An integrated approach is needed to manage cancer using the growing body of knowledge gained through scientific developments. Thousands of herbal and traditional compounds are being screened worldwide to validate their use as anti-cancerous drugs. The science of Ayurveda is supposed to add a step on to the curative aspects of cancers that have resemblance with clinical entities of arbuda and granthi mentioned in Sushruta Samhita. Hence, an attempt is made in this review to discuss about the pathology and therapeutic management of various cancers described in Ayurveda review of literature on anticancer drugs of plant origin revealed identification of newer Ayurvedic drugs that are not mentioned in the ancient texts. These new findings add up to Ayurvedic science that has been developed through ages. In addition, details of experimental and clinical studies conducted on single and compound Ayurvedic preparations for their anticancer efficacy strongly emphasize Ayurvedic therapy as a scientifically driven one and not simply unconventional.
Balasinor N, Bhan A, Paradkar NS, Shaikh A, Nandedkar TD, Bhutani KK, Roy-Chaudhury M. Postnatal development and reproductive performance of F1 progeny exposed in utero to an Ayurvedic contraceptive: Pippalyadi yoga. J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;109(3):406-11. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Pippalyadi yoga or Pippalyadi Vati is an Ayurvedic contraceptive used in India since ancient times. It is a combination of powdered fruit berries of Embelia ribes Burm.f. (Myrsinaceae), Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and borax in equal proportion. Though the contraceptive potential is known since ancient times, no systematic developmental toxicity studies have been carried out. The present study was carried out to evaluate the postnatal developmental toxicity and the reproductive performance of the progeny exposed in utero to Pippalyadi yoga. Pippalyadi yoga was obtained from National Institute for Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), India and the developmental toxicity was studied by administering three doses, viz. 140, 300 and 700 mg/(kg day) to gravid females from day 6 to day 16 of gestation. Pippalyadi yoga did not have any adverse developmental effects with low doses, however, with the five times higher dose, a decrease in body weight of the pups was observed. The reproductive performance of the progeny born to mothers treated with Pippalyadi was not significantly affected. The present study suggests that in utero exposure to Pippalyadi does not have any adverse effect on the postnatal development and reproductive performance of the F(1) progeny.
Baliga MS, Bhat HP, Pereira MM, Mathias N, Venkatesh P. Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise . J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(10):1109-16. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, to date, no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations and have produced little success in clinics. Radiation ill-effects are principally the result of generation of free radicals, and the antioxidant compounds that counter them are supposed to be of immense use in preventing them. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been observed to avert/ameliorate free radical-mediated ailments--an effect that has been documented--and such plants have recently been the focus of attention. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), commonly known as Bael, has been used since antiquity for treating various ailments, some of which are now known to be the result of oxidative stress. In studies spanning nearly a decade, it has been observed that Bael prevented radiation-induced ill-effects, and the results of these studies indicate that it has the potential to be an effective, nontoxic radioprotective agent. In this current review, for the first time, an attempt is made to summarize these observations and to discuss the plausible reasons responsible for Bael's radioprotective effects.
Baliga MS, Dsouza JJ. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that Amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that Amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.
Baliga MS. Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing Cancer: a . J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(12):1301-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Triphala (Sanskrit tri = three and phala = fruits), composed of the three medicinal fruits Phyllanthus emblica L. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn.Terminalia chebula Retz.and Terminalia belerica Retz. is an important herbal preparation in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. Triphala is an antioxidant-rich herbal formulation and possesses diverse beneficial properties. It is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic drug and is used as a colon cleanser, digestive, diuretic, and laxative. Cancer is a major cause of death, and globally studies are being conducted to prevent cancer or to develop effective nontoxic therapeutic agents. Experimental studies in the past decade have shown that Triphala is useful in the prevention of cancer and that it also possesses antineoplastic, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects.
This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.
Bansal Parveen, Sannd Rajesh, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Effect of Neutraceutical RASAYANA Food Supplements on Certain Physical and Physiological Parameters in First Ayurvedic Clinical Trial at ANTARCTICA. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(1):83-92.http://www.ccras.nic.in/Publications/Periodicals/ResearchinAyurvedaSiddha/JRAS,%20XXX,%20No.1,%20Jan.-Mar%202009.
Rasayana herbs have been advocated to have tremendous adaptogenic properties. It is also as well known fact that stress generates free radicals that affect the antioxidant status of the body. Rasayana herbs due to their adaptogenic properties reduce stress caused by endogenous and exogenous stressors. A single blind clinical trial was conducted at Indian Station “Maitri” at Antarctica on volunteers from 2nd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica to establish the effect of established Rasayana food supplements on selected physical and physiological parameters. Food supplement was prepared by using Rasayana herbs with established adaptogenic effect and high-energy dry fruits. So it was pertinent to know its effect on some of important physiological parameters. For this study, 21 subjects were selected in trial group and were given food supplement. It addition 7 volunteers were selected for control group and were not given food supplement. The subjects were fed with the food supplement daily for a period of 45 days. Assessment was done at 0 day and at fornightly intervals for various parameters like Lean Body Mass (LBM), Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Arm Circumference (MAC), TLC, DLC, blood pressure and pulse rate. From the study it was observed that there was no significant effect of food supplement on selected physical and physiological parameters. Since this food supplement shown antioxidant, antistress and adaptogenic effect, so can be used without side effect on body weight, blood pressure and body fat.
