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Biradar YS, Singh R, Sharma K, Dhalwal K, Bodhankar SL, Khandelwal KR. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal property and acute toxicity of Triphala Mashi, an Ayurvedic formulation. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):203-12. Http://


The anti-diarrhoeal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were studied employing castor oil-induced-diarrhoeal model in rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. All the extracts, at various doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg displayed remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity as evidenced by a significant increase in first defecation time, cumulative fecal weight and intestinal transit time. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were considered safe up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg when evaluated for acute oral toxicity in accordance with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. In conclusion, the remarkable anti-diarrhoeal effect of Triphala and Triphala Mashi extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea suggest its potential for application in a wide range of diarrhoeal states.

Biswas TK, Pandit S, Mondal S, Biswas SK, Jana U, Ghosh T, Tripathi PC, Debnath PK, Auddy RG, Auddy B. Clinical evaluation of spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit in oligospermia. Andrologia. 2010;42(1):48-56. Http://


The safety and spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit (PS) were evaluated in oligospermic patients. Initially, 60 infertile male patients were assessed and those having total sperm counts below 20 million ml(-1) semen were considered oligospermic and enrolled in the study (n = 35). PS capsule (100 mg) was administered twice daily after major meals for 90 days. Total semenogram and serum testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated before and at the end of the treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, content of semen and biochemical parameters for safety were also evaluated. Twenty-eight patients who completed the treatment showed significant (P < 0.001) improvement in spermia (+37.6%), total sperm count (+61.4%), motility (12.4-17.4% after different time intervals), normal sperm count (+18.9%) with concomitant decrease in pus and epithelial cell count compared with baseline value. Significant decrease of semen MDA content (-18.7%) was observed. Moreover, serum testosterone (+23.5%; P < 0.001) and FSH (+9.4%; P < 0.05) levels significantly increased. HPLC chromatogram revealed inclusion of PS constituents in semen. Unaltered hepatic and renal profiles of patients indicated that PS was safe at the given dose. The present findings provide further evidence of the spermatogenic nature of Shilajit, as attributed in Ayurvedic medicine, Particularly when administered as PS.

Biswas TK, Mukherjee B. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a . Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2003 ;2(1):25-39. Http://


Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different Pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica,Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Breemen Richard B. van, Li Yi Tao, Wenkui. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):38-43.


Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase(COX). Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen achloroform pArtition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands, and 10-gingerol, 12-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8-gingerdione, 10-gingerdione, 6-dehydro-10-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. Purified 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibited COX-2 with IC50 values of 32 μM, 17.5 μMand7.5 μM, respectively.No inhibition of COX-1was detected. Therefore, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibit COX-2 but not COX-1,which can explain, in part, the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger.

Cameron MM. Untouchable healing: a Dalit Ayurvedic doctor from Nepal suffershis country's ills. Med Anthropol. 2009;28(3):235-67. Http://


Ayurvedic medicine thrives in Nepal. Even so, barriers of untouchability that have long prevented Dalits from establishing equal relationships with upper castes have made medical education out of reach for them. Hence, nearly all Ayurvedic practitioners are high caste men. Forty years ago, an "untouchable" man from the Himalayan foothills with a thirst for knowledge about Ayurveda traveled south into India where he changed his caste and "became" a Brahman for 14 years as he studied the theory and practice of Ayurvedic medicine in a Haridwar college. Rasaliji's life story, recorded initially in 2000 and continued through 2007-2008, encompasses a period of rapid modernization that spawned a state health policy promoting biomedicine, a proliferation of pharmaceutical drugs, and a national election that swept the Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist into power and saw an unprecedented 9 percent Dalits elected to the Constituent Assembly. This Article presents Rasaliji's current concerns with the state of medicine and social justice in Nepal.

