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Meena A K, Mishra GK, Rajagopal Chitra and Gupta M D. The removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by adsorption on weathered coal. Indian journal of Environmental Protection. 2009;29(3):193-202.

Abstract.

The ability of weathered coal to remove Cr(VI):Hg(II):Cu(II):and Fe(II): from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. In this work, adsorption of heavy metals on weathered coal has been studied by using batch techniques. The adsorption experiments were performed under various conditions such as different initial concentrations of metal ions, pH of the solution, contact time, temperature and adsorbent dosage. The adsorption was in the order of Cr(VI): > Hg(II): > Cu(II): and Fe(II):. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of weathered coal for heavy metals was obtained by using linear Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption follows first -order kinetics. The process is endothermic showing monolayer adsorption of heavy metals. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.On the basis of experimental results as well as the model parameters, it can be inferred that the adsorbent weathered coal may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated plant effluents.

Meena AK, Mishra G K, Satish, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Low cost adsorbent for the removal of mercury (II): from aqueous solution A comparative study. Journal of Defence Science. 2004;54(4):537- 548.

Abstract.

The establishments of the Ministry of Defence, specifically ordnance factories and public sector undertakings (like Bharat Electronics Ltd):carry out operations like electroplating, metal surface finishing, solid-state wafer processing, and initiatory manufacturing (lead azide, mercury fulminate):which generate waste water contaminated with hazardous heavy metals. Mercury and its compounds are known to be highly toxic, both for the living organisms and the environment. To protect public health, a regulatory discharge standard of mercury, as low as 0.01 mg/l, has been imposed and is expected to be even stricter in the future. A promising method for effective mercury discharge control is to employ suitable adsorbents for the removal of mercury from the contaminated aqueous stream. This paper describes the effectiveness of low cost and locally available, untreated and chemically-treated adsorbents for the removal of mercury from the aqueous solution. Their effectiveness has been compared with that of chemically-treated granular activated carbon. Treated sawdust and untreated weathered coal were found to be the most suitable low-cost adsorbents in addition to treated granular activated carbon for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution. Under the optimised conditions, ie, adsorbent dose 10 g/l, pH 6, contact time 48 h, and initial concentration of mercury 3 mg/l, the removal of mercury was found to be 99.8 per cent, 99.8 per cent, and 99.7per cent, using treated granular activated carbon, treated sawdust, and untreated weathered coal, respectively.The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Surface complexation and ion exchange were the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the Langmuir model is in good agreement , with the experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of mercury on treated granular activated carbon, whereas, the experimental data on adsorptive behaviour of mercury on weathered coal and treated sawdust follow both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The paper presents the results of the experimental studies as well as the model parameters.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorptive Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using treated sawdust as an adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials.2008;150, 604-611.

Abstract.

The removal of Cr(VI):Pb(II):Hg(II): and Cu(II):by treated sawdust has been found to be concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Adsorption capacity for treated sawdust, i.e. Cr(VI): (111.61 mg/g):Pb(II): (52.38 mg/g):Hg(II): (20.62 mg/g):and Cu(II): (5.64 mg/g):respectively. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behaviour of metal ions on treated sawdust satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. The adsorption follows first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic constant (kad):standard free energy (_G◦):enthalpy (_H◦): and entropy (_S◦): were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The percentage adsorption increases with pH to attain a maximum at pH 6 and thereafter it decreases with further increase in pH. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorption of Pb (II): and Cd(II): metal ions from aqueous solutions by mustard husk. Journal of Hazardous Materials.2008;150:619-625.

Abstract.

The adsorption of Pb(II): and Cd(II): metal ions on mustard husk has been found to be concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behavior of Pb(II): and Cd(II): metal ions on mustard husk satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e. multilayer formation on the surface of the adsorbent with an exponential distribution of site energy. Ion exchange and surface complexation are the major adsorption mechanisms involved. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Thermodynamic constant (kad):free energy change (_G):enthalpy change (_H): and entropy change (_S): were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rai P K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using carbon aerogel as an adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials.2005;122:161 – 170.

Abstract.

The removal of Cd(II):Pb(II):Hg(II):Cu(II):Ni(II):Mn(II): and Zn(II): by carbon aerogel has been found to be concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behaviour of metal ions on carbon aerogel satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e. multilayer formation on the surface of the adsorbent with an exponential distribution of site energy. The applicability of the Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Thermodynamic constant (Kad):standard free energy (_G0): enthalpy (_H0): and entropy (_S0): were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.

Meena AK, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Removal of copper (II): from aqueous solution by different adsorbents. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection; 2004;24 (5): 361 - 370.

Abstract.

The adsorption studies on the removal of copper from aqueous solution using carbon aerogel as well as locally available weathered coal and sawdust (treated): was carried out under varying experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption was observed to be a function of the solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper ions and adsorbent dose. Carbon aerogel, weathered coal and treated sawdust showed 92.3%, 92.4% and 97.6% adsorptive removal of copper respectively under optimised conditions of pH 6 and dosage 1 gm/100 ml for 3 mg/l copper aqueous solutions in 48 hrs contact time. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for the binding of Cu (II): ions on the surface of treated sawdust, weathered coal and carbon aerogel. The experimental results strongly support this hypothesis. The adsorption capacity of adsorbent for copper was obtained by using linear Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The Langmuir model is in good agreement with experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of copper on carbon aerogel, whereas, the experimental data on adsorptive behaviour of copper on weathered coal and treated sawdust follow both Freundlich model and Langmuir models. On the basis of experimental results as well as the model parameters, it can be inferred that the adsorbent, like treated sawdust, weathered coal and carbon aerogel may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the removal of copper from contaminated plant effluents.

Meena A K, Nain Jaspreet, Garg Nitika and Rao MM. Review on Ethnobotany and PhytoPharmacology of Bombax ceiba. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2011; 3(2): 57-61.

Abstract.:

Bombax ceiba or the silk cotton tree, this tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysentric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. New sesquiterpenoids Bombalones A-D, bombamalside have also been isolated. This paper explains the evidencebased information regarding the Pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.

Meena A K, Niranjan Uttam S, Yadav AK, Ajit K, Singh Brijendra, Kiran, Rao M M. A quality assessment of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2010;2(1): 25-28.

Abstract.

