Information on Portugal and the Portuguese language
Heroes of the sea, noble race
Valiant and immortal nation
Now is the hour to raise up on high once more
National Anthem of Portugal
PORTUGAL AT A GLANCE Location – South-West Europe on the Iberian peninsula; and Atlantic archipelagos the Azores and Madeira islands
Neighbours – Spain
Size – 35,655 square miles
Population – 10,617,575 (75th)
Life Expectancy – Male / Female 75/82
Capital city – Lisbon
The oldest European nation state, Portugal had attained its present extent by the mid-13th century. In the early 14th century Portugal began its worldwide exploration, which gave it a global empire and extensive wealth but isolated it from the rest of Europe. Long ruled by a tiny oligarchy, in 1910 a republic was proclaimed, followed by six decades of repressive government until a left-wing coup in 1974 brought reform.
Political pressure points
Portugal is a democratic republic. In December 2009, the former president Mario Soares warned that rising social inequality, an expected large increase in unemployment, the impunity of bankers and inequities in the justice system are creating a climate of distrust and revolt.
Majority Portuguese, small minority Brazilian and African communities.
Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, none 3.9%
Living national icons
José Saramago (author), Mariza (fado singer), Paula Rego (artist), Herman José (comedian), Manoel de Oliveira (film director), Maria de Medeiros (actor), Cristiano Ronaldo (footballer), Simao Sabrosa (footballer)
The Nottinghamshire Context
Since Portugal became a member of the EU, it has enabled residents to have freedom of movement and the ability to work anywhere in the EU. This has meant increased migration to the UK for economic reasons. Migrants from these countries may work in low paid unskilled jobs, although be highly skilled in particular industries back in their home country. Some jobs may also involve shift work which can impact on family life and ability for parents to attend meetings.
Education in Portuagal
The education system of Portugal is regulated by the State through the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Science and Technology and Higher Education.
The public education system is the most popular and well established, but there are also many private schools at all levels of education.
There is very little pre-school education in Portugal.
Education is compulsory from ages 6 to 15.
Schooling is divided into three cycles: one of four years, one of two years and one of three years.
Portuguese is the language of instruction for all levels.
At 15, pupils may move on to senior secondary school, where they may study for two or three years, culminating in the award of the Certificado de fim de Estudos Secundarios.
There are two types of secondary education, vocational and general.
Those who want to learn a trade usually choose vocational secondary education.
Students choose to attend general secondary education if they want to pursue higher education after high school to obtain a degree or diploma.
Some children attend private schools, especially Roman Catholic schools.
Information about the Portuguese language
Portuguese (português or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Cett-liberians about 1000 years ago. It spread worldwide in the 15th and 16th centuries as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire which spanned from Brazil in the Americas to Goa in India and Macau in China. During that time, many creole languages based on Portuguese also appeared around the world, especially in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Today it is one of the world's major languages, ranked sixth according to number of native speakers (over 200 million). It is the language with the largest number of speakers in South America (188 million, over 51% of the continent's population), and also a major lingua franca in Africa. It is the official language of nine countries, being co-official with Spanish and French in Equatorial Guinea, with Chinese in the Chinese special administrative region of Macau, and with Tetum in East Timor.
Portuguese is a Romance language, closely related to, and yet distincly different from, Spanish. It is softer and less emphatic than Spanish, with a greater variety of vowel sounds, and contains a number of nasal sounds that are completely unknown in Spanish. Words beginning with h in Spanish frequently begin with f in Portuguese (e.g., hijo/filho- son), while words ending in –ció in Spanish generally end in ção in Portuguese ( nación/nação- nation). There are a number of words from Arabic in both Languages (algodó/algodão-cotton plus a few peculiar to Portuguese (alfaiate-tailor). Many words are identical in the two languages (mesa- table, flo- flower, lago-lake), but others are completely different (perro/cão- dog, gracias/obrigado- thank you)
The Portuguese nasal vowels are indicated by letters ã and õ. The ç functions as in French, while the combinations lh and nh correspond to the Spanish ll and ñrespectively. The letter j is pronounced as in French (not as in Spanish), as is the letter g before e and I. The h is always silent. Words ending in a (but not ã), e, o, m, or s generally stress the next to last syllable, while those ending on other letters stress the final syllable. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by an acute accent if the vowel has an open sound (açúcar- sugar), and by a circumflex if the vowel has a closed sound (relâmpago- lightning). The accent marks are also used to distinguish between words that would otherwise have the same spelling, as for example e, meaning “and” but é, “is” and por, meaning “by”, but pôr, meaning “to put”.
Sample text in Portuguese
Todos os seres humanos nascem livres e iguais em dignidade e em direitos. Dotados de razão e de consciência, devem agir uns para com os outros em espírito de fraternidade.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Information on working with newly arrived isolated EAL pupils in settings that have little or no access to EAL support.
Excellence and enjoyment: learning and teaching for bilingual children in the primary years (DfES 0013 – 2006PCK- EN)
Key Stage 3 National Strategy: Access and engagement in English:teaching pupils for whom English is an additional language (DfES 0609 – 2002)
Publications/Catalogues are available from: MUNDI Tel: 0115 8546418
Global Education Centre
www.mundi.org.uk (under construction/Aug 2010)
Mundi loan resources to schools in Nottinghamshire free for up to half a term e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mantra Lingua creative learning resources Audio CDs, Big Books, e-books, fun tales, folk tales, friezes, games, language learning, packs posters, story props, toys videos and so on.
Classroom Resources are available from:
Interactive video clips showing children teaching their home languages www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmonth
The following website translates words, phrases and short paragraphs from English to Portuguese available at; www.foreignword.com. The Dingle Granby Toxteth Education Action Zone website; Useful letters for parents translated into Portuguese available at: http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/letters
DLTK's Crafts for Kids features a variety images that can be used for creating pupils own subject-specific dictionaries.
http://www.dltk-kids.com Activities for ESL Students can be adapted for EAL pupils in primary and secondary schools. Has bilingual quizzes in large number of languages, available at http://a4esl.org. Omniglot writing systems and languages of the world available at www.omniglot.com
EMA Online resource base for teachers has been developed by Birmingham, Leeds and Manchester LAs with funding from the DfES, available at; http://www.emaonline.org.uk. Racist bullying. Advice designed for schools to dip in and out as appropriate for them and offers discussion topics and activities to stimulate debate and spark activity involving everyone in the school community, available at; http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/tacklingbullying/racistbullying.
Teachernet states that a successful home–school relationship can be a key element in making a school stronger and more effective. In particular, it can make a real difference to groups of underachieving pupils and their families, available at; http://www.teachernet.gov.uk.