Chacko E. Culture and therapy: complementary strategies for the treatment of type-2 diabetes in an urban setting in Kerala, India. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56(5):1087-98. Http://


There is an epidemic rise in diabetes in the developing world, with ensuing concern about the management and control of the disease. This study investigates the use of complementary therapies to manage Type 2 diabetes in an urban population in Kerala, a state in Southern India. Using ethnographic methods, it shows that the subjects' experiences of the disease and their health management decisions are closely linked to their cultural background and the environmental resources of the region. PArticipants in the study relied on biomedicine for treating diabetes, but frequently used Ayurvedic medicine and folk herbal remedies as supplements. They named 24 local plants and plant products that were employed to lower blood glucose levels. Knowledge of tried and tested local or regional remedies and their incorporation into individual and community health care practices are evidence of medical knowledge as cultural capital. Greater attention needs to be paid to the broader systems of the environment and culture

Chanda D, Shanker K, Pal A, Luqman S, Bawankule DU, Mani D, Darokar MP. Safety evaluation of Trikatu, a generic Ayurvedic medicine in Charles Foster rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2009 ;34(1):99-108. Http://


Chemical characterization and acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Trikatu, a generic herbal formulation of Indian system of medicine, was carried out in Charles Foster (CF) rats for safety profiling. In acute toxicity experiment, Trikatu at 2,000 mg/kg body weight once orally was well tolerated by the experimental animals (both male and female) and no changes were observed in mortality, morbidity, gross pathology, gain in weight, vital organ weight, hematological parameters (total white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) count), biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum lipid profile and tissue biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione and malonaldehyde content as oxidative stress markers. In sub-acute experiment, Trikatu was administered at 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg body weight once daily for 28 days in female CF rats, and non-significant changes were found in most of the parameters studied such as acute experiment except significant increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level at 50 and 300 mg/kg body weight, decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level at 300 mg/kg body weight, increase in SGPT activity at 50 mg/kg body weight and decrease in WBC count at 300 mg/kg body weight on 28(th) day post treatment.

Charles V, Charles SX. The use and efficacy of Azadirachta indica ADR ('Neem') and Curcuma longa ('Turmeric') in scabies. A pilot study. Trop Geogr Med. 1992 ;44(1-2):178-81. Http://


In the Ayurvedha and Sidha system of medicine (Indian system of medicine) Azadirachta indica ADR ('Neem') and Curcuma longa ('Turmeric') has been used for healing chronic ulcers and scabies. The 'Neem' and 'Turmeric' was used as a paste for the treatment of scabies in 814 people. In 97% of cases cure was obtained within 3 to 15 days of treatment. We find that this is a very cheap, easily available, effective and acceptable mode of treatment for the villagers in the developing countries. We have noticed no toxic or adverse reaction so far. However, further research is needed.

Chauhan NS, Sharma V, Thakur M, Dixit VK. Curculigo orchioides: the black gold with numerous health benefits. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010 ;8(7):613-23. Http://


Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (family Amarylladaceae) is an endangered Rasayana herb which is popularly known as "Kali Musli". The plant is native to India, and holds a special position as a potent adaptogen and aphrodisiac in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations and is considered to have aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. Various chemical constituents like mucilage, phenolic glycosides, saponins and aliphatic compounds from the plant have been reported. The plant is also considered as an important component of various herbal preparations of the Chinese and Kampo medicine. The present review is an attempt to enumerate various biologically tested activities and evaluation of different phytochemicals present in this important medicinal plant.

Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D. Randomized double blind trial of an Ayurvedic plant derived formulation for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2000 ;27(6):1365-72. Http://



To evaluate RA-1, a standardized plant extract formulation, traditionally considered a safe, effective antiarthritic in the Asian-Indian Ayurvedic medicinal system. METHODS: One hundred eighty-two patients with active-on-chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) participated in a 16 week randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel efficacy clinical drug trial in Pune, India. Tenderness, pain, swelling, and several other efficacy measures were assessed by (1) ACR core set 20% and 50% improvement; (2) ACR 20% improvement response. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed; p<0.05 considered significant.


