Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi intends to publish Ayurveda Research Digest (Quarterly). The main objective of this publication is to disseminate the research information/ citation about research articles on Ayurveda and related fields published in various journals/magazines subscribed by the Council as well as free on-line journals and complementary issues received by the Council.
This issue covers more than 400 articles on Ayurveda and related sciences which have been broadly classified under various subjects viz. Basic & Fundamental Studies, Clinical studies, Drug research, Epigraphical studies, History of medicine, Homoeopathy, Literary research, Medicinal plants, Naturopathy & Yoga, Tribal health care/ Ethnomedicine, Botany, Drug Review, Drug Standardization, Quality Control , Haemorroides, Microbiology, Phytochemistry, , Pharmacology , Vaterinery, Tribal Health Care, Etc.
ARRANGEMENT OF DATA
The articles are indexed under subject, which have been arranged alphabetically. Under each subject/ subtopics, the entries are arranged alphabetically by Author.
Arrangement of each entry is as follows:
Subject/ sub topic
Name of the Authors (seperated by ,) (last name first) .Title of the article.Title of the journal in italic.Year of the journal;Vol of the journal(issue of the journal within bracket):pages of the journal. If online, URL of the journal mentioned.
This Research Digest consists the recent issue(s) of following journals: subscribed by CCRAS and by the Units of CCRAS.
Agarwal AK, Singh M, Gupta N, Saxena R, Puri A, Verma AK, Saxena RP, Dubey CB, Saxena KC. Management of giardiasis by an immuno-modulatory herbal drug Pippali Rasayana. J EthnoPharmacol.2009;44(3):143-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Pippali Rasayana (PR), an Ayurvedic herbal medicine, prepared from Piper longum (Pippali) and Butea monosperma (Palash), and prescribed for the treatment of chronic dysentery and worm infestations was tested for anti-giardial and immuno-stimulatory activity in mice, infected with Giardia lamblia trophozoites. It produced up to 98% recovery from the infection. The Rasayana had no killing effect on the parasite in vitro. It induced significant activation of macrophages as evidenced by increased macrophage migration index (MMI) and phagocytic activity. Enhancement of host resistance could be one of the possible mechanisms contributing towards the recovery of animals from the giardial infection.
Agarwal AK, Tripathi DM, Sahai R, Gupta N, Saxena RP, Puri A, Singh M, Misra RN, Dubey CB, Saxena KC. Management of giardiasis by a herbal drug 'Pippali Rasayana': a clinical study. J EthnoPharmacol.2004;56(3):233-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Pippali Rasayana (PR), an Indian Ayurvedic drug prepared from Palash (Butea monosperma (Lamk) Kuntze; Leguminaceae) and Pippali (Piper longum L.; Piperaceae), was administered at a dose of 1 g p.o. three times daily for a period of 15 days to patients (25 treated, 25 placebo controls) suffering from giardiasis with clinical signs and symptoms, and stools positive for trophozoites/cysts of Giardia lamblia. After 15 days of drug treatment there was a complete disappearance of G. lamblia (trophozoites/cysts) from the stools of 23 out of 25 patients. General signs and symptoms of ill health and abdominal discomfort, presence of mucus, pus cells and RBCs were significantly reduced. There was a marked improvement in the clinical and haematological profile of the patients. Spontaneous recovery in 20% cases was recorded in placebo controls.
Aggarwal BB, Ichikawa H, Garodia P, Weerasinghe P, Sethi G, Bhatt ID, Pandey MK, Shishodia S, Nair MG. From traditional Ayurvedic medicine to modern medicine:identification of therapeutic targets for suppression of inflammation and cancer.Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2006 ;10(1):87-118.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that involves transformation, dysregulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Extensive research during the last 30 years has revealed much about the biology of cancer. Drugs used to treat most cancers are those that can block cell signalling, including growth factor signalling (e.g.epidermal growth factor); prostaglandin production (e.g.COX-2); inflammation (e.g.inflammatory cytokines: NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, chemokines); drug resistance gene products (e.g.multi-drug resistance); cell cycle proteins (e.g.cyclin D1 and cyclin E); angiogenesis (e.g.vascular endothelial growth factor); invasion (e.g.matrix metalloproteinases); antiapoptosis (e.g.bcl-2, bcl-X(L), XIAP, survivin, FLIP); and cellular proliferation (e.g.c-myc, AP-1, growth factors). Numerous reports have suggested that Ayurvedic plants and their components mediate their effects by modulating several of these recently identified therapeutic targets. However, Ayurvedic medicine requires rediscovery in light of our current knowledge of allopathic (modern) medicine. The focus of this review is to elucidate the Ayurvedic concept of cancer, including its classification, causes, pathogenesis and prevention; surgical removal of tumours; herbal remedies; dietary modifications; and spiritual treatments.
