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Bhargava SK. Estrogenic and postcoital anticonceptive activity in rats of butin isolated from Butea monosperma seed. J EthnoPharmacol. 1986 ;18(1):95-101. Http://


Butin isolated from the seeds of Butea monosperma and administered orally to adult female rats at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/rat from day 1 to day 5 of pregnancy showed anti-implantation activity in 40%, 70% and 90% of the treated animals, respectively. At lower doses, there was a dose-dependent termination of pregnancy and reduction in the number of implantation sites. In ovariectomized young female rats, the butin exhibited estrogenic activity at comparable anticonceptive doses, but was devoid of anti-estrogenic activity. Butin is a weak estrogen in that a significant uterotrophic effect was discerned even at 1/20th the anticonceptive dose.

Bhargava Sushil, Bhargava Paridhi, Saraf Surendra, Pandey Ravindra.Evaluation of Antipyretic of Sudarshan Churna: An Ayurvedic Formulation. The Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine.2008;14(2):11-4.


Sudarshan churna is very potent Ayurvedic preparation, which is used traditionally as antimaterial and antipyretic formulation. Swertia Chirata is key ingredient in Sudarshan churna. The purpose of study was to evaluate antipyretic activity of Sudarshan churna. Aqueous extracts of Sudarshan churna was evaluated for antipyretic activity using two models including hyperpyrexia-induced in rats by brewer’s yeast and another one hyperpyrexia induced in rabbits by Typhoid-Paratyphoid A,B vaccine. Like Paracetamol (100 mg/kg,p.o), Sudarshan churna, showed significant reduction in elevated body temperature at 200mg/kg, p.o. on the basis of study, it was concluded that aqueous extract of Sudarshan churna has shown significant antipyretic activity.

Bhatt AD, Dalal DG, Shah SJ, Joshi BA, Gajjar MN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS. Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. J Postgrad Med. 1995 ;41(1):5-7. Http://


An open comparative trial was conducted in 58 adult obese patients (Body Mass Index > or = 25 kg/square metre). Group I (n = 27), non-drug, was advised diet (1200-1600 cals) and a brisk walk for 30 minutes. Group II, in addition, received Guggulu (Medohar) 1.5-3 gms/day for 30 days. Mean difference in weight loss between Guggulu and non-drug group was 0.32 kg (ns) on day 15 and 0.58 kg on day 30 (ns). The mean weight reduction in patients (> 90 kgs) was 1.92 kg (ns) and 2.25 kg (ns) higher in Guggulu group. All patients weighing > 90 kg lost weight in Guggulu group whilst 3 in non-drug group did not lose weight. Guggulu was tolerated well. The data from this pilot study suggest a synergistic diet-Guggulu interaction over 30 days in patients weighing > 90 kgs which needs to be confirmed in a large placebo controlled study.

Bhatt AD. Clinical research on Ayurvedic therapeutics: myths, realities and challenges. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:558-62. Http://


Globally there is an increasing interest in alternative routes to health such as Ayurveda. There is a need to conduct globally acceptable clinical research in Ayurvedic therapeutics (AT). Some of the issues in investigating AT in randomized clinical trials (CT) are: selection of appropriate AT, non-drug and/or drug AT, identification of objective outcomes, devising adequate placebo/positive controls, difficulties of blinding, guarding against bias, duration of trials, number of patients, dose optimisation, etc. There is also a need to establish reasonable safety of this therapy in CT. If AT has to complete with new chemical entities and biotechnology products, clinical research and development of AT should be focussed on unmet medical needs utilising principles and practices of modern CT approaches.

Bhattacharya A, Ramanathan M, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on iron-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res. 2000;14(7):568-70. Http://


Glycowithanolides, consisting of equimolar concentrations of sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A, isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera Dunal, have been reported to have an antioxidant effect in the rat brain frontal cortex and striatum. In the present study, the effect of 10 days of oral administration of these active principles, in graded doses (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg), was noted on iron overload (FeSo(4), 30 mg/kg, i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Apart from hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), the serum enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, were assessed as indices of hepatotoxicity. Silymarin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was used for comparison. Iron overload induced marked increase in hepatic LPO and serum levels of the enzymes, which was attenuated by WSG in a dose-related manner, and by silymarin. The results indicate that the reported use of WS in Ayurveda for hepatoprotection against heavy metals and other environmental toxins, may be due the antioxidant action of WSG.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, ChakrabArti A. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic Rasayanas. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000;38(2):119-28. Http://


Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and Shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as Rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose Metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and (MAO) B inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels,with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression(Porsolt's swim despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema in sensitized rats). All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.