Seventeen patients withdrew (active = 9; placebo = 8); none withdrew due to drug toxicity. An unprecedented placebo response (often p<0.001 in within-group change) was observed. The active RA-1 group remained numerically superior at all evaluation timepoints. RA-1 demonstrated few significant differences: (1) increased proportion with 50% reduction in swollen joint count (95% CI approximately 1.52, 29.90) and swollen joint score (95% CI approximately 0.91, 28.73); (2) reduced rheumatoid factor (95% CI approximately -303.7, -2.72); 39% in the RA-1 group versus 30% placebo showed ACR 20% improvement (95% CI approximately -5.48, 24.59). Only minor side effects were seen, with no significant differences by treatment group.


In a trial with sufficient power, RA-1 revealed efficacy that was not significantly superior to the strong placebo response, except for improvement in joint swelling. Further, the effect on RF and good safety profile led to an open label phase.

Conboy L, Edshteyn I, Garivaltis H. Ayurveda and Panchakarma: measuring the effects of a holistic health intervention. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:272-80. Http://


Ayurveda, the traditional medical system of India, is understudied in western contexts. Using data gathered from an Ayurvedic treatment program, this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in the process of behavior change and the salutogenic process. This obserVational study examined associations with pArticipation in the 5-day Ayurvedic cleansing retreat program, Panchakarma.Quality of life, psychosocial, and behavior change measurements were measured longitudinally on 20 female pArticipants. Measurements were taken before the start of the program, immediately after the program, and 3 months post-program. The program did not significantly improve quality of life. Significant improvements were found in self-efficacy towards using Ayurveda to improve health and reported positive health behaviors. In addition, perceived social support and depression showed significant improvements 3 months postprogram after the subjects had returned to their home context. As a program of behavior change, our preliminary results suggest that the complex intervention Panchakarma may be effective in assisting one's expected and reported adherence to new and healthier behavior patterns.

Dev S. Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(10):783-9. Http://


Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health, and illness. Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Medicinal preparations are invariably complex mixtures, based mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various Ayurvedic preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific scrutiny since the middle of the nineteenth century, although in a sporadic fashion. The first significant contribution from Ayurvedic materia medica came with the isolation of the hypertensive alkaloid from the Sarpagandha plant (Rouwolfia serpentina), valued in Ayurveda for the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, and insanity. This was the first important ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants. With the gradual coming of age of chemistry and biology, disciplines central to the study of biologic activities of natural products, many Ayurvedic plants have been reinvestigated. Our work on Commiphora wightti gum-resin, valued in Ayurveda for correcting lipid disorders, has been described in some detail; based on these investigations, a modern antihyperlipoproteinemic drug is on the market in India and some other countries. There has also been concordance for a few other Ayurvedic crude drugs such as Asparagus racemosus, Cedrus deodara, and Psoralea corylifolia.

Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Holcomb LA, Hitt AR, Young KA, Manyam BV. Neuroprotective mechanisms of Ayurvedic antidementia botanical Bacopa monniera. Phytother Res. 2007;21(10):965-9. Http://


Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia. Bacopa monniera is described in the Ayurvedic Materia Medica, as a therapeutically useful herb for the treatment of cognitive impairment, thus supporting its possible anti-Alzheimer's properties. Our studies have shown that Bacopa monniera reduces beta-amyloid deposits in the brain of an Alzheimer's disease animal model. The objective of this study was to establish the presence of endogenous substances in Bacopa monniera extract (BmE) that will impact components of the oxidative stress cascade such as the reduction of divalent metals, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, alterations of lipoxygenase activity and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. The extract contained polyphenols and sulfhydryl contents suggestive of endogenous antioxidant activity. The results demonstrated that BmE reduced divalent metals, dose-dependently scavenged reactive oxygen species, decreased the formation of lipid peroxides and inhibited lipoxygenase activity. These data combined with our previous studies that have shown that BmE treatment reduces beta-amyloid levels in the brain of an Alzheimer's disease doubly transgenic mouse model of rapid amyloid deposition (PSAPP mice) suggesting mechanisms of action relevant to thetreatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Elder C, Aickin M, Bauer V, Cairns J, Vuckovic N. Randomized trial of a whole-system Ayurvedic protocol for type 2 diabetes. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 ;12(5):24-30. Http://



Though complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments are popular, evidence to support their application to diabetes care is scarce. Previous CAM diabetes research has generally focused on single modalities, but CAM practitioners more commonly prescribe complex, multimodality interventions.


