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Yogaraj -Guggulu is a widely used Ayurvedic formulation. Standardisation of the Ayurvedic medicine, Yogaraj a Guggulu has been achieved by following modern scientific quality control procedures. It has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activity in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and in croton oil granuloma. For the standardization of this drug physico-chemical parameters were carried out such as moisture content, ash values, extractability in water and alcohol were carried out. Thin Layer Chromatography studies were also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug.

Mohapatra S, Reddy KR, Jha CB. Historical review of Svarna Makshika. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2007;37(2):153-66. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

The old age Ayurvedic claim about the therapeutic importance of metals and mineral bhasmas are time tasted. To make available the evidence for use of metals and minerals in therapeutics and to provide the knowledge of processing techniques in ancient India it is very much necessary to look over the history. Rasa shastra is the branch of Ayurvedic science which deals with the pharmaceutical processings of the metals and minerals. Svarna Makshika is one of the most important materials described in various Rasa literatures as well as in Sarmhitas and in other Ayurvedic texts. Going through the different literatures its different features, geological distributions and various processing techniques like Shodhana, marana are found. In Samhita period only the features were described but during 7th Cen. AD and onwards its processings were found. Now a day Svarrna Maksika is correlated with chalcopyrite by modern metallurgists. The features of chalcopyrite are also given to assist the more study in this regard. In the current paper it is tried to collect and compile all the related area about Svarna Makshika from all possible ancient literary resources as well as from possible modern texts, to facilitate further research.

Mondal S, Mirdha BR, Mahapatra SC. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 ;53(4):291-306. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies.

Mukherjee PK, Wahile A. Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines. J EthnoPharmacol. 2006;103(1):25-35. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Biodiversity of natural resources has served not only for the primary human needs but also for health care, since time immemorial. The Indian subcontinent, with the history of one of the oldest civilization, harbors many traditional health care systems. Their development was supported by the diverse biodiversity in flora and fauna due to variations in geographical landscaping. Ayurveda, whose history goes back to 5000 b.c.is one of the ancient health care systems. The Ayurveda was developed through daily life experiences with the mutual relationship between mankind and nature. The ancient text of Ayurveda reports more than 2000 plant species for their therapeutic potentials. Besides Ayurveda, other traditional and folklore systems of health care were developed in the different time periods in Indian subcontinent, where more than 7500 plant species were used. According to a WHO estimate, about 80% of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicines for primary health care, where plants form the dominant component over other natural resources. Renewed interest of developing as well as developed countries in the natural resources has opened new horizons for the exploration of natural sources with the perspectives of safety and efficacy. The development of these traditional systems of medicines with the perspectives of safety, efficacy and quality will help not only to preserve this traditional heritage but also to rationalize the use of natural products in the health care. Until recent past, the nature was considered as a compendium for templates of new chemical entities (NCEs). The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these Ayurveda and other Indian systems of medicines may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the health care.

Murali Krishna C, Gupta V, Bansal P, Kumar S, Sannd R, Narayana A. Review on plants mainly used for the preparation of kshar sutra. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine. 2010;1(1):12-22 http://ijam.co.in/index.php/ijam/Article/view/01011002/2

Abstract.

Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. Ksharsutra- an Ayurvedic para-surgical measure is used the treatment of Nadi Vrana (sinus), Bhagandara (fistula- in - ano), arbuda (excision of small benign tumour) etc. by using different medicinal plants. The standard kshar sutra is prepared by using snuhi ksheera (latex of Euphorbia nerrifolia Linn), apamarg kshar (water extract of ashes of Achyranthus aspera Linn plant) and haridra powder (powder of Curcuma longa L). This review mainly focuses on the plants that are used in preparation of Ksharsutra so that more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization, therapeutic level determination of Ksharsutra plants.

Narahari SR, Ryan TJ, Mahadevan PE, Bose KS, PRasanna KS. Integrated management of filarial lymphedema for rural communities. Lymphology. 2007;40(1):3-13. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

The Global Alliance for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF) has recommended exploring local health traditions of skin care and a low cost treatment paradigm for rural communities has been proposed by Vaqas and Ryan. Our case study incorporates these promising treatments for use in treating filariasis in rural communities. Patients having lymphedema of one or both lower limbs (skin: normal, thickened or with trophic/warty changes) received treatment components from Ayurveda, yoga and biomedicine simultaneously: including soap wash, phanta soaking, Indian manual lymph drainage (IMLD), pre- and post-IMLD yoga exercises, and compression using bandages for 194 days, along with diet restrictions and oral herbal medicines indicated for "elephantiasis" in Ayurveda. Entry points when infected were treated with biomedical drugs. The study was conducted in the reverse Pharmacology design. 112 patients and 149 lower limbs completed 194 days of treatment during 2003-2006. Significant improvements were observed in the limb circumference measurements and the frequency of acute dermatolymphangioadenitis, use of preventive antibiotics, and reduction in the number of entry points were also improved. The objective to obtain significant benefit for a common problem using locally available, sustainable and affordable means has been achieved. It has not been our purpose to show that the regimen employed is better than another but the results do pose the question--"Are there components of Ayurvedic medicine that deserve further study?" It is important to understand that the regimen has been delivered mostly at home and that pArticipants we have treated, representing a population suffering from a common problem, have not had access to effective conserVative therapy that is culturally acceptable, safe, and efficacious.

