Practice test 15 3 practice test 16 11

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May 2000

Question 1-9
The canopy ,the upper level of the trees in the rain forest, holds a plethora of climbing

mammals of moderately large size, which may include monkeys, cats, civets, and

porcupines. Smaller species, including such rodents as mice and small squirrels ,are not

Line as prevalent overall in high tropical canopies as they are in most habitats globally.

(5) Small mammals, being warm blooded, suffer hardship in the exposed and turbulent

environment of the uppermost trees. Because a small body has more surface area per unit

of weight than a large one of similar shape, it gains or loses heat more swiftly. Thus, in

the trees, where shelter from heat and cold may be scarce and conditions may fluctuate, a

small mammal may have trouble maintaining its body temperature.

(10) Small size makes it easy to scramble among twigs and branches in the canopy for

insects, flowers, or fruit, but small mammals are surpassed, in the competition for food,

by large ones that have their own tactics for browsing among food-rich twigs. The weight

of a gibbon (a small ape) hanging below a branch arches the terminal leaves down so that

fruit-bearing foliage drops toward the gibbon’s face. Walking or leaping species of a

(15) similar or even larger size access the outer twigs either by snapping off and retrieving the

whole branch or by clutching stiff branches with the feet or tail and plucking food with

their hands.
Small climbing animals may reach twigs readily, but it is harder for them than for large

climbing animals to cross the wide gaps from on tree crown to the next that typify the

(20) high canopy. A macaque or gibbon can hurl itself farther than a mouse can: it can achieve

a running start, and it can more effectively use a branch as a springboard, even bouncing

on a climb several times before jumping. The forward movement of a small animal is

seriously reduced by the air friction against the relatively large surface area of its body.

Finally, for the many small mammals that supplement their insect diet with fruits or seeds

(25) an inability to span open gaps between tree crowns may be problematic, since trees that

yield these foods can be sparse.

1. The passage answers which of the following questions?

(A) How is the rain forest different from other habitats?

(B) How does an animal’s body size influence an animal’s need for food?

(C) Why does the rain forest provide an unusual variety of food for animals?

(D) Why do large animals tend to dominate the upper canopy of the rain forest?

2. Which of the following animals is less common in the upper canopy than in other environments?

(A) Monkeys (B) Cats (C) Porcupines (D) Mice

3. The word “they” in line 4 refers to

(A) trees (B) climbing mammals of moderately large size

(C) smaller species (D) high tropical canopies
4. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true about the small mammals in the rain forest?

(A) They have body shapes that are adapted to life in the canopy.

(B) They prefer the temperature and climate of the canopy to that of other environments.

(C) They have difficulty with the changing conditions in the canopy.

(D) They use the trees of the canopy for shelter from heat and cold.

5. In discussing animal size in paragraph 3, the author indicates that

(A) small animals require proportionately more food than larger animals do

(B) a large animal’s size is an advantage in obtaining food in the canopy

(C) small animals are often attacked by large animals in the rain forest

(D) small animals and large animals are equally adept at obtaining food in the canopy
6. The word “typify” in line 19 is closest in meaning to

(A) resemble (B) protect (C) characterize (D) divide

7. According to paragraph 4, what makes jumping from one tree crown to another difficult for small mammals?

(A) Air friction against the body surface (B) The thickness of the branches

(C) The dense leaves of the tree crown (D) The inability to use the front feet as hands
8. The word ‘supplement” in line 24 is closest in meaning to

(A) control (B) replace (C) look for (D) add to

9. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?

(A) canopy(line 1) (B) warm blooded(line 5)

(C) terminal leaves(line13) (D) springboard(line 21)

Question 10-19

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, almost nothing was written about the

contributions of women during the colonial period and the early history of the newly

formed United States. Lacking the right to vote and absent from the seats of power, women

Line were not considered an important force in history. Anne Bradstreet wrote some significant

(5) poetry in the seventeenth century, Mercy Otis Warren produced the best contemporary

history of the American Revolution, and Abigail Adams penned important letters showing

she exercised great political influence over her husband, John, the second President of the

United States. But little or no notice was taken of these contributions. During these

centuries, women remained invisible in history books.
(10) Throughout the nineteenth century, this lack of visibility continued, despite the efforts

of female authors writing about women. These writers, like most of their male counterparts,

were amateur historians. Their writings were celebratory in nature, and they were uncritical

in their selection and use of sources.

