Garg S, Bhutani KK. Chromatographic analysis of Kutajarista--an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation. Phytochem Anal. 2008;19(4):323-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Kutajarista is a well known polyherbal preparation of which the main ingredient is the stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica. This Ayurvedic medicine is prescribed to treat amoebic dysentery and other disorders such as fever, indigestion and malabsorption syndrome. Herbal medicines are very important since, in common with conventional medicines, they contain biologically active substances that may produce non-trivial side effects when taken in excessive amounts. Very low doses, on the other hand, may have no therapeutic value. In this paper we report the chemical standardisation of Kutajarista by HPLC analysis based upon the presence of the biomarker conessine in the formulation. The standardisation method is simple and reliable, and the precision of method has been tested for repeatability (n = 3) and reproducibility (n = 9). The response of a refractive index detector was linear in the concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL. Recovery studies were performed to check the method for accuracy. The recovery was found to be in range of 99-105%. The developed HPLC method can be used to quantify conessine for quality control of marketed Kutajarista samples.
Garodia P, Ichikawa H, Malani N, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. From ancient medicine to modern medicine: Ayurvedic concepts of health and their role in inflammation and cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007;5(1):25-37. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Recent statistics indicate that the overall cancer incidence in the United States, in spite of billions of dollars spent on research each year, has not changed significantly in the last half-century. Cancers of the prostate, breast, lung, and colon, although most common in the Western world, are least common in the Eastern world. Allopathic medicine commonly practiced currently is only 100 years old. Although traditional medicine has been around for thousands of years, no integration exists between it and allopathic medicine. Ayurveda, the science of long life and one of the most ancient medical systems still practiced on the Indian subcontinent, can be used in combination with modern medicine to provide better treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the Ayurvedic concept of the causes of cancer and its linkage with inflammation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. How Ayurvedic medicine can be integrated with allopathic medicine is also discussed in this .
George SK, Rajesh R, Kumar S S, Sulekha B, Balaram P. A polyherbal Ayurvedic drug--Indukantha Ghritha as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy via immunomodulation. Immunobiology.2008;213(8):641-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Indukantha Ghritha (IG) is a polyherbal preparation consisting of 17 plant components widely prescribed by Ayurvedic physicians for various ailments. Though it is a known Ayurvedic drug, no attempt has been made to scientifically validate its mechanism of action. Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed IG to possess considerable immunomodulatory effects with a Th1 type of immune response. In this regard, we attempted to elucidate its role as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy. BALB/c mice were administered IG, for a period of 14 days and parameters such as Hb, total and differential WBC count, bone marrow cellularity, lymphocyte proliferation and function, macrophage phagocytosis and tumor remission were studied. Administration of IG could inhibit tumor development in mice challenged with Dalton's lymphoma ascites. IG-induced leukopoiesis and enhanced median survival time as well as life span in tumor bearing animals. Macrophage phagocytic capacity was also elevated. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subsets and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt] assay for lymphocyte proliferation, yielded promising results which reinforces its use as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy. The polyherbal drug could reverse cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in control tumor bearing animals significantly to values near or above normal levels. These results demonstrate the potential of IG, especially in several immunosuppressed conditions and patients suffering from leukopenia as a consequence of cancer chemotherapy.
Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AK. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in 'Chyavanprash' a potent Ayurvedic drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43(2):527-32. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Quantification of bioactive principles through modern analytical tools is essential for establishing the authenticity, credibility, prescription and usage of Ayurvedic medicines/herbal formulations. 'Chyavanprash' is one of the oldest and most popular Ayurvedic preparations, used widely as a health promotive and disease preventive 'Rasayana' drug in India and elsewhere. The rejuvenating and tonic properties of 'Chavanprash' are considered mainly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of phenolic compounds. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the separation and quantitative determination of the major antioxidant compounds from 'Chyavanprash' has been developed. The use of Waters Symmetry column and an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of phenolic compounds (catechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, syringic acid and gallic acid) within a 35 min analysis. Validation of the method was done with a view to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. In addition optimization of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds were also studied.
Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Pushpangadan P. Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of 'Rasayana' herbs of Ayurveda. J EthnoPharmacol. 2005;99(2):165-78. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The disease preventive and health promotive approach of 'Ayurveda', which takes into consideration the whole body, mind and spirit while dealing with the maintenance of health, promotion of health and treating ailments is holistic and finds increasing acceptability in many regions of the world. Ancient Ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest/delay ageing and rejuvenating whole functional dynamics of the body system. This revitalization and rejuvenation is known as the 'Rasayan Chikitsa' (rejuvenation therapy). Traditionally, Rasayana drugs are used against a plethora of seemingly diverse disorders with no pathophysiological connections according to modern medicine. Though, this group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity, only a few have been investigated in detail. Over about 100 disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, CVS disorders, cystic fibrosis, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal ulcerogenesis and AIDS have been reported as reactive oxygen species mediated. In this review, the role of free radicals in these diseases has been briefly reviewed. 'Rasayana' plants with potent antioxidant activity have been reviewed for their traditional uses, and mechanism of antioxidant action. Fifteen such plants have been dealt with in detail and some more plants with less work have also been reviewed briefly.
Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J EthnoPharmacol. 2002;81(1):81-100. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.
Gupta SK, Kalaiselvan V, Srivastava S, Agrawal SS, Saxena R. Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies. J Ayurveda Integr Med .2010;1:280-6. http://www.jaim.in.
Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100΅M selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 μmole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats' eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract.
Gupta V, Meena A K, Krishna C M , Rao M M, Sannd R, Singh H, Panda P, Padhi M M and Babu Ramesh. Review of plants used as Kshar of family Piperaceae. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(2):81-88.
Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. Kshara is a kind of medication described in Ayurveda Texts for the management of various disorders. The genus Piper L. is estimated to contain over 1000 species which are distributed mainly in tropical regions of the world. This review mainly focuses on the plants of family Piperaceae that are used in Kshar so that more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization, therapeutic level determination of Kshar plants.
Hankey A. A test of the systems analysis underlying the scientific theory of Ayurveda's Tridosha. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(3):385-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
A previous paper hypothesized that the tridosha of Ayurveda--Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--constitute regulatory systems respectively controlling input/output, turnover, and storage; functions systems analysis identifies as fundamental to all open systems. This would make them universal properties of all living organisms, as Ayurveda itself maintains. This paper proposes independent scientific evidence for the proposed identification of the doshas and for the systems analysis on which it is based. In Particular, it points to coenzyme A, a key component of fatty acid Metabolism. Its universal presence in all cells implies that it is an evolutionary invariant ant that the biochemical pathway on which it lies must be exceptionally significant. The systems analysis shows that the pathway connects the cellular functions of energy turnover and energy storage, fundamental to the overall strategy of cell regulation. This, combined with the requirement for the pathway's close regulation, makes it effectively impossible to replace coenzyme A by a combination of simultaneous mutations or sequence of mutations and it should indeed remain invariant during evolution. The universality of coenzyme A is therefore consistent with its identified role, and supports the systems analysis identifying the doshas. Their systems functions survive developmental transformations of evolution with recognizable continuity. By virtue of that, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha can be identified with them in all species.
Herron RE, Fagan JB. Lipophil-mediated reduction of toxicants in humans: an evaluation of an Ayurvedic detoxification procedure. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002;8(5):40-51. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Lipophilic toxicants have been associated with hormone disruption, immune system suppression, reproductive disorders, several types of cancer, and other diseases. Due to environmental persistence and bioaccumulation, body burdens of certain toxicants, such as dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), appear to be a health risk despite the toxicants' having been banned for decades.
To determine whether a safe, standardized, Ayurvedic detoxification procedure can mobilize lipid-soluble toxicants and stimulate their excretion.DESIGN: Cross-sectionaland longitudinal evaluations.SETTING: Southeastern Iowa.
In the cross-sectional study, 48 pArticipants who had undertaken lipophil-mediated detoxification were compared with 40 control subjects. In the prospective, longitudinal evaluation, serum levels were measured in 15 subjects before and after they underwent the detoxification procedure. These 15 subjects served as their own controls.
Ayurvedic lipophil-mediated detoxification procedure.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Gas chromatographic analysis of 17 serum toxicant levels (9 PCB congeners and 8 pesticides or metabolites) on a lipid-adjusted and wet-weight basis (ng/g) as parts per billion.RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, gas chromatographic analysis of 9 PCB congeners and 8 pesticides revealed that serum PCB levels were significantly lower in the detoxification subjects than in controls. Trans-nonachlor (TNC), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), oxychlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were also markedly lower in the detoxification group. All subjects had undetectable levels of p,p'-DDT, lindane, and a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH). Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) levels were significantly higher in detoxification subjects than in controls. In the longitudinal evaluation, after treatment, mean levels of PCBs (46%) and beta-HCH (58%) declined significantly in the subjects.
The higher beta-HCH levels in the subjects in the longitudinal study appear to be an anomaly related to diet. The results of the 2 studies generally suggest that lipophil-mediated detoxification may be effective in reducing body burdens of fat-soluble toxicants. As numerous people worldwide are at risk from high body burdens of such lipid-soluble agents, further studies to evaluate this procedure appear warranted.