Narahari SR, Ryan TJ, Aggithaya MG, Bose KS, PRasanna KS. Evidence-based approaches for the Ayurvedic traditional herbal formulations: toward an AyurvedicCONSORT model. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(6):769-76. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

This paper considers the problem of evaluating multimodal integrative medicine treatments for complex pathologic conditions. The example is given of evaluation of highly successful treatments of lymphedema using Ayurvedic and Yoga medicine practices together with modern medicine. For a framework to evaluate such a complex intervention, we base our proposal on Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines.

Nohr LA, Rasmussen LB, Straand J. Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study.Complement Ther Med. 2009;17(1):16-22. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

BACKGROUND: Guggul, herbal extract from resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, is widely used in Asia as a cholesterol-lowering agent based on Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its popularity for this use is increasing in the US and Western Europe. Guggulsterones, the presumed bioactive compounds of guggul, may antagonise two nuclear hormone receptors involved in cholesterol Metabolism, which is a possible explanation for hypolipidemic effects of these extracts. However, publications of efficacy data on the use of guggul extracts in Western populations are scarce.

OBJECTIVE:

To study the efficacy of a guggul-based formulation (short: guggul) on blood lipids in healthy adults with moderately increased cholesterol.

METHODS:

Double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial in Norwegian general practice. 43 women and men, age 27-70, with moderately increased cholesterol, randomised to use 2160mg guggul (4 capsules) daily, or placebo for 12 weeks.OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio compared with baseline. Lipids were analysed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. In addition, unexpected events and adverse effects were recorded.RESULTS: Two dropouts, one withdrawal, and incomplete lab results for six persons left 34 pArticipants to accomplish the trial (18-guggul, 16-placebo) with complete lab test data. After 12 weeks, mean levels of total cholesterol and HDL-C in the active group were significantly reduced compared with the placebo group. However, the mean levels of LDL-C, triglycerides, and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio between the two groups did not change significantly. Ten guggul users (vs. four in the placebo group) reported side effects: mild gastrointestinal discomfort (n=7), possible thyroid problems (n=2), and generalized skin rash (n=1). The latter resulted in withdrawal from trial.

CONCLUSIONS:

Even if total cholesterol and HDL-C were significantly reduced, the clinical magnitude of this remains obscure. More and larger studies are needed to establish effects and safety of guggul-based formulations in the treatment for hypercholesterolemia.

Padhi MM, Das B, Audichya KC, Rao MM. Some important Ayurvedic literatures from the manuscripts available at Orissa (1.Chikitsarnava). Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35:33-40.

Abstract.:

In the treasure of Ayurvedic literature many texts are missing or pArtially available. Only references or few verses from many such texts are mentioned in later texts. Unfortunately a large number of Ayurvedic texts are explored till today are likely to exist in palm leaf manuscripts, which are decaying or undergoing permanent annihilation. As such many unique and valuable informations contained in these texts are being lost. Though several Institutions have taken up work on literary Research, only few texts have been published during past decades, The present paper highlights the salient features of the text “Chikisarnava” authored by Visvanath Sena of 16th century of Orissa. Though his text on Pathypathya has already been published, which has a got a place in the pages of history of Ayurveda, a very little is known about this important text on therapeutics. Various aspects of this text and its author have been discussed to bring it into the knowledge of fraternity of Ayurvedic physicians and Sanskrit scholars.

Padhi MM, Das B, Rao MM. Role of Jalaukacharan (Leech application) in the treatment of Vicharchika (Eczema). Ayurveda Maha Sammelan Patrika.2007;(94/2): 31-33.

Abstract.:

In Ayurveda specific skin diseases causing long term discoloration and other problems have been grouped as Kustha. Kustha has been further classified as MahaKustha and Ksudra Kustha comprising of 11 and 7 types of diseases respectively. Vicharchika is one out of 11 Ksudra Ksudrain which all the three basic humors are told to be vitiated. Further there is difference in the description of clinical features of this disease. The KayaChikitsa group of schools like Charak, Vagbhata have narrated it as SaKandu, (itching), Pidaka (lesion, macules, pustules etc), Sayba (reddish-black) and Vahusrava or Lasikaddya (with much exudates) while Sushruta and Bhoja describe it with Kandu (itching), Arti (Pain), Ruksha (rough or dry) and akin to oozing eczema and dry eczema. This disease entityalso comes under the group of Raktapraqdosaj diseases.Since it is an allergic disorder sometimes one may know the Particular external factor causing the reaction, but very often some internal factors cannot be detected. Though the disease is not fatal, it poses serious cosmetic problem and discomfort. Very often it replaces leaving thickness of skin like bark of a tree with discoloration/disfiguration of the part and formulation of crusts or scales. The oozing tyupe of eczema gets secondary infection with bacteria, fungus etc. and cause more discomport. In modern system of medicine very often temporary relief is obtained by using steroidal or non steroidal drugs. In case of Ayurvedic medicines also tough there is a better chance of relief one has to take a number of medicines for long period.

Padhi MM, Das B, Srinivas P, Kori VK, Nanda GC, Rao MM, Tewari NS, Audichya KC. Efficacy of brahmi yoga in Vyanabala Vaishamya (Hypertension) – A clinical study.Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(3):65-74.