The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. The whole plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae): are reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicines. The present study deals with pharmacognostical examination of morphological and microscopical characters and phytochemical investigations of Boerhaavia diffusa plants including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilages in the extracts.

Meena A. K.Pal Bhavana, Panda P, Sannd R and Rao MM. A review on Rubia cordifolia: Its phyto constituents and therapeutic uses. Drug Invention Today.2010;2(5):244-246.

Abstract.

Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae): is also known as, Manjishtha, Indian madder known to contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots which is responsible for anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, urinary disorders, antistress antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, radio protective, and anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antileukemic and mutagenic functions, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The plant contains substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots, which is responsible for its Pharmacological activity. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the Pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity of the Rubia cordifolia.
Meena A K, Rajagopal Chitra, Bansal Parveen and Nagar P N. Investigation on Water Quality Characteristics in Selected Areas of Pali District, Rajasthan, Indian Journal of Environmental Protection.2009;29 (11): 1011-1116.

Abstract.

Water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet. Ground water is the principle source of fresh water in most of the rural and urban areas of Rajasthan. The demand of ground water has significantly increased in recent years due to population growth and is expected to continue in the future. Drinking water is one of the basic needs of mankind. However, due to the non-uniform nature of its distribution in India as well as the poor quality of the water in many areas, effective treatment processes are required to meet the drinking water needs of the population. This problem is prevalent in most of the areas of Rajasthan and is further compounded by the release of effluents enriched with heavy metals like iron, chromium and lead which contaminate the groundwater over a period of time.The present study deals with the impact assessment of industrial pollution on selected area with reference to physico- chemical and biological parameters. The factors such as Colour, Odour, Turbidity, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Salinity, Acidity, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Chloride, Fluoride, Cyanide, Sulphate, Nitrate, Total Organic Carbon, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biological Oxygen Demand, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni affect the chemistry of water and also altered the biological characteristics of the environment to a great extent because of industrial effluents. In the present study, samples of ground and waste water were collected from Pali, Rajasthan and analysed for relevant parameters. The results of the analysis of ground and waste water showed the high range of toxic heavy metals and other parameters in the ground used for potable purposes. The levels of these heavy metals were higher than permissible levels specified for drinking water in the Indian standards. Therefore it was concluded that a few water samples were unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purpose.

Meena A K, Rajagopal C and Meena P D, Purification of Lead and Cadmium affected water by mustard Straw. Basanti - Agriculture research Journal.2007;3(1): 31 -35.

Abstract.

Mustard straw was used as a promising adsorbent for remove of the heavy metals from waste water and effects of various experiments were studied. 10 gm mustard straw was contacted with one liter waste water of 3 gm concentratiun for 48 hrs at pH 4 and 6 which absorve 78'X, Ci1dmillm and 99.9% lead respectively. Results could be useful for industries involved in devcloping lt1i1chine for removi1j of hcavy metals from waste water.

Meena A K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Rremoval of Iron from aqueous solution by adsorption on weathered coal. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection.2006;26 (9):776 – 787.

Abstract.

The adsorption studies on the removal of iron from aqueous solution using weathered coal as well as locally available was carried out under varying experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption was observed to be a function of the solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of ions, temperature and adsorbent dose. Weathered coal showed 92.6% adsorptive removal of iron under optimised conditions of pH 8 and dosage 1 gm/100 ml for 3 mg/L iron aqueous solutions in 48 h contact time. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for the binding of Fe (II): ions on the surface of weathered coal. The experimental results strongly support this hypothesis.The adsorption capacity of adsorbent for iron was obtained by using linear Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The Langmuir model is in good agreement with experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of iron on weathered coal. Adsorption capacity as indicated by value of 'Qo' is 520.06 mg/g for weathered coal an adsorption capacities. The energies of adsorption, as indicated by 'b' are 0.58 L/mg for weathered coal. On the basis of experimental results as well as the model parameters, it can be inferred that the adsorbent weathered coal may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the removal of iron from contaminated plant effluents.

Meena A K and Rajagopal Chitra. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of chromium from contaminated water using different adsorbents. Indian Journal Chemical Technology. 2003;10:72-78.

Abstract.:

Chromium, especially the hexavalent form, is toxic to humans. Industries like chrome ptaung, texme electroplating discharge Cr(VI): in their effluents. Wastes containging chromium are environmentally persistent and toxic and cannot be degraded or detoxified biologically. Various techniques developed for the removal of heavy metals include chemical precipitation, ion exchange and absorption. Activated carbon adsorption systems though widely used are very expensive and the regeneration cost is also very high. Therefore, their use in waste water treatment may not be economically feasible. There is, therefore a need to identify and study adsorptive characterstics of low cost alternatives. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to select suitable locally and commercially available adsorbents such as activated alumina, ion exchange resin, with special attention to low costadsorbents like saw dust treated saw dust and sand, and to carry out a comparative study of their applicability to heavy metal removal. The results of these studies are presented in this paper.

Meena A K, Rao M M. “Folk Herbal Medicine Used By Meena Community In Rajasthan” .Asian Journal of Traditional Medicine.2010; 5 (1):51- 63.

Abstract.

A floristic survey of ethno medicinal plants occurring in the tribal area of Rajasthan was conducted to assess the potential of plant resources for use as modern treatments. The Aravalli hills of Rajasthan are inhabited by many tribes, Meena, Bhil, Grasia, Damor and Kathodia being the main ones. These tribes use the plants for various purposes in their daily life. Health, vitality and longevity enjoyed by the tribals peoples have been attributed by them to the use of these wild plants. However, because of environmental changes and a lack of plant conservation, many of them have become rare, threatened and endangered. The purpose of this communication is to provide a detailed listing of plant species along with their plant parts used and the mode of administration reported for the effective control of a variety of ailments as used by the Meena community of Rajasthan.

Meena A. K. , Rao M M, Kandale Ajit, Sharma Kiran, Singh Uttam, Yadav Ajay. “Evaluation Of Physico-Chemical And Standardisation Parameters of Solanum Xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl”. International Journal of chemical And Analytical Science.2010;1(3):47-49.

Abstract.