Bhattacharya SK, Muruganandam AV. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75(3):547-55. Http://


Withania somnifera (WS) Dunal is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Hindu system of medicine, as a Rasayana, a group of plant-derived drugs reputed to promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse environmental factors, revitalise the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. These attributes are remarkably similar to the properties ascribed to adaptogens like Panax ginseng (PG) in contemporary medicine. As such, the adaptogenic activity of a standardised extract of WS roots was investigated against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered once daily for 21 days to adult

male Wistar rats. CS induced significant hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, increase in plasma corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations, male sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficits, immunosuppression and mental depression. These CS induced perturbations were attenuated by WS (25 and 50 mg/kg po) and by PG (100 mg/kg po), administered 1 h before footshock for 21 days. The results indicate that WS, like PG, has significant antistress adaptogenic activity, confirming the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, ChakrabArti A. Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997;35(3):297-9. Http://


Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and Shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to theaccumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.

Bhattamisra SK, Khanna VK, Agrawal AK, Singh PN, Singh SK. Antidepressant activity of standardised extract of Marsilea minuta Linn. J EthnoPharmacol. 2008;117(1):51-7. Http://



Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae) has been referred in Indian traditional medicine system (Ayurveda) for the treatment of insomnia and other mental disorders. Marsiline isolated from Marsilea minuta was reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant property. The ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta was standardised for marsiline (1.15%, w/w) and studied for its antidepressant activity.


Antidepressant activity was studied using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness test (LHT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches response in rodents. Standardised extract of Marsilea minuta in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for three consecutive days and evaluated on day 3, 1h after the last dose treatment. Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Neurochemical mechanism of antidepressant activity was elucidated by using radioligand receptor binding assays for 5-HT2A and benzodiazepine receptors in rat frontal cortex.


Immobility time in FST and TST was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta treated animals. A decrease in number of escape failures in LHT was also observed in Marsilea minuta treated rats. Head twitch response induced by 5-HTP was significantly attenuated by Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and imipramine showing the involvement of serotonergic system. This effect was corroborated with radioligand receptor binding study where Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.05) down regulated 5-HT2A receptor in frontal cortex, whereas, no marked effect was observed for benzodiazepine receptor.


The antidepressant effect exhibited by Marsilea minuta extract may be due to its effect on 5-HT2A density in rat frontal cortex.

Bhatt Urvi D,Jain BK.Ethnomedicinal uses of some important plants recorded from forest areas of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Narmada district (Gujarat). Ethnobotany.2009;21:70-74.


The present paper deals with 22 plant species being used traditionally by Tadvi, Vasava and Rathwa tribal communities for the treatment of various diseases in the Shooplaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary (SWLS). The sanctuary is surrounded by the reserved forest, which comprises five ranges, viz.Fulsar,Dediapada, Sagai, Gora and piplod.

Bhutani KK, Gohil VM. Natural products drug discovery research in India: status and appraisal. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(3):199-207. Http://


Discovery of a new drug is time consuming and laborious process. Natural products have long been a thriving source for the discovery of new drugs due to their chemical diversity and ability to act on various biological targets. The phytochemical exploration of indigeneous flora has contributed to some extent in this race for the discovery of new drugs. The traditional Indian systems of medicine has been a part of our lifestyle since ages and the classical texts like Ayurveda and Charak Samhita have served as materia medica for this purpose. This review focuses on the contributions made from India in the drug discovery and development process and provides future directions in the area.

Bhutani KK, Jadhav AN, Kalia V. Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. On gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology. J EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;94(1):197-200. Http://


In the present study we are reporting in vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Fam. Symplocaceae) on serum FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague-Dawley rats under basal conditions. Symplocos racemosa is used in Indian System of Medicine (ISM) for various female disorders. Aqueous extract on oral administration significantly stimulated serum FSH level (P <0.016) along with the rise in serum LH level (P < 0.001). Moreover, histopathological studies revealed enhanced folliculogenesis, presence of mature follicles and detached oocytes, which are result of increased FSH and LH levels. Further, an increase in the ovary weight of treated animals was found due to observed FSH surge. These results are in concordance with the traditional use of the drug for female disorders

Bidasee KR, Maxwell A, Reynolds WF, Patel V, Besch HR Jr. Tectoridins modulate skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293(3):1074-83. Http://


The isoflavones tectoridin (TTR) and 3'-hydroxy TTR (3'-TTR) were isolated from an Ayurvedic herbal preparation Vacha and evaluated for their affinity and effect on ryanodine receptors (RyR) using junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (JSRVs). In [(3)H]ryanodine displacement binding affinity assays, TTR and 3'-TTR exhibited IC(50) values of 17.3 +/- 1.3 microM (K(d) = 6.7 +/- 0.4 microM) and 6.6 +/- 1.4 microM (K(d) = 2.4 +/- 0.2 microM), respectively, for fast skeletal muscle RyR (RyR1) compared with an IC(50) value for ryanodine of 6.2 +/- 0.4 nM (K(d) = 2.4 nM). TTR demonstrated a 3-fold higher affinity for cardiac RyR (RyR2) [IC(50) value of 5.2 +/- 0.6 microM (K(d) = 0.95 +/- 0.3 microM)] than for RyR1. The displacement isotherms for both TTRs paralleled that for ryanodine,consistent with the notion that all three are likely binding to similar site(s) on the receptors. Calcium efflux from and calcium influx into JSRVs were used to measure function effects of TTRs on binding to RyR. In calcium efflux assays, TTR (up to 1 mM) enhanced the release of (45)Ca(2+) from JSRVs in aconcentration-dependent manner (EC(50act) of 750 microM). Higher concentrations deactivated (pArtially closed) RyR1. 3'-TTR had similar effects, but was approximately 2-fold more potent, exhibiting an EC(50act) value of 480 microM. Using passive calcium influx assays, TTR activated and deactivated RyR1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The aglycone tectorigenin also was effective in displacing [(3)H]ryanodine from RyR1 but not from RyR2. These results demonstrate that TTRs are capable of interacting at ryanodine binding sites to differentially modulate fast skeletal and cardiac calcium-release channels.