Abstract.:

Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiac vascular mortality which accounts for 20-50% of all deaths. Most of the allopathic drugs have minor side effects and since multiple drugs have to be taken for a longer period, non compliance is also a major problem. With an aim to evolve effective herbal preparation a compound namely ‘Brahmi Yoga’ was tried on 113 patients. Assessment was done according to changes in measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as according to changes in severity of related symptoms like Headache, Dizziness, Irritability, Insomnia, Fatigue and weakness. The analysis of results indicated statistically higher significant effect of the drug. The overall results indicated Good response in 50(44.2%), Fair response in 45(39.8%), Poor response in 17(15.04%) and no response in 01 (0.8%) case. It is suggested to make further study of this formulation in any extract form.

Padhi MM, Rana DK, Rao MM. Some explorative information regarding JwaratimiRabhaskara and its author Kayastha chamunda. Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35(2); 93-99.

Abstract.:

Out of the treasure of Ayurvedic literature, a few texts have come into lime light while some are in dark and available in incomplete form. But many names of the texts with unknown or known authors have been quoted by different subsequent authors in their texts or in the explications by their commentators for which complete textare not available at present. Among the texts on specific diseases, one notable work is “JwaratimiRabhaskara” written by Jyastha Camunda. Nowhere a detailed account of author’s identity, time and place has been mentioned, while short references are available in some historical books, However manuscripts of this text are available in many repositories of our country. In this Article an attempt has been made to establish the identity of the author, period of the text and also to highlight the salient features of this text.

Padhi MM, Rao MM, Sharma MM, Hota NP. A critical study of the manuscripts of Paryaya Muktavali available at Orissa. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2007;37(1):81-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Though the Nidana book of Madhavakara has been very popular among Ayurvedic fraternity his other deeds on Dravyaguna, Chikitsa etc. could not come to lime light due to lack of sufficient number of manuscripts for comparison and editing. One such text is Paryaya Muktavali, manuscripts of which are plentily available in the State of Orissa. This modified text redacted by Hari Charana Sena, is a bright example of scribal error and missing of verses which occur during repeated scribe in palm leaf manuscript. This is a lexicon of drugs, which is prime necessity of Dravyaguna and Rasashastra. Publication of such text will be an addition to the treasure of Ayurvedic texts.

Pancabhai TS, Kulkarni UP, Rege NN. Validation of therapeutic claims of Tinospora cordifolia: a review. Phytother Res. 2008;22(4):425-41. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

This review Article attempts to correlate Ayurvedic Pharmacology and therapeutic claims for Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with the evidence generated using scientific research methodology. In the present paper, a brief description of Ayurvedic Pharmacology of the plant is presented. The work carried out by researchers using extracts of Tc in various areas such as diabetes, liver damage, free radical mediated injury, infections, stress and cancer have been reviewed. Also discussed are the immunomodulatory, diuretic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, anticholinesterase and gastrointestinal protective effects. An attempt has been made to provide the readers with the array of outcome variables, which can be further worked upon in clinical studies. Finally, this paper puts forth issues that need to be addressed by researchers in the future.

Panda AK, Debnath SK. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati). Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(3):183-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

Panda Purnendu, Meena AK, Rao MM, Sannd R, Reddy Govind, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Singhanada Guggulu and Vatari Guggulu: A Pharmacological Study. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2011;3(1): 17-18.

Abstract.:

Singhanada Guggulu and Vatari Guggulu are well known Ayurvedic Guggulu formulations which have been used since 11th century AD. for the treatment of disease Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis):. Both the trial drugs are contain same ingredients i.e Triphala, Guggulu, gandhaka and eranda taila, but their method of preparations are different. To evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of the trial drugs the animal experiment has carried out by Carrageenin induced hind paw oedema test. The trial drug Singhanada Guggulu found significant suppression while Vatari Guggulu produced only weak suppression in paw oedema of experimental animals.

Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Saussurea costus: botanical, chemical and Pharmacological review of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant. J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;110(3):379-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, viz. asthma, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems. Sesquiterpene lactones have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different Pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of Saussurea costus to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anticancer and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional uses. Costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone and cynaropicrin, isolated from this plant, have been identified to have potential to be developed as bioactive Molecules. Due to the remarkable biological activity of Saussurea costus and its constituents it will be appropriate to develop them as a medicine. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, Pharmacology and traditional and folkloric uses of Saussurea costus.

Patwardhan B, Bodeker G. Ayurvedic genomics: establishing a genetic basis for mind-body typologies. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(5):571- 6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

BACKGROUND:

Ayurveda, India's natural health care tradition, has a unique way of classifying human population based on individual constitution or Prakriti. Ayurveda's tridosha theory identifies principles of motion (Vata), Metabolism (Pitta), and structure (Kapha) as discrete phenotypic groupings. Patwardhan et al. (2005) hypothesized in a paper published in this journal that there is a genetic connotation to Prakriti and as proof of this concept showed a correlation between HLA alleles and Prakriti type, establishing a rationale and preliminary experimental support for the concept of an association between HLA alleles and the Ayurvedic tridosha theory of individual Prakriti types. This work is both part of and a catalyst for a wider revolution in the scientific investigation of Ayurveda in India, referred to as "Ayurvedic biology" and "AyuGenomics." Subsequently, Chen et al. (2007) reported a similar study in this journal using a classification based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory.