J Munasinghe TC, Seneviratne CK, Thabrew MI, Abeysekera AM. Antiradical and antilipoperoxidative effects of some plant extracts used by Sri Lankan traditional medical practitioners for cardioprotection. Phytother Res. 2001;15(6):519-23. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many pathogenic processes including the cardiovascular system. Detoxification of ROS by antioxidants (AO) therefore affords protection against such diseases. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that antioxidants contribute to cardioprotection. Therefore, nine plants that are components of Ayurvedic formulations used for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases were investigated to determine whether antioxidant activity is one of the mechanisms by which these plants exert cardioprotection. Initially aqueous freeze dried extracts of the plants were prepared and the antioxidant activity was measured (a) in vitro, by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and deoxyribose damage protection assays, and (b) in vivo, by effects on lipid peroxidation. Terminalia Arjuna showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC(50) 8.3 +/- 0.3 microg/mL (similar to L-ascorbic acid). The potency of this activity was much lower in Cassia fistula (EC(50) = 59.0 +/- 2.7 microg/mL). The other seven extracts demonstrated no such activity in the concentration range tested. In the deoxyribose damage protection assay, T. Arjuna> demonstrated no significant effect in the concentration range 0-20 microg/mL, but above -20 microg/mL concentration (20-125 microg/mL), a pro-oxidant activity was observed (although markedly less than demonstrated by L-ascorbic acid). A similar trend was observed with Vitex negundo. In contrast, C. fistula afforded a 30% protection against such damage at 125 microg/mL concentration. Other plant extracts did not show any activity in this assay. At a dose of 90 mg/kg (single dose) T. Arjuna, cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% +/- 2.6% (p<0.05) whereas the reduction was only 11.6% +/- 3.5% in the case of C. fistula even at a dose of 120 mg/kg. Of all the plants tested, T. Arjuna demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity. Overall results show that only some plants used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease exert their beneficial effects via antioxidant activity.
Jadhav AN, Bhutani KK. Ayurveda and gynecological disorders.J EthnoPharmacol. 2005;97(1):151-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The science of life--Ayurveda is practiced in India since time immemorial. Besides being cheap and easily available Ayurvedic drugs are considered safe. Moreover, there is surge in the interest in Ayurveda due to quest of alternative medicines. Many of the gynecological disorders being not reported to the physicians, are treated with household remedies in India. The science of Ayurveda deals with these issues in a systematic manner as evident from the classification of diseases available and the number of plant drugs or the combinations thereof available for the treatment. In the present Article, Ayurvedic herbal formulations and single plant drugs used traditionally in treatment of gynecological disorders are described.
Jagtap AG, Shirke SS, Phadke AS. Effect of polyherbal formulation on experimental models of inflammatory bowel diseases. J EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;90(2-3):195-204. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of Ayurveda was evaluated for its activity against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz.Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak (Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids). The formulation has been tried before in clinical practice and was found to be useful in certain number of cases of IBD (ulcerative colitis), so was tried in the same form i.e.decoction (aqueous extract) in experimental animals to revalidate the claims of the same. The formulation was tried on two different experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which are acetic acid-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. The formulation showed significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. The activity was comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against inflammatory bowel diseases.
Joshi A, Kulkarni A, Chandran S, Jayaraman VK, Kulkarni BD. Nadi Tarangini:a pulse based diagnostic system. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.2007;2007:2207-10. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Ayurveda is a traditional medicine and natural healing system in India. Nadi-Nidan (pulse-based diagnosis) is a prominent method in Ayurveda, and is known to dictate all the salient features of a human body. In this paper, we provide details of our procedure for obtaining the complete spectrum of the nadi pulses as a time series. The system Nadi Tarangini1 contains a diaphragm element equipped with strain gauge, a transmitter cum amplifier, and a digitizer for quantifying analog signal. The system acquires the data with 16-bit accuracy with practically no external electronic or interfering noise. Prior systems for obtaining the nadi pulses have been few and far between, when compared to systems such as ECG. The waveforms obtained with our system have been compared with these other similar equipment developed earlier, and is shown to contain more details. The pulse waveform is also shown to have the desirable variations with respect to age of patients, and the pressure applied at the sensing element. The system is being evaluated by Ayurvedic practitioners as a computer-aided diagnostic tool.
Joshi RR. A biostatistical approach to Ayurveda: quantifying the tridosha. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(5):879-89. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
To compute quantitative estimates of the tridosha--the qualitative characterization that constitutes the core of diagnosis and treatment in Ayurveda--to provide a basis for biostatistical analysis of this ancient Indian science, which is a promising field of alternative medicine.
The data sources were 280 persons from among the residents and visitors/training students at the Brahmvarchas Research Centre and Shantikuj, Hardwar, India.
A quantitative measure of the tridosha level (for Vata, Pitta, and Kapha) is obtained by applying an algorithmic heuristic approach to the exhaustive list of qualitative features/factors that are commonly used by Ayurvedic doctors. A knowledge-based concept of worth coefficients and fuzzy multiattribute decision functions are used here for regression modeling.
VALIDATION AND APPLICATIONS:
Statistical validation on a large sample shows the accuracy of this study's estimates with statistical confidence level above 90%. The estimates are also suited for diagnostic and prognostic applications and systematic drug-response analysis of Ayurvedic (herbal and Rasayanam) medicines. An application with regard to the former is elucidated, extensions of which might also be of use in investigating the role of nadis in Ayurvedic healing vis-a-vis acupuncture and acupressure techniques. The importance and scope of this novel approach are discussed.
This pioneering study shows that the concept of tridosha has a sound empirical basis that could be used for the scientific establishment of Ayurveda in a new light.
Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev.2009;14(2):141-53. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.