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts like leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of plant Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl. (Solanaceae): are used. It is commonly known as Yellow Berried Nightshade (syn: kantakari):. It is a prickly diffuse bright green perennial herb, woody at the base and 2–3 m in height. It is found throughout India mostly in dry places as a weed on roadsides and waste lands. The fruit is used as anti-asthmatic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-tussive, antifeedant, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, hypotensive, antianaphylactic and cytotoxic activity. Till today there is no detailed standardisation work reported for the Solanum xanthocarpum. Physicochemical parameters like preliminary characteristics, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and microbial contamination analysis were carried out. The study revealed different parameters of the crude drug which will be useful in identification and control of adulterations.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Komal Preet, Padhi M M, Singh Arjun, Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants Used In Ayurvedic Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(2): 58-60.

Abstract.

The present Article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb.Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value. Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A. K.Rao M M, Kaur Komalpreet and Panda P. Comparative evaluation of standardisation parameters between Wedelia genus species, International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research.2010;1(3):207-210.

Abstract.

Genus Wedelia belonging to family Asteraceae has great importance in Ayurvedic, Sidhha and Unani etc. traditional medicinal systems. In the recent past, number of attempts has been made to compare and evaluate the different species of plants belonging to the same genus. The use of the plants, plant extracts and pure compounds isolated from natural sources has always provided a foundation for modern pharmaceutical research. In present Article comparative study between Wedelia biflora and Wedelia chinesis has been made for parameters like ash content, soluble extracts, moisture content, pH, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and microbial load etc.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Krishna C M, Komalpreet, Sunil K N, Padhi M M,Babu Ramesh. Evaluation of Phamacognostic and Physicochemical parameters of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(1):41-47.

Abstract.

Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth is commonly known as Kutki belonging to family Scrophulariaceae. It is useful as a laxative, liver-stimulant, improving lactation, appetite stimulant, fabrifuge and as beneficial in bronchial asthma. This plant is native to the Himalayan region and is part of Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for various diseases. The leaf, bark and the underground parts of the plant, mainly rhizomes are widely used in the traditional Indian (Ayurvedic): systems of medicine since ancient times. Rhizomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth plant material was subjected to microscopic characterization and physico-chemical studies. TLC has also been studied to fix the quality standards of this drug. The experiment has revealed a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardization. Photomicrography and TLC profile were employed to fix standards. In this Article attempt has been made to standardize the Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth obtained from reliable source for its physico-chemical parameters like loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract, pH etc.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Panda P, Kiran, Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam, Singh B. Standardisation of Ayurvedic Polyherbal Formulation, Pancasama Churna. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2010;2 (1):11-14.

Abstract

Ayurvedic medicine, Panchasama Churna known to be effective mainly on gastrointestinal tract (GIT):has been standardized by following modern scientific quality control procedures both for the raw material and the finished product. Pancasama Churna was subjected to macro-microscopic, Physico-chemical, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix the quality standards of this drug. This study results a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardisation. TLC and HPTLC fingerprinting were employed to fix standards. The values obtained after physicochemical parameters study showed that these values should be helpful to develop new pharmacopoeial standards. This will be helpful to overcome batch to batch variations in traditional preparation of Pancasama churna. The physicochemical constituents found to be present in raw material used for the preparation of Pancasama churna possibly facilitate the desirable therapeutic efficacy of the medicinal formulation.

Meena Ajay Kumar, Rao M.M.Panda P. Padhi M.M. and Babu Ramesh, Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in the Measurement of Iodine Value in Mustard Oil. International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science.2010;1(7):136-140.

Abstract.

The significance of uncertainty must be known as the performer of the test to eliminate any error which carrying out testing as it is a part of measurement. The uncertainty of measurement defines the rate of lowest possible deviation from the true value and it is also defines the level of confidence. Quality of analysis has assumed great significance in view of the fact that measurement provides the very basis of all control actions. The analysis process is at best an estimate of or approximation to the true value. The uncertainty of measurement is a right tool, associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the true value which could reasonably be attributed to the measurand.

Meena A K, Rao MM, Sannd R, Mangal AK, Reddy GR, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh Comparative Studies on Quality Assessment of Trachyspermum Ammi Linn. Seeds Collected from Different locations of Punjab State. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2011; 3(1): 41-44.

Abstract.

Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It emphasizes on prevention as well as treatment of various disease conditions through holistic approach. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant material based on traditional method and approaches. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The seeds of Trachyspermum ammi Linn. are being used in traditional folk medicines for the treatment of various gastro-intestinal and inflammatory disorders. It is a bitter, aromatic, thyme like aroma warming herb, and possesses tonic, diuretic, and expectorant properties. It relaxes spasms, improves digestion, increases perspiration and is a strong antiseptic.Physicochemical studies on various parameters like total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol soluble extractive value, water soluble extractive value, loss on drying, pH, TLC reveal specific identities for the crude drug which will be useful in identification and help in controlling adulterations.

Meena A K, Rao MM, Rao V Nageswara, Komalpreet, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study of Various Plants of Piperaceae Family Commonly Used in Ayurvedic Formulations. Research Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2010; 2(5): 407-410.

Abstract.:

The present Article attempts to compare TLC and physico-chemical parameters of P. nigrum Linn.Piper cubeba Linn.Piper longum Linn. and Piper chaba Hunter belonging to common family Piperaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value. Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena AK, Rao MM, Sharma Kiran, Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam and Amit. Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. Asian J. Research Chem. 2010;3(4): 1-4.

Abstract.:

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae family. Haritaki is semi-deciduous tree grows up to 24 meter in height. Terminalia chebula is found throughout India chiefly in deciduous forests, on dry slopes up to 900m especially in Tamil Nadu, widely distributed through the greater parts of India, from Ravi eastwards to West Bengal and Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Deccan, West coast and Western Ghats. The plant is also reported in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Burma. Terminalia chebula is traditionally used in the formulation for anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, laxative, antiinflammatory, laxative, anti-fungal, cardiotonic, diuretic, hyperlipidemic activity. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Singh Arjun, Kumari Suman, “Physico-chemical And Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on The Rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2(2):130-131.

Abstract.