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings of a genetic basis for both Ayurvedic and TCM classifications indicate a commonality between Asia's great medical traditions in their diagnostic typologies and a genetic basis for Asian traditional medicine's theory of discrete and discernable groupings of psycho-physiologic differences. Accordingly, new horizons have opened for collaborative East-East research and for an individualized approach to disease management and activation of the full range of human potential, as Articulated in Ayurveda and TCM.

Patwardhan Bhushan, Mashelkar Raghunath Anant. Traditional medicine-inspired approaches to drug discovery: can Ayurveda show the way forward?. Drug Discovery Today.2009;14(15-16):804-811.

Abstract.

Drug discovery strategies based on natural products and traditional medicines are re-emerging as attractive options. We suggest that drug discovery and development need not always be confined to new molecular entities. Rationally designed, carefully standardized, synergistic traditional herbal formulations and botanical drug products with robust scientific evidence can also be alternatives. A reverse Pharmacology approach, inspired by traditional medicine and Ayurveda, can offer a smart strategy for new drug candidates to facilitate discovery process and also for the development of rational synergistic botanical formulations.

Patwardhan K, Gehlot S, Singh G, Rathore HC. Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(1):49-54. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the 'Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education' and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research.

Ponnusankar S, Pandit S, Babu R, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee PK. Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of Triphala--a Rasayana from Ayurveda. J EthnoPharmacol. 2011;133(1):120-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: '

Triphala' is one of the age-old, most commonly used polyherbal preparation from Ayurveda as Rasayana drug.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes to assess its safety through its potential to interact with co-administered drugs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The cytochrome P450 inhibitory effect of 'Triphala' formulation was investigated on rat liver microsomes using CYP450-CO complex assay and on individual isoform such as CYP3A4 and 2D6 using fluorescence screening. RP-HPLC method was developed to standardize 'Triphala' and its individual components using gallic acid as analytical marker compound.

RESULTS:

RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of gallic acid (4.30±2.09 mg/g) in the formulation. The formulation showed 23% inhibition of the rat liver microsomes through CYP450-CO complex assay which is comparatively less when compared with the individual components. Further, the effect of standardized formulation dissolved in ethanol showed CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activity at the IC(50) values of 119.65±1.91 μg/ml and 105.03±0.98 μg/ml respectively. Gallic acid was also found to inhibit both the isoforms at the IC(50) valuesof87.24±1.11 μg/ml and 92.03±0.38 μg/ml respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Various concentrations of the formulation and its individual components showed significantly less inhibitory activity (p<0.001) on individual isoforms when compared with the positive control. Assessment on the in vitro effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes has important implications for predicting the likelihood of herb-drug interactions if these are administered concomitantly.

Posmontier B, Teitelbaum M. An Ayurvedic approach to postpartum depression.Holist Nurs Pract. 2009; 23(4):201-14. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Ayurvedic medicine has existed for more than 5000 years but is only recently receiving recognition in current medical literature. The purpose of this Article is to present an overview of Ayurvedic medicine, describe Ayurvedic treatment of postpartum depression, discuss concerns about herbal preparations, and discuss implications for nursing practice and research.

Possemiers Sam, Bolca Selin, Verstraete Willy, Heyerick Arne. The intestinal microbiome: A separate organ inside the body with the metabolic potential to influence the bioactivity of botanicals. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):53-66.

Abstract.

For many years, it was believed that the main function of the large intestine was the resorption of water and salt and the facilitated disposal of waste materials. However, this task definition was far from complete, as it did not consider the activity of the microbial content of the large intestine. Nowadays it is clear that the complex microbial ecosystem in our intestines should be considered as a separate organ within the body, with a metabolic capacity which exceeds the liver with a factor 100. The intestinal microbiome is therefore closely involved in the first-pass Metabolism of dietary compounds. This is especially true for botanical supplements, which are now marketed for various health applications. Being of natural origin, their structural building blocks, such as polyphenols, are often highly recognized by the human and especially the intestinal microbial Metabolism machinery. Intensive Metabolism results in often low circulating levels of the original products, with the consequence that final health effects of botanicals are often related to specific active metabolites which are produced in the body rather than being related to the product's original composition. Understanding how such metabolic processes contribute to the in situ exposure is therefore crucial for the proper interpretation of biological responses. A multidisciplinary approach, characterizing the food and phytochemical intake as well as the metabolic potency of the gut microbiota, while measuring biomarkers of both exposure and response in target tissues, is therefore of critical importance. With polyphenol Metabolism as example, this review describes how the incorporation of microbial Metabolism as an important variable in the evaluation of the final bioactivity of botanicals strongly increases the relevance and predictive value of the outcome. Moreover, knowledge about intestinal processes may offer innoVative strategies for targeted product development.

Prakash S, Hernandez GT, Dujaili I, Bhalla V. Lead poisoning from an Ayurvedic herbal medicine in a patient with chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(5):297-300. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

BACKGROUND:

A 60-year-old man with a history of diabetes and hypertension was referred to a nephrology clinic for investigation of his elevated serum creatinine level.

INVESTIGATIONS:

Physical examination; laboratory investigations, including measurement of whole-blood lead level, body lead burden and urine albumin:creatinine ratio; history of lead exposure and use of herbal medical products; and renal ultrasonography.

DIAGNOSIS:

Stage 3 chronic kidney disease that was probably worsened by consumption of lead in the form of an Ayurvedic herbal remedy.

