) Based on today’s earliest exit polls, the principle Bolivian media have forecast that Bolivia’s new Constitution, promoted by the government of President Morales, has been approved with a wide majority. There was even wider support for a limit of 5,000 hectares as the maximum legal extent for land ownership. The opposition would interpret as a weakening of the government any lower percentage of support for the referendum than that received by President Morales in the recent ratification of his post.
The governing party is not winning the referendum in all of departments, and in some of them the margin of victory is small.
The opposition is alluding to the possibility of fraud, and will question the legitimacy of the referendum if the government loses in even one of the departments. The government and the OEA have denied any fraud. The government has not yet announced the results of the constitutional referendum, but is expected to do so in the next few hours. Analysts have been surprised by the even greater participation in the referendum regarding the maximum legal extent of land, in which any land over 5,000 hectares could be subject to expropriation.
Synthesis (1 line) Exit polls predict the approval of the governing party’s referendum.