Bansal Parveen, Sannd Rajesh, Kumar Sanjiv, Bansal Renu, Sharma S, Mishra D K. Medicated Thread Kshara Sutra – an example of novel drug delivery system in ancient para-surgical measures. The Antiseptic. 2008;105(2):90-93
The references of Kshara Sutra are found in the oldest book of surgery “The Sushruta Samhita.” It is an age old treatment for fistulae and sinuses that occur in vital parts of the body where conventional surgical procedures are not free from grave side effects. This was prepared by smearing a strong cotton thread in the latex of Euphorbia nerrifolia (SNOOHI KSHEERA), water extract of the ashes of Achyranthes aspera (APAMARGA KSHARA) and powder of Curcuma longa (HARIDRA CHURNA). The coatings are repeated for 21 times in a systematic way. This makes it a novel sustained release implant in the body that releases the dose of drugs after dissolution of each layer for a longer period.
Bansal P, Sannd R, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Antioxidant activity of coded neutraceutical Rasayana products in the first clinical trial at Antarctica. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants (Malasia). 2007;8(2):178-183 http://www.tropmedplants.com/Article.php?aid=318
A Rasayana (compound mixture) was prepared using Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Chlorophytum arundenaceum, Piper longum, Prunus amygdalus and few other herbs. A study was carried out to look into the effects of this compound in the form of drink and food supplement to assess the antioxidant effects on the persons tested. Clinical trials were conducted for 45 days on 21 persons who were members of 23rd Indian Scientific expedition to Antarctica. Various biochemical / clinical tests were conducted and the results are summarized.
Bapat RD, Acharya BS, Juvekar S, Dahanukar SA. Leech therapy for complicated varicose veins. Indian J Med Res. 1998 ;107:281-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Several methods of limb bandaging have been described to reduce the oedema and enhance ulcer healing in complicated varicose veins, with varying success rates. Leech therapy has never before been tried for the same. We evaluated the effectiveness of medicinal Leech therapy in producing venous decongestion, reversal of oedema, hyperpigmentation and healing of varicose ulcer(s). Whether the Leech selectively sucks venous blood was also investigated. Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal Leech) was applied to the area surrounding the varicose ulcer(s) in 20 patients with varicose veins with complications and the patients were monitored for ulcer healing, and decrease in hyperpigmentation, oedema and limb girth. The pArtial pressure of O2 (pO2) of 7 patients' arterial and venous blood was compared to that sucked by the Leech. After Leech therapy all the ulcers showed healing, while 95 per cent of patients showed a decrease in oedema and limb girth. Seventy five per cent patients demonstrated a decrease in hyperpigmentation. The mean pO2 of blood sucked by the Leech was 40.05 +/- 7.24 mmHg, which was similar to the mean pO2 of the patients' venous blood (34.33 +/- 8.4 mmHg). Thus it appears from this study that the medicinal Leech sucks venous blood and aids ulcer healing, and can probably therefore be used as an effective adjunct in the management of complicated varicose veins. This however requires further evaluation by controlled trials.
Baruah D, Gupta OP. A comparative study of Prameha Roga from the Brihattrayee. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2002;32(2):93-107. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The study of this Prameha Roga reveals the rich knowledge of the Ayurveda developed since the time immemorial. Although descriptions of this disease are scattered in different classics of Ayurveda but here importance has been given to Brihatrayee. The aim and object of this paper review the well documented concept of the Ayurveda about the Prameha Roga as the trend of diabetes is increasing day by day in the society and is very difficult to prevent and manage owing to its complexity. The Ayurvedic concept of this Roga information on the subject regarding classification, characteristics, features etc. has been also made in this paper. This Article highlights the wisdom of ancient Indian literature and some historical view of the disease i.e. Prameha Roga or Diabetes Mellitus.
Bhat J, Damle A, Vaishnav PP, Albers R, Joshi M, Banerjee G. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs. Phytother Res. 2010;24(1):129-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The effect of a tea fortified with five herbs selected from Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for their putative immunoenhancing effect (Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhzia glabra, Zingiber officinale, Ocimum sanctum and Elettaria cardamomum) on innate immunity was investigated. Ex vivo natural killer (NK) cell activity was assessed after consumption of fortified tea compared with regular tea in two independent double-blind intervention studies. Both studies were conducted in India with healthy volunteers (age >or= 55 years) selected for a relatively low baseline NK cell activity and a history of recurrent coughs and colds. In a pilot study conducted with 32 volunteers, the consumption of Natural Care tea significantly improved the NK cell activity of the volunteers in comparison with a population consuming regular tea. These results were validated in an independent crossover study with 110 volunteers. Data from these two studies indicate that regular consumption of the tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs enhanced NK cell activity, which is an important aspect of the (early) innate immune response to infections.