MANAGEMENT:

Cessation of the herbal product, followed by lead-chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The patient's whole-body lead burden and blood lead level decreased to acceptable levels and his serum creatinine value was within the normal range at final follow-up.

Prakash VB, Prakash S, Sharma R, Pal SK. Sustainable effect of Ayurvedic formulations in the treatment of nutritional anemia in adolescent students. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(2):205-11. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

OBJECTIVES:

Anemia is a serious health problem in Indian school children. High prevalence of anemia has been reported in nonpregnant adolescent girls. An investigation was initiated to study the effect of two non-iron-containing Ayurvedic preparations-Sootshekhar Rasa plus Sitopaladi Churna-in improving nutritional anemia among adolescent students.DESIGN: This was a single-blinded, randomized, controlled study.

SETTING:

The study setting was Dehradun district, North India.

SUBJECTS:

The subjects comprised a total of 1646 boys and girls, aged 11-18 years, attending school in Dehradun district.

INTERVENTION:

As per World Health Organization guidelines, a total of 1322 adolescent anemic students were randomly divided into 5 groups. Students of group I (control) received starch. Group II, III, and IV students received Sootshekhar Rasa (SR) plus Sitopaladi Churna (SC) in various combinations, namely, SR 125 mg + SC 500 mg daily, SR 250 mg + SC 400 mg daily, and SR 250 mg + SC 400 mg weekly, respectively. Group V student were given iron and folic acid tablet. All the students received treatment for 90 days and were followed up for the next 180 days.

OUTCOME MEASURE:

The outcome measure was to evaluate the effect of Sootshekhar Rasa plus Sitopaladi Churna in improving nutritional anemia.

RESULTS:

The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 81.3%. At baseline, the mean hemoglobin (Hb) was 97.4 +/- 13.2 g/L and ranged from 96.4 +/- 0.8 g/L to 98.3 +/- 0.8 g/L in various groups. At end of follow-up (day 270), a significant increase in Hb levels from baseline was observed in all treatment groups; however, the Hb gain (6.9 +/- 0.6 g/L) in group III and group V (3.64 +/- 0.56 g/L) differed significantly from the control group. A total of 155 students dropped out of the study due to various reasons not related to treatment. No adverse side-effect of Ayurvedic medication was noted in any student.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that a daily dose of Sootshekhar Rasa (250 mg) plus Sitopaladi Churna (400 mg) can produce sustainable improvement of nutritional anemia in adolescent students.

Prasad GP, Neelima G, Pratap GP, Swamy GK. VŗksAyurveda of paraśara—an ancient treatise on plant science. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2006;36(1):63-74. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

VŗksAyurveda of Paraśara is a great contribution to the Botany in ancient India. N.N. Sircar and Roma sarkar edited this text with English translation. Notes with comparative references of modern botany were added. This book can be placed in all probability in between 1st century B.C to 4th century A.D by its linguistic style. Many scientific branches of Botany including origin of life, ecology, distribution of forests, morphology, classification, nomenclature, histology and physiology were dealt in this ancient work. Though it is presumed that this book was written by Paraśara to teach Botany to preparatory to Ayurveda studies to ancient Ayurveda students, it is true to the Ayurveda personals and other disciplines related to Botany of present day as well. Aim of this Article is to attract the attention of all scholars who are related to Ayurveda and Botany and to feel the depth of the knowledge of ancient Indian botany.

Prasad GP, Sastri PS, Swamy RK. Bhisaksudharnavam--an unexplored precious Andhrasampradaya Ayurveda Grantha. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2005;35(1):77-82. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

In India many Ayurvedic books were written in regional languages like Telugu, Bengali, Orissa, Gujarati etc. Though some of them are very useful, due to lack of maintenance and improper protection many of them became extinct and some of them are on the verge of extinction. Bhisaksudharnavam is one among such books, which is on the verge of extinction, details of which are presented here.

Prasad PVV, Subhakta PKJ, Narayana Ala, Rao MM. Medico-historical study of Asvattha (Sacred Fig tree).Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2006; 36 (1):1-20.

Abstract.:

Asvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) is a tree which has got mythological religious and medicinal importance in Indian culture since ancient times. As per Vedic index Asvattha means horse stand, place or site or an object where or under which horses stand. Asvattha is also known as Pipal and Bodhidrma. This tree is the oldest depicted tree in India. In Vedic times it was used to make fire by friction and considered sacred. AtharvaVeda associates with the third heaven. It discusses medicinal properties of Asvattha along with Soma and Kustha. Asvattha is associated with the triad of Gods-Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Reference to Asvattha is found in Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavadgita, Buddhistric literature, Arthasatra, Puranas, Upanishds etc. Non medicalliturature also. According to Ayurveda it has several synonyms. Most of them symbolize its sacredness. Asvattha is useful in various ailments like consumption, vomiting, ulcers in oral cavity, burns, gynaecological problems etc. Thus its medico-historical importance, regional nomenclature, morphological features in brief etc. are being presented in this Article with few illustrations.

Prasad PVV, Subhakta PKJP, Narayana Ala, Rao MM. Palasa (Butea monosperma (LAMK.TAUB.) and its medico-historical study.Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2006;36 (2): 117-132.