During the nineteenth century, however, certain feminists showed a keen sense of

(15) history by keeping records of activities in which women were engaged. National, regional,

and local women’s organizations compiled accounts of their doings. Personal

correspondence, newspaper clippings, and souvenirs were saved and stored. These sources

from the core of the two greatest collections of women’s history in the United States one at

the Elizabeth and Arthur Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College, and the other the Sophia

(20) Smith Collection at Smith College. Such sources have provided valuable materials for later

Generations of historians.

Despite the gathering of more information about ordinary women during the nineteenth

Century, most of the writing about women conformed to the “great women” theory of

History, just as much of mainstream American history concentrated on “great men.” To

(25) demonstrate that women were making significant contributions to American life, female

authors singled out women leaders and wrote biographies, or else important women

produced their autobiographies. Most of these leaders were involved in public life as

reformers, activists working for women’s right to vote, or authors, and were not

representative at all of the great of ordinary woman. The lives of ordinary people

(30) continued, generally, to be untold in the American histories being published.

10. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The role of literature in early American histories

(B) The place of American women in written histories

(C) The keen sense of history shown by American women

(D)The “great women” approach to history used by American historians
11. The word “contemporary” in line 5 means that the history was

(A) informative (B) written at that time

(C) thoughtful (D) faultfinding

12. In the first paragraph, Bradstreet, Warren, and Adams are mentioned to show that

(A) a woman’s status was changed by marriage

(B) even the contributions of outstanding women were ignored

(C) only three women were able to get their writing published

(D) poetry produced by women was more readily accepted than other writing by women

13. The word “celebratory” in line 12 means that the writings referred to were

(A) related to parties (B) religious (C) serious (D) full of praise

14. The word “they” in line 12 refers to

(A) efforts (B) authors (C) counterparts (D) sources

15. In the second paragraph, what weakness in nineteenth-century histories does the author point out?

(A) They put too much emphasis on daily activities

(B) They left out discussion of the influence of money on politics.

(C) The sources of the information they were based on were not necessarily accurate.

(D) They were printed on poor-quality paper.
16. On the basis of information in the third paragraph, which of the following would most likely have been collected by nineteenth-century feminist organizations?

(A) Newspaper accounts of presidential election results

(B) Biographies of John Adams

(C) Letters from a mother to a daughter advising her how to handle a family problem

(D) Books about famous graduates of the country’s first college
17. What use was made of the nineteenth-century women’s history materials in the Schlesinger Library and the Sophia Smith Collection?

(A) They were combined and published in a multivolume encyclopedia

(B) They formed the basis of college courses in the nineteenth century.

(C) They provided valuable information for twentieth—century historical researchers.

(D) They were shared among women’s colleges throughout the United States.
18. In the last paragraph, the author mentions all of the following as possible roles of nineteenth-century “great women” EXCEPT

(A) authors (B) reformers

(C) activists for women’s rights (D) politicians

19. The word “representative” in line 29 is closest in meaning to

(A) typical (B) satisfied (C) supportive (D) distinctive

Question 20-29
The end of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century were

marked by the development of an international Art Nouveau style, characterized by sinuous

lines, floral and vegetable motifs, and soft evanescent coloration. The Art Nouveau style

Line was an eclectic one, bringing together elements of Japanese art, motifs of ancient cultures,

(5) and natural forms. The glass objects of this style were elegant in outline, although often

deliberately distorted, with pale or iridescent surfaces. A favored device of the style was to

imitate the iridescent surface seen on ancient glass that had been buried. Much of the Art

Nouveau glass produced during the years of its greatest popularity had been generically

termed “art glass.” Art glass was intended for decorative purposes and relied for its effect

(10) on carefully chosen color combinations and innovative techniques.
France produced a number of outstanding exponents of the Art Nouveau style; among

the most celebrated was Emile Galle (1846-1904). In the United States, Louis Comfort

Tiffany (1843-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of

glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized

(15) today. Tiffany was a brilliant designer, successfully combining ancient Egyptian, Japanese,

and Persian motifs.