Biswas S, Sahu DK, Dhal NK, Brahman.M.Indigenous phytotherapies among Koya of Malkangiri district, Orissa. Ethnobotany.2009;21:99-102.


Ethnobotanical survey on koya tribe of Malkangiri district in Orissa was conducted during 2007-2008. This paper highlights 20 plants and their ethnic uses, which appear to be interesting and unreported so far. Botanical names, families, vernacular names, localities, voucher specimen numbers, diseases treated and mode of drug administration, etc.are enumerated. The new claims offer enormous scope for clinical trials and Pharmacological evaluation in the pursuit of new drug.

Biradar YS, Singh R, Sharma K, Dhalwal K, Bodhankar SL, Khandelwal KR. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal property and acute toxicity of Triphala Mashi, an Ayurvedic formulation. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):203-12. Http://


The anti-diarrhoeal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were studied employing castor oil-induced-diarrhoeal model in rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. All the extracts, at various doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg displayed remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity as evidenced by a significant increase in first defecation time, cumulative fecal weight and intestinal transit time. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were considered safe up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg when evaluated for acute oral toxicity in accordance with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. In conclusion, the remarkable anti-diarrhoeal effect of Triphala and Triphala Mashi extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea suggest its potential for application in a wide range of diarrhoeal states.

Blessia TF, Rapheal VS, Sharmila DJ. Molecular Dynamics of Sialic Acid Analogues and their Interaction with Influenza Hemagglutinin. Indian J Pharm Sci.2010;72(4):449-57.Http://


Synthetic sialic acid analogues with multiple modifications at different positions(C-1/C-2/C-4/C-8/C-9) are investigated by molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics to determine their conformational preferences and structural stability to interact with their natural receptors. Sialic acids with multiple modifications are soaked in a periodic box of water as solvent. Molecular mechanics and a 2 nanosecond molecular dynamics are done using amber force fields with 30 picosecond equilibrium. Direct and water mediated hydrogen bonds existing in the sialic acid analogues, aiding for their structural stabilization are identified in this study. The accessible conformations of side chain linkages of sialic acid analogues holding multiple substituents are determined from molecular dynamics trajectory at every 1ps interval. Transitions between different minimum energy regions in conformational maps are also noticed in C-1, C-2, C-4, C-8 and C-9 substituents. Docking studies were done to find the binding mode of the sialic acid analogues with Influenza hemagglutinin. This finding provides stereo chemical explanation and conformational preference of sialic acid analogues which may be crucial for the design of sialic acid analogues as inhibitors for different sialic acid specific pathogenic proteins such as influenza toxins and neuraminidases

Bopana N, Saxena S. Asparagus racemosus--ethnoPharmacological evaluation and conservation needs. J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;110(1):1-15.Http://


Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Asparagus racemosus is mainly known for its phytoestrogenic properties. With an increasing realization that hormone replacement therapy with synthetic oestrogens is neither as safe nor as effective as previously envisaged, the interest in plant-derived oestrogens has increased tremendously making Asparagus racemosus Particularly important. The plant has been shown to aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in alcohol abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms. In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus has been described as a Rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms against a variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, the plant also has potent antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and antitussive effects. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered 'endangered' in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. This Article aims to evaluate the biological activities, Pharmacological applications and clinical studies of Asparagus racemosus in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. Keeping in mind the fact that it is the active principle that imparts medicinal value to a plant; consistency in quality and quantity needs to be maintained to ensure uniform drug efficacy. Also, deliberate or inadvertent adulteration needs to be dealt with at an early stage. To overcome these prevalent problems, the availability of genetically superior and uniform planting material is essential. This can be obtained by a combination of various biotechnological tools involving chemoprofiling, tissue culture and use of molecular markers. Along with the application of these methods, proper agro-techniques and adequate marketing opportunities would encourage cultivation of Asparagus racemosus and thereby contribute to its conservation. There are also several gaps in the existing literature with regard to the Pharmacological actions of Asparagus racemosus. These include an incomplete understanding about the interaction/synergy between Asparagus racemosus and other plant constituents in polyherbal formulations; lack of information regarding the mode of action of the various constituents of Asparagus racemosus, etc. Consequently, we have suggested a 'systems biology' approach that includes metabolite profiling, metabolic fingerprinting, metabolite target analysis and metabonomics to enable further research.

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