Abstract.:

Palasa {Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub} is considered scared both by Hindus and Buddhists. It is known to the Hindus under the Sanskrit name Palasa as sit possesses valuable medicinal properties. This sacred tree is being called the treasurer of the Gods and of sacrifice. It grows throughout India except in very arid parts and is a medium sized deciduous tree. Parts used are bark, leaf, flower, seed and gum. It is mainly useful as anti helminthic appetizer, aphrodisiac, laxative etc. Thus its medico-historical aspects are being presented in this paper.

Rao MM, Bhattacharya P, Maity SK, Pandey DR, Hazra JR. Community Health Care Programme in rural areas in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal – A Report of some observations. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2003;24 (3-4): 114-125.

Abstract.

The community Health Care Programme was conducted in 12 villages of District North 24 Parganas of West Bengal, which includes personal interviews, group discussions, clinical evaluations, gathering information about the folklore etc. The studies were conducted from 1974 to 2000 in 12 villages within a distance of radius of 15 to 25 km. from Central Research Institute (Ay.) Kolkata. A total number of 16,143 individuals were studied and the treatment was provided to 6880 patients during the regular intervals. During this period, it was found that the prevalent diseases in the area were AmlaPitta (15.23%), Atisara (12.22%), Krimi (10.03%).Jwara (9.38%), Kasa (8.95%), Twak roga (8.05%), Kandu (4.78%), Pravahika (3.11%), Pradara roga (2.56%) and Grahani roga (1.97%). And it was observed that these diseases are mainly due to mal-nutrition, ignorance and poor hygienic conditions.

Rao M.M, Das B, Nanda GC, Padhi MM. The role of Pichu (Taila) application in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006; 27(1-2):41-51.

Abstract.

A pilot study was conducted to see the efficacy of “Pichu (Taila) application in the treatment Arsha (Haemorrhoids) at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Bhubaneswar. This obserVational (Pilot) study was conducted on 25 patients of Arsha as per the Proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 25 cases who received the above regimen, 80 percent cases got complete relief, 12 percent got marked relief and 8 percent got moderate relief. Analysis was made to assess the results in relation to various aspects including improvement in hemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in Arsha management

Rao MM, Deep VC, Padhi MM, Das B, Nanda GC, Sahu DP. Application of Leech therapy in the management of Svitra (Leukoderma). Aryavaidyan.2006;19( 3):144 – 147.

Abstract.

The once – reviled Leech (Hirudo medicinalis), recently lauded for it’s potential in preventing repeat heart attacks, 1 various skin diseases, Osteo-arthritis 2 could also have a role to play in the treatment of Switra (Leukoderma). During the period from Jan 2004 to Jan 2005 a total number of seven cases of switra was selected and used Leech therapy for a pilot study to see the effect on these patients. Out of seven cases, one case had developed normal skin colour, three cases developed pigmentation spots in fair number while remaining three cases only colour change was noticed from deep white to light pink colour. Since the study is an obserVational type, the authors feel more number of cases are needed to be studied to draw a conclusion.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P. A clinical study on the management of Arsha (haemorrhoids) by Ayurvedic drug regimen.Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006;27( 3-4).

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of “Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 230 patients of Arsha as per the protocol designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked relief, 14.78 percent got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out. Analysis was made to assess the results in relation to age, duration of illness, Type of Arsha, Type of Haemorrhoids and also in the improvement in +

530hemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in Arsha management.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P.Therapeutic evaluation of compound Ayurvedic formulations in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) - A Clinical Study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006;27( 3-4).

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of “ Kaseesadi taila vasti Kankayana Vati, Kravyadi Rasa, Abhayarishtam and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from August, 2000 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 182 patients of Arsha as per the protocol designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 182 cases who received the above regimen, 31.31 percent cases got complete relief, 29.12 percent got marked relief, 20.32 percent got moderate relief, 1.09 percent got mild relief, 0.54 percent go No relief while 15.93 percent were dropped out. It is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in the management of Arsha.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Maity SK, Pandey DR, Hazra JR. Study of Health Statistics in KHARI BARI Village of West Bengal under Mobile Clinical Research Programme with Special Reference to PRAKRITI – A Report of some observations. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha;27 ( 3-4): 30 – 47.

Abstract.

This paper covers the information regarding the health statistics, collected during the study conducted by the Mobile Clinical Research Unit of Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata under the Mobile Clinical Research Programme of the Council. The programme was aimed to study the role of Prakriti in relation to the Socio-economic and Demographic aspects, the relation between the food habits and the incidence of diseases, the nature and frequency of prevalent diseases, ways and means of prevention of diseases and maintenance of positive health. In addition to this the unit was given the task of collecting information regarding folklore claims, medical facilities available, maintaining contact with village vaidyas and providing incidental medical aid to the patients in the village itself.

Rao MM, Kar AC. Cerebral Palsy Syndrome : Management with Ayurvedic therapy. THE ANTI SEPTIC. 2006; 103 (3): 171-173.

Abstract.

Cerebral Palsy Syndromes, a term used broadly to describe a number of motor disorders characterized by impaired voluntary movement resulting from prenatal developmental abnormalities or perinatal or postnatal CNS damage occurring before age 5 yr. Many children with cerebral palsy have other problems that require treatment. These include mental retardation;learning disabilities;seizures;and vision, hearing and speech problems. An attempt has been made to treat a diagnosed case of 13 years male child diagnosed with cerebral palsy, which affected at the age of 3 yrs. with Ayurvedic methods of treatment which includes Oral medication and Panchakarma therapies and these therapies are found to be helpful in treating such cases without any risk.