Aggarwal S, Negi S, Jha P, Singh PK, Stobdan T, Pasha MA, Ghosh S, Agrawal A;Indian Genome Variation Consortium, Prasher B, Mukerji M. EGLN1 involvement in high-altitude adaptation revealed through genetic analysis of extreme constitution types defined in Ayurveda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(44):961-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
It is being realized that identification of subgroups within normal controls corresponding to contrasting disease susceptibility is likely to lead to more effective predictive marker discovery. We have previously used the Ayurvedic concept of Prakriti, which relates to phenotypic differences in normal individuals, including response to external environment as well as susceptibility to diseases, to explore molecular differences between three contrasting Prakriti types: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. EGLN1 was one among 251 differentially expressed genes between the Prakriti types. In the present study, we report a link between high-altitude adaptation and common variations rs479200 (C/T) and rs480902 (T/C) in the EGLN1 gene. Furthermore, the TT genotype of rs479200, which was more frequent in Kapha types and correlated with higher expression of EGLN1, was associated with patients suffering from high-altitude pulmonary edema, whereas it was present at a significantly lower frequency in Pitta and nearly absent in natives of high altitude. Analysis of Human Genome Diversity Panel-Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP-CEPH) and Indian Genome Variation Consortium panels showed that disparate genetic lineages at high altitudes share the same ancestral allele (T) of rs480902 that is overrepresented in Pitta and positively correlated with altitude globally (P < 0.001), including in India. Thus, EGLN1 polymorphisms are associated with high-altitude adaptation, and a genotype rare in highlanders but overrepresented in a subgroup of normal lowlanders discernable by Ayurveda may confer increased risk for high-altitude pulmonary edema.
Amruthesh S. Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV: classification and management of common oral diseases. Indian J Dent Res. 2008 ;19(1):52-61.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
This Article, the fourth in the series titled 'Dentistry and Ayurveda,' describes in brief the panchakarma therapy, which is a distinctive feature of the Ayurvedic method of detoxifying the body. The various therapies and medicines used in Ayurveda have been elaborated. Further, an attempt has been made to correlate dental diseases in Ayurveda with the modern-day classification, clinical features, and management.
Arora R, Gupta D, Chawla R, Sagar R, Sharma A, Kumar R, PRasad J, Singh S, Samanta N, Sharma RK. Radioprotection by plant products: present status and future prospects. Phytother Res.2005;19(1):1-22.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment, such as space exploration, radiotherapy and even nuclear war. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radioprotectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources, including plants, has been on going for several decades. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. A systematic screening approach can provide leads to identifying potential new candidate drugs from plant sources, for mitigation of radiation injury. This Article reviews some of the most promising plants, and their bioactive principles, that are widely used in traditional systems of medicine, and which have rendered significant radioprotection in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Plants and their constituents with Pharmacological activities that may be relevant to amelioration of radiation-mediated damage, including antiemetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, cell proliferative, wound healing and haemopoietic stimulatories are also discussed.
Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, Tripathi PC, Seal T, Mukherjee B. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J EthnoPharmacol. 2003 ;84(2-3):131-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
A number of Indian medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda). Amongst these are plants used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, loss of memory, degeneration of nerves and other neuronal disorders by the Ayurvedic practitioners. Though the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases remains enigmatic, there is evidence, which indicates that defective energy Metabolism, excitotoxicity and oxidative damage may be crucial factors (Ann. Neurol. 38 (3) (1995) 357). The part of the Ayurvedic system that provides an approach to prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases is known as Rasayana, and plants used for this purpose are classed as rejuvenators. This group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity (Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 1175), but only a few have been investigated in detail. In the present study, three such Rasayana plants were tested for the first time for their toxicity and free radical scavenging activity both in vitro and ex vivo. All the three plant infusions (up to 1 mg/ml) showed no toxic effects on the viability of PC12 cell line as judged by MTT-test. Both ethanolic extracts and water infusions of the plants were tested for their antioxidant activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS*(+)) radical cation decolorization assay; inhibition of lipid peroxidation by plant infusions was carried out using spontaneous lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenate, and IC50 values were determined. The results from the ABTS assay showed that the ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was found to be most potent (IC50 16.07 microg/ml), followed by Evolvulus alsinoides (IC50 33.39 microg/ml) and Cynodon dactylon (IC50 78.62 microg/ml). The relative antioxidant capacity for the water infusions was observed in the following order: E. alsinoides (IC50 172.25 microg/ml)>C. dactylon (IC50 273.64 microg/ml)>S. cordifolia (IC50 342.82 microg/ml). The results of water infusions of the plants on lipid peroxidation were as follows: E. alsinoides (IC50 89.23 microg/ml)>S. cordifolia) (IC50 126.78 microg/ml)>C. dactylon (IC50 608.31 microg/ml).