The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915,

although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920’s. It was eventually to be

overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since

(20) the turn of the century. At first restricted to a small avant-garde group of architects and

designers, Functionalism emerged as the dominant influence upon designers after the First

World War. The basic tenet of the movement-that function should determine from-was

not a new concept. Soon a distinct aesthetic code evolved: from should be simple, surfaces

plain, and any ornament should be based on geometric relationships. This new design

(25) concept, coupled with the sharp postwar reactions to the styles and conventions of the

preceding decades, created an entirely new public taste which caused Art Nouveau types of

glass to fall out of favor. The new taste demanded dramatic effects of contrast, stark outline

and complex textural surfaces.

20. What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?

(A) Design elements in the Art Nouveau style

(B) The popularity of the Art Nouveau style

(C) Production techniques for art glass

(D) Color combinations typical of the Art Nouveau style
21. The word “one” in line 4 refers to

(A) century (B) development (C) style (D) coloration

22. Para.1 mentions that Art Nouveau glass was sometimes similar to which aspect of ancient buried glass

(A) The distortion of the glass (B) The appearance of the glass surface

(C) The shapes of the glass objects (D) The size of the glass objects

23. What is the main purpose of paragraph 2?

(A) To compare different Art Nouveau styles

(B) To give examples of famous Art Nouveau artists

(C) To explain why Art Nouveau glass was so popular in the United States

(D) To show the impact Art Nouveau had on other cultures around the world

24. The word “prized” in line 14 is closest in meaning to

(A) valued (B) universal (C) uncommon (D) preserved

25. The word “overtaken” in line 19 is closest in meaning to

(A) surpassed (B) inclined (C) expressed (D) applied

26. What does the author mean by stating that “function should determine form” (line 22)?

(A) A useful object should not be attractive.

(B) The purpose of an object should influence its form.

(C) The design of an object is considered more significant than its function.

(D) The form of an object should not include decorative elements.
27. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason Functionalism became popular was that it

(A) clearly distinguished between art and design

(B) appealed to people who liked complex painted designs

(C) reflected a common desire to break from the past

(D) was easily interpreted by the general public
28. Paragraph 3 supports which of the following statements about Functionalism?

(A) Its design concept avoided geometric shapes.

(B) It started on a small scale and then spread gradually.

(C) It was a major force in the decorative arts before the First World War.

(D) It was not attractive to architects all designers.
29. According to the passage, an object made in the Art Nouveau style would most likely include

(A) a flowered design (B) bright colors

(C) modern symbols (D) a textured surface

Question 30-40

During most of their lives, surge glaciers behave like normal glaciers, traveling perhaps

only a couple of inches per day. However, at intervals of 10 to 100 years, these glaciers

move forward up to 100 times faster than usual. The surge often progresses along a glacier

line like a great wave, proceeding from one section to another. Subglacial streams of meltwater

(5) water pressure under the glacier might lift it off its bed, overcoming the friction between ice

and rock, thus freeing the glacier, which rapidly sliders downhill Surge glaciers also might

be influenced by the climate, volcanic heat, or earthquakes. However, many of these

glaciers exist in the same area as normal glaciers, often almost side by side.

(10) Some 800 years ago, Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier advanced toward the sea, retreated, and

advanced again 500 years later. Since 1895, this seventy-mile-long river of ice has been

flowing steadily toward the Gulf of Alaska at a rate of approximately 200 feet per year. In

June 1986, however, the glacier surged ahead as much as 47 feet a day. Meanwhile, a

western tributary, called Valerie Glacier, advanced up to 112 feet a day. Hubbard’s surge

(15) closed off Russell Fiord with a formidable ice dam, some 2,500 feet wide and up to 800

feet high, whose caged waters threatened the town of Yakutat to the south.

About 20 similar glaciers around the Gulf of Alaska are heading toward the sea. If

enough surge glaciers reach the ocean and raise sea levels, West Antarctic ice shelves could

rise off the seafloor and become adrift. A flood of ice would then surge into the Southern

(20) Sea. With the continued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge into the ocean, causing sea

levels to rise even higher, which in turn would release more ice and set in motion a vicious

cycle. The additional sea ice floating toward the tropics would increase Earth’s Albedo and

lower global temperatures, perhaps enough to initiate a new ice age. This situation appears

to have occurred at the end of the last warm interglacial (the time between glacations),

(25) called the Sangamon, when sea ice cooled the ocean dramatically, spawning the beginning

of the Ice Age.