Rao MM, Kar AC. Effect of Ayurvedic Panchakarma Therapy in improving the condition of Cerebellar Degeneration – A Case Report. THE ANTI SEPTIC. 2007;104(1): 51-52.

Abstract.

The disease of Cerebellar Degeneration is among the disorders that produce ’Ataxia’ i.e a disturbance of the accuracy and speed of voluntary movement, other symptoms can include difficulties with swallowing and slurred speech. Sight and hearing can be affected. It is a progressive disorder. And, while it is not fatal in itself, it place unbearable stress upon the heart. A male patient of 35 years diagnosed with Cerebellar degeneration with Ataxia, slurred speech, weakness in both legs and general weakness etc. was treated with Ayurvedic Panchakarma therapy and after completion of three cycles of therapy the MRI of Brain revealed that the Cerebellum is normal.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Devidas KV. Therapeutic evaluation of non-operative measures in the management of ParikArtika vis-à-vis fissure-in-Ano. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2002;23(1-2): 71-80.

Abstract.

A clinical study has been conducted on 50 patients of Fissure-in-ano in the Ano-Rectal Clinic of Central Research Institute (Ay), Calcutta. The observations and results were recorded under various parameters. A total number of 50 patients have been kept on conserVative treatment with medicines Kaseesadi taila vasti, hot sitz bath, and Jatyadi ghrita for per rectal application and Triphala churna as a laxative. The study was carried out on various parameters including the number of days taken to heal the fissure with alleviation of symptoms like pain etc. Out of 50 cases registered for the study, 31 cases have got complete relief, 13 cases got marked relief, 3 cases got moderate relief and 3 cases dropped out from the study.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Devidas KV. A Clinical study on the effect of Kravyadi ras, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2004;25(1-2):1-10.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of “Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 230 patients of Arsha as per the protocol designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked relief, 14.78 percent got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out. Analysis was made to assess the results in relation to age, duration of illness, Type of Arsha, Type of Haemorrhoids and also in the improvement in haemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in Arsha management.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P. A Clinical study on the effect of KankayanaVati,, Kaseesadi taila and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2004;25(3-4): 9 – 21.

Abstract.

A single blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of “Kankayana Vati, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) was carried out at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 247 patients of Arsha as per the proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 247 cases who received the above regimen, 42.91 percent patients got complete relief, 27.12% patients got marked relief, 10.93% patients got moderate relief, 4.04% patients got mild relief, 1.61% patients got No relief while 13.36% patients were dropped out. It is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in the management of Arsha.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Devidas KV. Clinical evaluation of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerpannag Rasa in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) .Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2005;26(1-2):1-15.

Abstract.

A single blind clinical trial on Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 157 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were administered Pippali Vardhamana Ksheerapaka + Sameerpannaga Rasa for the period of six weeks The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. Out of 157 cases, 27 had good response, 50 had fair response, 24 had poor response, 4 had no response while 55 cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the tried drug regimen is effective.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Clinical Evaluation of efficacy of Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2005;26(3-4):80-94.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of Shunti + Guggulu + Gotanti (SGG Yoga) combination in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 80 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were administered SGG Yoga for the period of six weeks The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. Out of 80 cases, 18 had good response, 25 had fair response, 17 had poor response, 02 had no response while 18cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the tried drug regimen is effective.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa vs. Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti in the management of Amavata, (Rheumatoid arthritis). 2006;27 (1-2):81-94.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa vs. Shunti + Guggulu+ Godanti in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 237 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were selected from the O.P.D. of the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were divided in two groups. In group – I, the patients were administered Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa and in group – II, Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti combination was administered. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. In group – I;Out of 157 cases, 15.28 percent had good response, 31.84 percent had fair response, 15.28 percent had poor response, 2.54 percent had no response while 35.03 percent cases were dropped out while in group – II;Out of 80 cases, 22.50 percent had good response, 31.25 percent had fair response, 21.25 percent had poor response, 2.5 percent had no response while 22.5 percent cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the efficacy of the Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti combination is more effective than that of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Shamana Chikitsa Vs. Shodhana Chikitsa (Vamana karma) in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2008;29(3):1-24.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of different drug combinations in different modes i.e. Shamana and Shodhana with reference to Vamana karma in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 478 cases were selected and kept in four groups (Shamana = 2 (A1, A2) + Shodhana = 2 (B1, B2) on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. In group – A1, the patients were administered Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameera pannaga Rasa;In Group – A2, Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti combination and in Group – B1, patients were subjected for Deepana + Pachana + Snehana + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana karma while in group –B2 patients were subjected for only Snehana + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana karma i.e without administration of Deepana-Pachana drugs. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. In group –A1;Out of 157 cases, 15.28 percent had good response, 31.84 percent had fair response, 15.28 percent had poor response, 2.54 percent had no response while 35.03 percent cases were dropped out while in group – A2;Out of 80 cases, 22.50 percent had good response, 31.25 percent had fair response, 21.25 percent had poor response, 2.5 percent had no response while 22.5 percent cases were dropped out. In group – B1; Out of 110 cases, 10 percent had good response, 59.09 percent had fair response, 19.09 percent had poor response, 7.27 percent had no response while 4.54 percent cases were dropped out while in group – B2;Out of 131 cases, 13.74 percent had good response, 57.24 percent had fair response, 20.21 percent had poor response, 5.34 percent had no response while 6.87 percent cases were dropped out. After analyzing the results it was concluded that the Shodhan Chikitsa (Vamana karma) is more effective than Shamana Chikitsa.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Vamana karma in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2008;29(3): 1-24.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of Vamana karma in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 131 cases was selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were admitted in the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were subjected for Vamana karma. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. Out of 131 cases, 18 had good response, 75 had fair response, 22 had poor response, 7 had no response while 9 cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the Vamana karma is effective in the management of Amavata..