Aziz N, Gilani AH, Rindh MA. Kushta(s): unique herbo-mineral preparations used in South Asian traditional medicine. Med Hypotheses.2002;59(4):468-72.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Herbs and minerals are the integral parts of traditional systems of medicine in many countries. Kushta is a form of herbo-mineral preparations used in traditional systems of medicine (Unani and Ayurvedic) of Indo-Pak subcontinent. These preparations have long been used and claimed to be the most effective and potent dosage form. However, there are only few scientific studies carried out on these products because of several reasons mainly being the lack of communication among traditional healers, physicians and scientists. The objective of this paper is to fill this gap by translating the old concepts in modern understanding, providing possible explanation and hypotheses. Some recommendations have also been given to provide the path to initiate research in this area of potential therapeutic value and public concern.
Babu G, Babu A, Bhuyan GC, PRasad GP, Swamy GK. Vandhyatva--a medico historical study. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad.2006;36(1):83-96.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
As per Ayurveda, important factors for conception are considered as ritu (fertile period), Kshetra (uterus and reproductive organs), Ambu (Proper nutrient fluid) and Bija (sukra-sonita) and also normalcy of Hdayari (Psychology). Abnormality of properly functioning Vayu and Satbhavas (matŗija, pitŗija, atma, satva, satmaya and Rasa), any one of these causes infertility (Vandhyatva). From the time immemorial the phenomenon of infertility was prevalent through out the world and this may persist till the human race exists. Every human being has inherent, intense desire to continue his (one's) own race; to become a mother is one of the most cherished desires of every woman. Failure to achieve conception by a couple of mature age, having normal coitus during appropriate period of menstrual cycle regularly, at least for one year of their conjugal is termed as infertility. The historical importance of stri Vandhyatva and a comparative study regarding its Nidana, Samprapti, Lakshana, Chikitsa etc compiled from various Granthas are being presented in this paper.
Bafna P, Bodhankar S. Gastrointestinal effects of Mebarid, an Ayurvedic formulation, in experimental animals. J EthnoPharmacol. 2003 ;86(2-3):173-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Mebarid, an Ayurvedic formulation, was tested for its anti-diarrhoeal, anti-ulcer and anti-motility activities in animals. Mebarid was investigated at four dose levels of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg BW. and 1g/kg BW The methods of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and pylorus-ligation-induced ulcers in rats were used to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal and anti-ulcer activity, respectively, while charcoal meal test in mice was the method used for testing its anti-motility effect. Mebarid was found to have significant activity in all the three models. Thus, it can be concluded that Mebarid possesses anti-diarrhoeal, anti-motility and anti-ulcer activities and can prove beneficial in the treatment of above gastrointestinal disorders.
Bagul MS, Kanaki NS, Rajani M. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of two classical polyherbal formulations. Indian J Exp Biol.2005;43(8):732-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Two polyherbal formulations of Ayurveda viz.Chandraprabha Vati and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu were evaluated for their free radical scavenging properties. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were studied in four different in vitro and ex vivo models. Total phenolic content of Chandraprabha Vati and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu was found to be 5.24% and 10.74% respectively. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were good scavengers of all the radicals but there was a difference in the activity of the two formulations in different models. Chandraprabha Vati was a good scavenger of superoxide radical and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu was efficient in scavenging nitric oxide (NO), while both inhibited lipid peroxidation efficiently. Free radical scavenging activity of the different extracts can be attributed to the presence of various chemical components including phenolics.
Bajaj S, Vohora SB. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda and Unani-Tibb. Indian J Med Res. 1998 ;108:104-11.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical (tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15 min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the observed analgesic activity.
An integrated approach is needed to manage cancer using the growing body of knowledge gained through scientific developments. Thousands of herbal and traditional compounds are being screened worldwide to validate their use as anti-cancerous drugs. The science of Ayurveda is supposed to add a step on to the curative aspects of cancers that have resemblance with clinical entities of arbuda and granthi mentioned in Sushruta Samhita. Hence, an attempt is made in this review to discuss about the pathology and therapeutic management of various cancers described in Ayurveda review of literature on anticancer drugs of plant origin revealed identification of newer Ayurvedic drugs that are not mentioned in the ancient texts. These new findings add up to Ayurvedic science that has been developed through ages. In addition, details of experimental and clinical studies conducted on single and compound Ayurvedic preparations for their anticancer efficacy strongly emphasize Ayurvedic therapy as a scientifically driven one and not simply unconventional.