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn. Araceae family. Acorus calamus is a perennial, semi‐aquatic and smelly plant, found in both temperate and sub temperate zones. It is up to 6 feet tall, aromatic, sword‐shaped leaves and small, yellow/green flowers with branched rhizome. It is widely distributed throughout India and Ceylon, in marshes, wild or cultivated, ascending the Himalayas up to 6000 feet in Sikkim, plentiful in the marshy tracts of Kashmir and Sirmoor in Manipur and Naga Hills. The rhizomes are considered to possess anti‐spasmodic, carminative and anthelmintic, aromatic, expectorant, nauseant, nervine, sedative, stimulant and properties and also used for the treatment of epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, bronchial catarrh, intermittent fevers and glandular and abdominal tumors. In AyrVedic system of medicine the powder of this drug is being used to produce therapeutic emesis i.e. Vamana, one of the Panchakarma specialized therapeutic procedures of Ayurveda. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on rhizome, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and microbial contamination analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanajeet, Pal Bhavana, Singh Brijendra. “Moringa oleifera – A review” Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010;3 (4):840-842.

Abstract.

Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of “healthful” food who are now promoting M. oleifera. Over the past two decades, many reports have prepared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties.M. oleifera is a tropical tree whose numerous economic applications and facility of propagation are arousing growing international interest.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanjeet, Pal Bhavana, Rao M M, Singh Brijendra and Mishra Santosh Kumar. Quality Assessment of Different Variants of Yogaraj Guggulu. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance. 2010;2(2):10-12.

Abstract.

Yogaraj -Guggulu is a widely used Ayurvedic formulation. Standardisation of the Ayurvedic medicine, Yogaraj a Guggulu has been achieved by following modern scientific quality control procedures. It has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activity in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and in croton oil granuloma. For the standardization of this drug physico-chemical parameters were carried out such as moisture content, ash values, extractability in water and alcohol were carried out. Thin Layer Chromatography studies were also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug.

Meena A K, Saraswathy A, Shakila R, Sunil Kumar KN, Ariyanathan S, Pharmacognostic studies on Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. root bark. Journal of pharmacognocy. 2010;2(11):374-380.

Abstract.

Root bark of Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. (Family Alangiaceae): is a reputed drug mentioned in the ancient books of Ayurveda and Siddha for the treatment of epilepsy, jaundice, hepatitis etc. Root bark of the plant was subjected to macro-microscopic, photomicrographic, physico-chemical, fluorescence, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix quality standards for this drug. Microscopic studies have shown stratified phellem, rhytidome, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and uni- to triseriate medullary rays in the root bark. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol extracts and alkaloid fraction revealed characteristic chromatographic patterns with presence of alkaloids in varying concentrations. This study would be useful in the identification and authentication of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Sharma Kiran, Jain Vikas, Pal Bhavana, Ajit K, Singh Uttam, Singh R and Rao MM. Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Fruit of Tribulus terrestries Linn. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;2(2):31- 33.

Abstract.

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Tribulus terrestries Linn. Zygophyllaceae family. Tribulus terrestries is an annual or perennial, prostrate herb with many slender, spreading branches and silky-villous young parts. The plant grows wild throughout India, the shrub thrives in well irrigated black soil upto attitudes of 3000m. Tribulus terrestries is traditionally used in the formulation for antiurolithiatic activity, anthelmintic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, cardiac activity, aphrodisiac activity etc. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Singh Arjun, Panda P, Mishra Sudip, Rao MM. Tinospora cordifolia : Its bioactivities and evaluation of physicochemical properties. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2010;2(2).

Abstract.

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant): of tinospora cardifolia (Menispermaceae):commonly known as Guduchi are used. T. cordifolia is a glabrous, succulent, climbing shrub native to India. The plant is well known for several medicinal uses like immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, analgesic, antipyretic and also for the treatment of jaundice, skin diseases, diabetes, anemia etc. As there is no detailed on the standardisation work reported on stem, the physicochemical parameters, brief study on Pharmacological activities and microbial contamination analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Singh Arjun, Rao MM. Evaluation of physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Emblica officinalis gaertn. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.2010; 3(3): 242-243.

Abstract.

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Euphorbiaceae family. Amla is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. Amla traditional uses include as a laxative, eye wash, appetite stimulant, restorative tonic, and to treat anorexia, indigestion, diarrhea, anemia, and jaundice. Amla is becoming increasingly well known for its unusually high levels of Vitamin C, which is resistant to storage and heat damage due to cooking. It is found natively in India. Indian gooseberry has been used as valuable ingredient of various medicines in India and abroad. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena AK, Singh Arjun, Sharma Kiran, Kumari Suman, Rao M M. Physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the rhizomes of glycyrrhiza glabra linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2(2):48-50.

Abstract.

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn Leguminosae family. Glycyrrhiza glabra is a hardly herb or undershurb of pea family, found in subtropical and warm temperate regions. It is up to four or five feet, Glycyrrhiza glabra is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries, South Europe, Asia Minor, Egypt, Turkistan, Iran and in India, it is reported to be cultivated in Baramulla, Srinagar, Jammu, Dehradun, Delhi and South India. The rhizomes are considered to possess an expectorant and carminative, flavouring agent, depressant, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, antianthersclerotic, antiviral, hypotensive, heptoprotective, spasmolytic, antidiuretic, antimutagenic, antipyretic, anti‐inflammatory. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on rhizome, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and microbial contamination analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena, A K Singh Arjun, Rao M M and Kumari Suman. Evaluation of preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the fruit of Randia dumetorum Lam. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines.2010;5(2):75-78.

Abstract.

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Randia dumetorum (Rubiaceae):. It is found in waste places and jungles all over India. Different parts of this plant are used in curing different types of diseases. It is efficacous in skin diseases, aphrodisiac, emetic, purgative, carminative, antipyretic. It cures abscess, ulcers, inflammation, wounds, tumors, and have antibacterial activity. As there are no detailed standardisation studies of the fruit of this plant, therefore, the present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical, heavy metals, pesticide residue and aflatoxin analysis of the fruit for identification of the drug in dry form and control the adulteration of raw drugs.

Meena A K, Singh Brijendra, Kaur Ramanjeet ,Ayush, Pal Bhavana, Niranjan Uttam S, Yadav AK and Nagariya AK. Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Studies on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Root. Drug Invention Today.2010;2(4):217-219.

Abstract.