30. What is the main topic of the passage?

(A) The classification of different types of surge glaciers

(B) The causes and consequences of surge glaciers

(C) The definition of a surge glacier

(D) The history of a particular surge glacier
31. The word “intervals” in line 2 is closest in meaning to

(A) records (B) speeds (C) distances (D) periods

32. The author compares the surging motion of a surge glacier to the movement of a

(A) fish (B) wave (C) machine (D) boat

33. Which of the following does the author mention as a possible cause of surging glaciers?

(A) The decline in sea levels

(B) The occurrence of unusually large ocean waves

(C) The shifting Antarctic ice shelves

(D) The pressure of meltwater underneath the glacier
34. The word “freeing” in line 7 is closest in meaning to

(A) pushing (B) releasing (C) strengthening (D) draining

35. According to the passage, the Hubbard Glacier

(A) moves more often than the Valerie Glacier

(B) began movement toward the sea in 1895

(C) is 800 feet wide

(D) has moved as fast as 47 feet per day
36. Yakutat is the name of

(A) an Alaskan town (B) the last ice age

(C) a surge glacier (D) an Antarctic ice shelf
37. The word “plunge” in line 20 is closest in meaning to

(A) drop (B) extend (C) melt (D) drift

38. The term “vicious cycle” in lines 21-22 refers to the

(A) movement pattern of surge glaciers

(B) effect surge glaciers could have on the temperature of tropical areas

(C) effect that repeated rising sea levels might have on glacial ice

(D) constant threat surge glaciers could pose to the Gulf of Alaska

39. The author provides a definition for which of the following terms?

(A) Tributary (line 14) (B) Ice dam (line 15)

(C) Albedo (line 22) (D) Interglacial (line 24)
40. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?

(A) The movement of surge glaciers can be prevented.

(B) The next ice age could be caused by surge glaciers.

(C) Surge glaciers help to support Antarctic ice shelves.

(D) Normal glaciers have little effect on Earth’s climate.

Question 41-50
According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may

become recognized as the leader of a social group in the United States. In the family,

traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases,

Line such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although

(5) there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally

through election or recruitment.

Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades

of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural

leaders.” It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common;

(10) rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that

meet the needs of that particular group.

Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader,

research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by

different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion

(15) of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things”

done.” Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the

collective well-being of a social group’s member. Expressive leader are less concerned

with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group

members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Group members

(20) expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide

support to individual members.

Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group

members. They give orders and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of

the group’s goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to

(25) others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is

subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor ,and try to

resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the differences in these two roles

suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members;

instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a mote

distant respect

41. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The problems faced by leaders

(B) How leadership differs in small and large groups

(C) How social groups determine who will lead them

(D) The role of leaders in social groups

42. The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders EXCEPT

(A) recruitment (B) formal election process

(C) specific leadership training (D) traditional cultural patterns

43. In mentioning “natural leaders” in lines 8-9, the author is making the point that

(A) few people qualify as “natural leaders”

(B) there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist

(C) “natural leaders’ are easily accepted by the members of a social group

(D) “natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics

44. Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?

(A) A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.

(B) Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.

(C) A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.

(D) Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
45. The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on

(A) ensuring harmonious relationships (B) sharing responsibility with group members

(C) identifying new leaders (D) achieving a goal
46. The word “collective” in line 17 is closest in meaning to

(A) necessary (B) typical (C) group (D) particular

47. The word “them” in line 19 refers to

(A) expressive leaders (B) goals of the group

(C) group members (D) tension and conflict
48. A “secondary relationship” mentioned in line 22 between a leader and the members of a group could best be characterized as

(A) distant (B) enthusiastic (C) unreliable (D) personal

49. The word “resolve” in line 27 is closest in meaning to

(A) avoid repeating (B) talk about

(C) avoid thinking about (D) find a solution for

50. Paragraphs 3 and 4 organize the discussion of leadership primarily in term of

(A) examples that illustrate a problem (B) cause and effect analysis

(C) narration of events (D) comparison and contrast

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