Bhat S, Lavekar GS. Ayurvedic approach to pathya (ideal diet planning)—an appraisal. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2005;35(2):147-56. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Most health problems develop due to the wrong eating habits and cooking methods. Ayurveda deals with the pathya, apathya or pathya vyavastha (planning of diet- dietetics) in a very scientific and holistic way of Dietetics. The diet planning mentioned in our classical literature is very rational and based on certain principles. Lot of importance is given to the diet with regard to its processing, quality, quantity and so on. Due consideration is given to the atmosphere, psychological condition, status of health, digestion etc. of the person while dealing with this issue. The diet should also be planned according to the age, season, habitat and the preference of the person. In this paper the fundamental principals of Pathya vyavastha (dietetics) with appropriate references, recommended diet based on the texts and clinical findings for some important diseases such as diabetes, liver diseases, acid -peptic disorders, cardiac diseases are dealt with. The proper incorporation of diet not only can prevent many preventable disorders but plays major role in the management of the Diseases. Ayurveda has very holistic and scientific approach in planning the diet. The fundamental principles like tridosa, Prakrti, the tastes, processing of food, the quality, quantity, and the rules regarding eating food if considered while incorporating the diet one can keep away from many diseases of body and mind.
Bhatnagar VK, Hussain SA, Ali M. A brief history of Ayurveda in Hyderabad. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 1994;24(1):63-75. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
This Article contains a brief history of Ayurveda in Hyderabad. It can be proudly stated that this system is prevailing here since foundation of this city in 1590 A.D. As it is said that the physicians of Ayurveda and Unani both were among the staff of the first general hospital of Hyderabad city 'Darush-shifa' which was constructed in 1595 A.D. After the Qutub Shahi period the rulers of Asafjahi dynasty also patronised this system. The physicians of this period not only run their clinics but they also teach this system to their pupils privately. Due to the efforts of some eminent Ayurvedic physicians, Ayurveda progressed well. The names and the photos of these physicians have been given in this Article. Now this system has a good status here with well established college, hospital and research department etc.
Bhatnagar VK, PRasad PV. Medicinal plants referred in Kautilya's Arthashastra. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2004;34(1):1-16. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Kautilya's Arthashastra which was written somewhere in 321-300 B.C. on ancient Indian Polity, holds a unique place in Indian history and culture. It was discovered at Tanjavore district of Mysore in Karnataka. The Manuscript of Arthashastra (Devanagari script) was traced by Sri Munisri Jinavijayajee of Patna. Mr. Shyama Sastry had first published the translated text in 1909 as Volume 37 of the Bibliotheca Sanskrta of Mysore. There are 150 chapters in this work. The author of this work, Kautilya is also known as Visnugupta or Canakya. The author himself in the concluding verse of the Arthashastra quoted his name as Visnugupta. The later writers on his works also designated his name as Canakya. It was also translated into German and Russian languages. The plants and herbs having medicinal value were compiled in the Arthashastra to bring out the knowledge of the period and how the people honored, patronized, considered their own indigenous system as a part of their life. Same information is being presented in this Article.
Bhatt AD, Dalal DG, Shah SJ, Joshi BA, Gajjar MN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS. Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. J Postgrad Med. 1995 ;41(1):5-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
An open comparative trial was conducted in 58 adult obese patients (Body Mass Index > or = 25 kg/square metre). Group I (n = 27), non-drug, was advised diet (1200-1600 cals) and a brisk walk for 30 minutes. Group II, in addition, received Guggulu (Medohar) 1.5-3 gm/day for 30 days. Mean difference in weight loss between Guggulu and non-drug group was 0.32 kg (ns) on day 15 and 0.58 kg on day 30 (ns). The mean weight reduction in patients (> 90 kg) was 1.92 kg (ns) and 2.25 kg (ns) higher in Guggulu group. All patients weighing > 90 kg lost weight in Guggulu group whilst 3 in non-drug group did not lose weight. Guggulu was tolerated well. The data from this pilot study suggest a synergistic diet-Guggulu interaction over 30 days in patients weighing > 90 kg which needs to be confirmed in a large placebo controlled study.
Bhatt AD. Clinical research on Ayurvedic therapeutics: myths, realities and challenges. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:558-62. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Globally there is an increasing interest in alternative routes to health such as Ayurveda. There is a need to conduct globally acceptable clinical research in Ayurvedic therapeutics (AT). Some of the issues in investigating AT in randomized clinical trials (CT) are: selection of appropriate AT, non-drug and/or drug AT, identification of objective outcomes, devising adequate placebo/positive controls, difficulties of blinding, guarding against bias, duration of trials, number of patients, dose optimisation, etc. There is also a need to establish reasonable safety of this therapy in CT. If AT has to complete with new chemical entities and biotechnology products, clinical research and development of AT should be focussed on unmet medical needs utilising principles and practices of modern CT approaches.
Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, ChakrabArti A. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic Rasayanas. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000;38(2):119-28. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as Rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose Metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema in sensitized rats). All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.