Plumbago zeylanica L.(family: Plumbaginaceae): is an important medicinal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Roots of this plant are the most frequently used plant parts which have traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, such as dyspepsia, piles, diarrhoea, skin diseases, leprosy and rheumatism. Roots are also reported to posses antibacterial, antifungal, abortifacient. Root of plant material was subjected to macro-microscopic, physico-chemical, preliminary phytochemical, TLC to fix the quality standards of this drug. The experiment has resulted a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardization. Photomicrography, TLC. The experiments yielded a set of diagnostic characters like cork cell, stone cell, parenchyma. This study would be useful for standardization of this raw drug derived from root of Plumbago zeylanica L.

Meena A. K.Singh Brijendra, Yadav A K, Singh Uttam , Kaur Ramanjeet, Sachan Ayushy, Kiran, Gautam Vertika, Pal Bhavana. “A Review On Medicinal Properties And Bioactive Constituents Of Herbal Spices Commonly Used In India” .Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(4):866-868.

Abstract.

Synthetic preserVatives have been used in foods for decades; however, an increasing perception by consumers that synthetic compounds may lead to negative health consequences has led to a reduced acceptance for their use in foods. Plant derived spices are generally used

in foods for flavoring and medicinal purposes. Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, such as antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity etc. Several spices Particularly garlic, ajowain, black pepper, clove, ginger, cumin and caraway are used extensively in the Indian diet and in Indian medicine. Garlic with its antibacterial properties is widely used for a number of infectious diseases. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the medicinal properties of herbal spices.

Meena A. K.Singh Uttam, Yadav A K, Singh B, Rao M M. “Pharmacological And Phytochemical Evidences For the extract from The Genus Vitex – A Review” .International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(1): 01-09.

Abstract.

The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention diseases is continuously advancing. In fact, the origin of many therapeutic substances from the genus Vitex. The genus Vitex contains 270 species distributed around the world. It is an interesting source of potential bioactive Molecules, as iridoids compounds, flavonoids, diterpenoids deriVatives, phytoSteroids, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, Hepatoprotective activity , analgesic and antihistamine ,Anti-implantation, antiasthmatic activities. This work reviews the Pharmacological evidence of extracts of plants from the genus Vitex, giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochemical composition. Although more studies are necessary, Vitex exhibits proven potential to become of important Pharmacological interest.

Meena A K, Yadav Ajay Kumar, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Nagariya Amit K , Sharma Kiran, Gaurav Anand, Sharma Surabhi, Rao M M. “A Review on Calotropis Procera. Linn And Its Ethanobotany Phytochemical, Pharmacological Profile”.Drug Invention Today. 2010;2(2):185-190.

Abstract.

Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This shrub has been known to posses’ Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including- Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and ß-amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester, proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the ethnobotany, Pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the calotropis procera shrubs.

Meena A. K.Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Sandeep, Kiran, Rao M. M.. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters on the fruit of Terminalia bellirica roxb. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2 (2):97-99.

Abstract.

The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia bellirica Roxb.Combretaceae family. Bibhitaka is a large tree, up to 40m height. Leaves petiolate, broadly elliptic, clustered towards the end of branches, Flowers greenish yellow, in solitary, simple, axillaries spikes, Fruits globular;1.5‐2.5 cm in diam.obscurely 5 ‐ angled when dry. It is found in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India, but not in the arid regions, in areas of Upper Gangtic Plain, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chittagong, Konkan, Deccan, S.M. country and most of the part of South India. The mostly part used Fruit, Seed and Bark. The bark is mildly diuretic and is useful in anaemia and leucoderma. Fruits are astringent, acrid, sweet, thermogenic use as anti‐inflammatory digestive, anthelmintic, expectorant and antipyretic, antiemetic. They are useful in cough asthma, bronchitis, ophthalmic disorders, skin diseases, ulcers. The oil obtained from seeds is trichogenous and is useful in dyspepsia, skin diseases, leucoderma and greyness of hair. As there is no detailed standardization work

reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena R P, Meena A K, Khan SA, Mageshwari S. Standardisation of Unani Poly Herbal Drug- Jawarish-e-Darchini. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(7):1673-1676.

Abstract.

In the various ancient cultures of the Chinese, Indians, Malays and in many of other societies around Asia, traditional system of medicines such as Chinese herbal medicine, Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha, Malay, Indonesian, “Jamu and Tibetan” are all plant based and they continue to play a significant role in healthcare needs. Traditional medicine took a set back in the 1900 when modern drugs produced by pharmaceutical companies were developed an introduced. They accused the traditional medicine being inconsistent, inefficient, labor intensive in preparation and most importantly, not readily available due to scarcity of the raw materials. Quality control (standardization): is an important aspect for maintaining and assessing the quality and safety of an herbal product. Before a product can be registered, it must meet the necessary requirements such as, the product should not contain herbal components that are prohibited are adverse effect, it should not contain more than accepted limits of heavy metals. It should free from any type of growth of bacteria and fungi. The product should be produced in a GMP compliant/ premise. As the Unani poly herbal drug Jawarish-e-Darchini therapeutically used in stomachic, amnesia and halitosis ailments, it was felt to standardize this product to meet the quality standards in global market.

Meena Rampratap, Meena Ajay Kumar, Khan Shamshad Ahmed and Mageswari S. Evaluation of a Unani compound formulation - Majoon-e-Sandal. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research.2010;1(5):238-242.

Abstract.

Traditional healing through herbs have been the practiced of many countries since ages, as they were generally believed to be non toxic natural products. According to World Health Organization, the usage of herbal drugs exceeds 2-3 times than Allopathic. Modern medicine is more concern for the cure of diseases but remains indifferent to health preserVation. There is an urgent need to combine the best elements of traditional medicine and modern medicine to improve the health care system of human kind. An ideal team for the evaluation of traditional medicine will include scientists from Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and tribal medicine. The world Health Organization (WHO): has estimated 80 % of the World population relies on traditional medicine for primary health care. India is one of the richest sources of medicinal and aromatic plants. Because of the rapid progress of the herbal drug industry in India for the last quarter century, an increasing need is felt to standardize the herbal products. It is necessary to develop the scientific protocols such as SOP and harmacopoeial standards of the poly herbal drug Majoon-e-Sandal. The drug is used in the ailments of stomachic, antibilious, psychoneurosis, vomiting and nausea. Study revealed that microbial load and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were not detected in the drug. Pesticide residues and aflatoxin were also absent in the drug. The data evolved in the present work will aid in identifying the raw drugs used in finished product and will help to fix the scientific standards for Majoon-e-Sandal.