The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility and clinical impact of a whole-system, Ayurvedic intervention for newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control arm.


Group model health maintenance organization. PArticipants: We recruited 60 adult patients with baseline glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values between 6.0 and 8.0.


Treatment for the experimental group included exercise, an Ayurvedic diet, meditation instruction, and an Ayurvedic herb supplement (MA 471). Control patients attended standard diabetes education classes with primary care clinician follow-up.


Clinical outcomes were assessed at 3 and 6 months and included HbA1c, fasting glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and weight. RESULTS:

Ninety-two percent of randomized patients completed the study, and there were no significant adverse study-related events. Using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA), we found no significant differences for clinical outcomes at 6 months between on-study patient groups, though trends favored the Ayurvedic group. When we included a factor measuring how much baseline HbA1c exceeded the mean (6.5%), however, we found statistically significant improvements in the Ayurvedic group for HbA1c (P = .006), fasting glucose (P = .001), total cholesterol (P = .05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = .04), and weight (P = .035).


These results suggest that the Ayurvedic intervention may benefit patients with higher baseline HbA1c values, warranting further research.

Elder C. Ayurveda for diabetes mellitus: a review of the biomedical literature. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004;10(1):44-50. Http://


Diabetes mellitus is a condition that is extremely serious from both clinical and public health standpoints. The traditional healthcare system of India, Ayurveda, offers a balanced and holistic multi-modality approach to treating this disorder.Many Ayurvedic modalities have been subjected to empirical scientific evaluation, but most such research has been done in India, receiving little attention in North America. This paper offers a review of the English language literature related to Ayurveda and diabetes care, encompassing herbs, diet, yoga, and meditation as modalities that are accessible and acceptable to Western clinicians and patients. There is a considerable amount of data from both animal and human trials suggesting efficacy of Ayurvedic interventions in managing diabetes. However, the reported human trials generally fall short of contemporary methodological standards. More research is needed in the area of Ayurvedic treatment of diabetes, assessing both whole practice and individual modalities.

Farag NH, Mills PJ. A randomised-controlled trial of the effects of a traditional herbal supplement on sleep onset insomnia. Complement Ther Med. 2003;11(4):223-5. Http://



To study the effectiveness and safety of a traditional herbal supplement used for sleep onset insomnia.


A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.


A total of 25 healthy volunteers (20-65 years of age) suffering from sleep onset insomnia were recruited from the general population.


A traditional Ayurvedic supplement formulated to reduce sleep onset insomnia.


Sleep latency.


The supplement led to a statistically significant decrease in reported sleep latency of 16.72 min (S.D.=44.8) as compared to placebo (P=0.003). There were no self-reported side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that traditional herbal supplements may be of significant benefit to patients suffering from sleep onset insomnia while avoiding the negative side effects of commonly prescribed hypnotics.

Flammang AM, Erexson GL, Mecchi MS, Murli H. Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44(11):1868-74. Http://


Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may, after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs.

Galib, Kar AC, Rao MM, Narayana Ala. Concepts of Contraception in Ancient India and Status in Present Scenario.Journal of Indian Institute of History of Medicine.2008;38(1):79-88.


Contraception is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily up on the basis of knowledge, attitude by individuals and couples in order to promote health ad welfare of a family. Interestingly none of the ancient classics like CharakaSamhita, SushrutaSamhita or Astangahrdaya touched upon this subject. It is possible that the society in those days had no need for controlling the population. Later scholars on Ayurveda in the mediaeval period referred to a number of oral/local measures for the purpose of contraception, which was paved the way to the development of different kinds of contraceptive methods prevailing in present scenario. The present paper discusses with few of the concepts practiced in ancient India and also throws some light on research carried out in last few decades.

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