Meena R, Meena A K, Mageswari S, Ramaswamy D and Ahmed Khan S. Evaluation of Pharmacopoeial Standards With Reference To Aftimoon- Whole Plant (Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb.): International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2010;1(11): 139-144.

Abstract.

The herbal single drug Aftimoon is botanically called as Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (whole plant):. In the recent past tremendous attempts are being made to evaluate the scientific standards for Traditional System of Medicine, Particularly in Unani System of Medicine. The Physician of Unani System of Medicine has considered this drug as one of the important single drugs and this drug has been used extensively in the preparation of Unani Compound Formulations such as Itrifal-e-Aftimoon, Itrifal-e-Ustukhudus, Itrifal-e-Deedan, Itrifal-e-Ghudadi, Itrifal-e-Mushil, Majoon-e-Ushba and Sufoof-e-Chobchini etc.This drug is therapeutically useful in the treatment of insanity, melancholia, melanous, epilepsy, numpness, paralysis, facial palsy, arthritis, worm infestation, jaundice and in the weakness of liver, stomach and spleen. As per the action the drug is very effective in cathArtic to black bile and phlegm, demulcent, resolvent, carminative and antihelmintic. In order to authenticate and to develop its pharmacopoeial standards WHO guidelines were followed provided by CCRUM, New Delhi. For the Evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards Pharmacognostical and Phyto-chemical parameters were adopted. The Thin Layer Chromatographic studies of petroleum ether (60 - 80°):chloroform and alcohol extract was also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug.

Mehndiratta Sameer, Kumar Sunil, Meena Ajay Kumar, Koul Surrinder, Suri O P and Dhar Kanaya Lal. A Review on Plants a useful source of anti-cancer drugs. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2011;4(1):264-271.

Abstract.

Plant-derived compounds have played very crucial role in the field of anti-cancer drugs. Various important anti-cancer agents like vincristine, vinblastin, camptothecin, paclitaxel and podophyllotoxin have been isolated from the various plant source. Most of the anticancer drugs act on tubulin site. Beauty of these drugs is planar structure because space between a and ß-subunit of tubulin is very less and planar compounds can fit in the gap and bind to ß-Subunit. Several new agents have been found against cancer including combretastatin A4 phosphate, aliphatic esters and lignans. The basic aim of this review is to explore the potential of newly discovered anticancer compounds, from natural resourses, as a lead for anticancer drug development.

Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazón J. Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine. Molecules. 2009;14(7):2373-93. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous Pharmacological investigations have been carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides are also discussed.

Mohd Amir, Iftikhar Ahsan, Akhter Wasim, Khan S A, Ali Israr. Design and synthesis of some azole deriVatives containing 2,4,5-triphenyl imidazole moiety as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):207-213.

Abstract.

A series of azole deriVatives (5a-d, 6a-d and 7a-d) have been synthesized from (2,4,5-triphenyl-imidazole-1-yl)-acetic acid hydrazide under various reaction conditions. Elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. All the synthesized azole deriVatives have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal activity and showed moderate to good activity

Mohan S, Pinto BM. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor. Nat Prod Rep. 2010;27(4):481-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated deriVative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose.

Mruthyumjaya Meda Rao , Ajay Kumar Meena, Galib. Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2011.

Abstract.

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica of f icinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples.

Mukherjee PK, Maiti K, Mukherjee K, Houghton PJ. Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. J EthnoPharmacol. 2006;106(1):1-28. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Diabetes mellitus is caused due to deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. It is a global problem and number of those affected is increasing day by day. The plants provide a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs because many plants and plant derived compounds have been used in the treatment of diabetes. Several medicinal plants have found potential use as hypoglycemic in the Indian system of medicines, including Ayurveda. Many Indian plants have been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes and reports occur in numerous scientific journals. This Article aims to provide a comprehensive review on various plant species from Indian biosphere and their constituents, which have been shown to display potent hypoglycemic activity. The use of herbs as hypoglycemic is a major avenue in Indian perspectives Particularly for treating diabetes, which require to be explored more effectively as there are so many literatures available on these aspects. This paper describes the chemistry, activity and usage of the constituents isolated from these plants from India for the treatment of diabetes.

Mukherjee Pulok K, Venkatesh M,Gantait Arunava. Ayurveda in Modern Medicine: Development and Modification of Bioactivity. Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology.2010;3:479-507.

Abstract.

Natural products play an important role in the development of several therapeutic leads. Ayurveda, one of the oldest systems of Indian medicine, has a great traditional importance in therapeutics. Recent advances in analytical and biological sciences along with innoVations in genomics and proteomics can play an important role in validation of this age old system of medicine. This Article highlights various aspects of Ayurveda, their development, and the modern tools for enhancement of their bioactivity.

Nagariya A K, Meena A K, Kumar S, Singh R, Yadav A K, Niranjan U S “Microwave Assisted Efficient Synthesis of Toluidine DeriVative “2-Chloro-n-p-tolylacetamide” Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(3):575-580.

Abstract.

Microwave assisted organic reaction enhancement (MORE): has emerged as a new “lead” in organic synthesis. The technique offers simple, clean, fast, efficient, and economic and environment friendly method for the synthesis of a large number of organic Molecules. During our studies the conventional synthesis of “2-Chloro-N-p-tolylacetamide” required time (5-6 h): hence application of microwave technique for synthesis of the title compound with an objective to reduce reaction time, less use of solvent. Using microwave irradiation all the reaction could be completed in very short duration (5-10min): with measurable yield (50-80%):.

Nagariya A K, Meena A K, Sharma Kiran, Yadav A K, Niranjan U S, Pathak A K , Singh B, Rao M M. “Microwave Assisted Organic Reactions as A New Tool In Organic Synthesis” .Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(3):451-453.

Abstract.

Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS): has emerged as a new “lead” in organic synthesis. The technique offers simple, clean, fast, efficient, and economic for the synthesis of a large number of organic Molecules. In the recent year microwave assisted organic reaction has emerged as new tool in organic synthesis. Important advantage of this technology include highly accelerated rate of the reaction, Reduction in reaction time with an improvement in the yield and quality of the product. Now day’s technique is considered as an important approach toward green chemistry, because this technique is more environmentally

friendly. This technology is still under-used in the laboratory and has the potential to have a large impact on the fields of screening, combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry and drug development. Conventional method of organic synthesis usually need longer heating time, tedious apparatus setup, which result in higher cost of process and the excessive use of solvents/ reagents lead to environmental pollution. This growth of green chemistry holds Significant potential for a reduction of the by product, a reduction in waste production and a lowering of the energy costs. Due to its ability to couple directly with the reaction molecule and by passing thermal conductivity leading to a rapid rise in the temperature, microwave irradiation has been used to improve many organic syntheses.

Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Saussurea costus: botanical, chemical and Pharmacological review of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant. J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;110(3):379-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, viz. asthma, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems. Sesquiterpene lactones have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different Pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of Saussurea costus to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anticancer and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional uses. Costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone and cynaropicrin, isolated from this plant, have been identified to have potential to be developed as bioactive Molecules. Due to the remarkable biological activity of Saussurea costus and its constituents it will be appropriate to develop them as a medicine. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, Pharmacology and traditional and folkloric uses of Saussurea costus.

Nagariya A. K.Meena A. K.Jain Dipika, Yadav A. K.Singh B. K.Panda P, Sannd R, Pal Bhavana and Sharma Kiran. Potential of natural polymer in the gastro retentive floating drug delivery system : A review. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(5): 916-922.

Abstract.

In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT): and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET):. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS):Gastro retentive floating drug delivery systems (GFDDS): are the systems which are retained in the stomach for a longer period of time and thereby improve the bioavailability of drugs. Natural polymers have a number of advantages like Biocompatibility, Natural in origin, biodegradable to normal body constituents, safe and non-toxic. Natural gums are among the most popular hydrophilic polymers because of their cost-effectiveness and regulatory acceptance. In this paper we have tried to give a brief overview to the potential of natural polymer in the development of gastro retentive floating drug delivery system.

Patwardhan Bhushan, Mashelkar Raghunath Anant. Traditional medicine-inspired approaches to drug discovery: can Ayurveda show the way forward?. Drug Discovery Today.2009;14(15-16):804-811.

Abstract.

Drug discovery strategies based on natural products and traditional medicines are re-emerging as attractive options. We suggest that drug discovery and development need not always be confined to new molecular entities. Rationally designed, carefully standardized, synergistic traditional herbal formulations and botanical drug products with robust scientific evidence can also be alternatives. A reverse Pharmacology approach, inspired by traditional medicine and Ayurveda, can offer a smart strategy for new drug candidates to facilitate discovery process and also for the development of rational synergistic botanical formulations

Rajanarendar E, Raju S, Reddy M, Reddy Nagi, Govardhan K. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)-3,6-diaryl-4-thioxo-1,3,5-triazinan-2-ones. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):223-228.

Abstract.

Treatment of 3-benzalamino-5-methylisoxazoles 1 with ammonium thiocyanate in hot acetic acid affords the corresponding N-isothiocyanato(phenyl)methyl-N-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)amines 2a-j in excellent yields. N-Isoxazolyl-α-aminoisothiocyanates 2a-j on reaction with aryl isocyanates undergoes cyclization to give the corresponding isoxazolyl-4-thioxo-1,3,5-triazinan-2-ones 3a-l in good yields. The compounds 2a-j and 3a-l have been screened for their antimicrobial activity.

Rajanarendar E, Reddy M Nagi, Shaik Firoz Pasha. An efficient one-pot three component synthesis of new isoxazolyl polyhydroacridine-1,8-diones in an ionic liquid medium. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 245-252.

Abstract.

A facile and convenient protocol has been developed for the fast and high yielding one-pot three component synthesis of isoxazolyl polyhydroacridine-1,8-diones from dimedone, aromatic aldehyde and isoxazolyl amine in the presence of ionic liquid [bmim]+BF4- as an efficient recyclable medium.

Raj K Joseph Antony, Viswanathan B. Synthesis of nickel nanopArticles with fcc and hcp crystal structures. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 176-179.

Abstract.

Nickel nanopArticles have been synthesized using nickel nitrate, vegetable oil and sucrose. Ethanol has been used as a solvent since the heat of reaction shows the destabilization of nickel pArticles if water is present in the synthesis mixture. Nickel with fcc phase is obtained by reduction with sucrose followed by stabilization using vegetable oil. Nickel or possibly nickel carbide with hcp structure is obtained by treatment with a mixture of oleylamine and methanol. The fcc and hcp crystal structures have been characterized by XRD. The calcination of nickel nanopArticles at 450 °C results in the sintering of nickel nanopArticles, thereby increasing the crystallite size. The scanning electron micrograph reveals that the pArticle size is in the range of 5 – 58 nm for fcc-Ni nanopArticles calcined at 450 °C for 10 min

Reddy Ch Sanjeeva, Rao D Chandrashekar, Yakub V, Nagaraj A. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of bis-[2-imino-3-[5-(3- methylbenzo[b]furan-7-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-5-(arylidene)-1,3-thiazolan-4-one]methanes. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 253-259.

Abstract.

A series of novel bis-[2-imino-3-[5-(3-methylbenzo[b]furan-7-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-5-(arylidene)-1,3-thiazolan-4-one]¬me¬th- anes 6a-j have been prepared and their structures confirmed by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All the synthesized compounds have been tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. Among the synthesized compounds, 6c, 6e, 6f and 6g are found to be the most active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromo¬bacterium violaceum. Similarly, these compounds show potent antifungal effect against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Reddy MV, Tumane PM,Goswami K. Anti-microfilarial activity of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46(2):128-31. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

In the present study, methanolic extracts of roots of Vitex negundo L. and extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo L.Ricinus communis L. and Aegle marmelos Corr. were explored for possible antifilarial effect against Brugia malayi microfilariae. It was observed that among the herbal extracts, root extract of Vitex negundo L. and leaves extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. at 100 ng/ml concentration showed complete loss of motility of microfilariae after 48 hr of incubation. Thin layer chromatography of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin and flavonoids in the roots of Vitex negundo L. and coumarin in the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr

Sahoo S, Satpati AK, Reddy AV. Voltammetric determination of trace levels of Hg in Ayurvedic medicine and in cobalt-containing samples using a carbon pasteelectrode. Anal Sci. 2010;26(12):1309-12. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

An analytical method has been described for the determination of mercury using a carbon paste electrode. Conditions for the preparation of the carbon paste electrode were optimized for low background current in order to use it for the determination of ultra trace levels of mercury. The carbon paste electrode was found to be a good electrode material for the determination of mercury. The optimized pH for the determination was in the range of 2.5 to 3.5. The three sigma detection limit of mercury was obtained as 0.095 µg L(-1). Method has been modified for determination of mercury in cobalt sulfate samples.

Shailaja M, Manjula A, Rao B Vittal. Synthesis of novel 3, 5-disubstituted-4,5 dihydroisoxazoles and 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles and their biological activity. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):214-222.

Abstract.

1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxide generated from substituted pyridinyloxy benzaldoximes with styrene or , -unsaturated ketones produces a series of 3,5-disubstituted-4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles. On the other hand, C-chlorooxime reacts with , -unsaturated ketones yielding 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles. All the compounds are evaluated for their antimicrobial and antifungal activity and action on isolated frog heart. Aldoxime deriVatives 2e, 2f have been found to show good inhibitiory activity where as compounds 4g, 4h show better inhibition of sodium calcium exchange ion on isolated frog heart studies.

Singh Krishna K, Joshi Subhash C, Mathela Chandra S. Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of N-alkyl and N-aryl piperazine deriVatives.Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):196-200.

Abstract.

A series of N-alkyl and N-aryl substituted piperazine deriVatives have been synthesized in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121, Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 435) and one Gram-negative (Escherichia coli MTCC 723) bacteria by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods. These compounds have been characterized by their MS, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. The benzyl piperazine deriVatives 2-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)-1-p-tolylethanone and 2-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethanone show remarkable antibacterial activity even at low concentration against S. epidermidis, S. mutans and B. subtilis bacterial strains and are even close to the standard antibiotic, ampicillin. Furthermore, benzyl substitution increases antibacterial activity as compared to methyl and phenyl substituents under identical conditions.

Tahermansouri Hasan, Moradi Shahram, Sayyadi Robabeh. Heteroatom effect on intramolecular double proton transfer of 3,6-diiminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine: A theoretical study. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 180-184.

Abstract.

The process of intramolecular proton transfer in 3,6-diiminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine and some hetero deriVatives has been investigated at HF and DFT (B3LYP) levels of theory in two states, concerted and stepwise. In 3,6-diiminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine, the energy barrier for the proton transfer through concerted and stepwise mechanism is found to be ~ 27 and 17 kcal/mol, respectively. When replacing two CH groups by two boron atoms in the ring (3,6-dihydro-3,6-diimino-1,4-diborinine-2,5-diamine), the obtained energy barriers are ~ 48 and 26 kcal/mol, respectively. The values obtained on replacing the CH groups by two atoms of nitrogen, silicon and phosphor are ~30 and 18 kcal/mol (3,6-dihydro-3,6-diiminopyrazine-2,5-diamine), 86 and 45 kcal/mol (3,6-dihydro-3,6-diimino-1,4-disiline-2,5-diamine) and 84 and 45 kcal/mol (3,6-dihydro-3,6-iimino-1,4-diphosphinine-2,5-iamine) respectively. The displacement pathway and the resonance forms that are produced in the conversion processes have been investigated. The nucleus-independent chemical shift methodology has been applied to study the charge distributions in the ring.

Singh Smita, Yadav Ajay, Meena A K, Singh Uttam, Singh B, Gaurav A, Rao M M, Panda P and Singh R.Pharmacological action and SAR of Phthalazine deriVatives - A Review. International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science.2010;1(5):79-87.

Abstract.

The chemistry of phthalazine (2;3 benzodiazine): is very well known. These systems are widely used in organic chemistry as intermediates for the synthesis of numerous compounds. On the other hand; phthalazine deriVatives were extensively studied as bioactive compounds. They possess remarkable biological activity, such as anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial and vasorelaxant activity among others. Recently, the research and development in the medicinal chemistry of phthalazine produced hybrid compounds in which phthalazine moiety together with classical drug moieties are present in a single molecule. So, new anticonvulsant drugs, PDE4 inhibitor and Topoisomerase II inhibitors were developed. These review paper recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of phthalazine will be reviewed.

Tanwar Pooja, Yadav Gyan Chand, Jaitley U K, Kaushik Naveen, Sahal Dinkar. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of novel N-{2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethoxy] ethyl}-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine and its deriVatives. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 233-241.

Abstract.

A number of N-{2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine deriVatives have been prepared by condensation of N-{2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethoxy] ethyl}-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine with substituted aldehyde. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, ¹H and ¹³C NMR, and mass spectral data. These compounds have been screened for in vitro antimalarial activity using the Sybr Green assay of P. falciparum in culture and the heme detoxification based Heme-HRP assay. Among these, compounds 7-chloro-N-[2-(2-{2-[(2, 4-difluorobenzyl) amino] ethoxy} ethoxy) ethyl] quinolin-4-amine is found to be the most effective with IC50 value 60 M (in Heme-HRP assay) and 48 nM (in P. falciparum culture assay). These values compare well with the potency of chloroquine in the respective assays

Wadud Abdul, PRasad PVV, Rao M.M, Narayana Ala. Evolution of Drug-A historical perspective. Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2007;37(1).

Abstract.:

To trace out the first person who discovered the first medicine is extremely difficult. Perhaps the origin of medicine and drug and its early history has been lost in myths. The use of medicinal plants dates back not only to human civilization but to ancient people also. Plants have been crucial in sustaining human health and well being of mankind. The word Drug, taken from French word Drogue which means Dry Herb, strongly suggests that earliest drugs were taken out from plant sources. Earliest people used to treat disease by some unconventional methods, using plants, animal products and minerals, of them plants were given priority. World’s ancient systems of medicine e.g. Chinese medicine, Ayurveda and Greek Medicine, despite, having wider differences in their principles of treatment agree upon the point, that disease is due to balance with the constituents of the body and that the arm of treatment is to restore the balance with the help of herbs. So herbs played vital role in the development of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. The splendid architect of today’s advanced Pharmacology was not built in a day, but its foundation stone has been laid on old base. Pharmacology from its very beginning to the age of chemotherapy and on words has traversed long voyage. In this Article travelogue of the Pharmacology has been discussed briefly.






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