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Vamana karma Without and with Deepana - Pachana in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(1): 27-48.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of Vamana karma in different modes i.e. after administration of Deepana – Pachana drugs and without administration of Deepana – Pachana drugs in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 241 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were admitted in the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were divided in to two groups. In group – I, the patients were subjected for Deepana+ Pachana+Snehana+Swedana+Vamana karma+Samsarjana karma and in group – II patients were subjected for only Snehana+Swedana+Vamana karma+Samsarjana karma i.e without administration of Deepana-Pachana drugs. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and recovery in E.S.R. In group – I;Out of 110 cases, 10 percent had good response, 59.09 percent had fair response, 19.09 percent had poor response, 7.27 percent had no response while 4.54 percent cases were dropped out while in group – II;Out of 131 cases, 13.74 percent had good response, 57.24 percent had fair response, 20.21 percent had poor response, 5.34 percent had no response while 6.87 percent cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the efficacy of the both drug regimens are equally effective in the management of Amavata and the vamana therapy showed encouraging results even in both groups.

Rao MM, Kar A.C, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Panchakarma therapy (Deepana - Pachana + Snehan + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana karma) in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(3):51-64.

Abstract.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of Panchakarma therapy with special reference to Deepana Pachana and Vamana karma in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute(Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 110 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the ‘American College of Rheumatology’ (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were admitted in the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were subjected for Deepana+ Pachana+Snehana+Swedana+Vamana karma+Samsarjana karma. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and recovery in E.S.R. Out of 110 cases, 11 had good response, 65 had fair response, 21 had poor response, 8 had no response while 5 cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the Pancha karma therapy (Vamana karma) is effective.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. The effect of Ayurvedic drug regimen in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids), - A comparative therapeutic study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.2009;30(4):77-92.

Abstract.:

A single blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of “Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala Churna in one group (Group-I) and Kankayana Vati, Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi Taila Vatti, Abhayarishtam and Triphala Churna in another group (Group-II) in the management of Arsha (Hemorrhoids) was carried out at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 412 patients of Arsha as per the proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi.Group-I: Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 31.31 percent cases got complete relief, 29.12 percent got marked relief, 20.32 percent got moderate relief, 1.092 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out.Group-II : Out of 182 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked relief. 14.78 percent got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, 0.54 percent of cases got no relief while 15.93 percent were dropped out. After analyzing the results it was observed that even though there was significant improvement in both the groups, there was observed a higher rate of improvement in Group-I than that of Group-II.

Rao MM, Rai SD, Sharma KR. Role of Teekshnakshara Bhavita Sutra in the management of Bhagandar (Fistulo-in-Ano).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.1999;21 (3-4):130-140.

Abstract.:

A clinical study has been conducted on 100 patients of fistla-in-ano in the Ano Rectal clinic of Shalya Shalakya department, Sir Sundarlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University. The observations were recorded under various parameters. The total of 100 patients have been divided into two groups of control (G-1) and treated (G-II) and 50 patients were kept in each group respectively. In G-1 the Standard Kshara Sutra (Apamarga Kshara +Snuhi Ksheera+ Haridra) was carried out on various parameters including unit cutting time in days/cm to assess the extract duration of the treatment.There were maximum 71 patients diagnosed as Parisravi Bhagandara. 11 cases were Shatapanak and 18 cases were diagnosedas Ushtravagreeva Bhagandara. The maximum 65 patients were suffering from low-anal fistula, 26 patients with high-anal fistula, 6 patients were cutaneuous and 3 patients with sub mucuous fistulae were reported. The average unit cutting time in control group was found to be6.6 days/cm, while in treated groups, the average UCT was just 5.0 days/cm.

Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ. Indian systems of medicine: a brief profile. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(3):319-37. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Medicinal plants based traditional systems of medicines are playing important role in providing health care to large section of population, especially in developing countries. Interest in them and utilization of herbal products produced based on them is increasing in developed countries also. To obtain optimum benefit and to understand the way these systems function, it is necessary to have minimum basic level information on their different aspects. Indian Systems of Medicine are among the well known global traditional systems of medicine. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide general information pertaining to different aspects of these systems. This is being done to enable the readers to appreciate the importance of the conceptual basis of these system in evolving the material medica. The aspects covered include information about historical background, conceptual basis, different disciplines studied in the systems, Research and Development aspects, Drug manufacturing aspects and impact of globalization on Ayurveda. In addition, basic information on Siddha and Unani systems has also been provided.

Samy RP, Pushparaj PN, Gopalakrishnakone P. A compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda. Bioinformation.2008;3(3):100-10. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal plants in Ayurvedic systems of medicine in India and their earlier investigation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products of Ayurveda in Western countries, because of the fact that the allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurvedic Phytopharmaceutical products. Ayurveda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. Different type of plant parts used for the Ayurvedic formulation; overall out line of those herbal scenario and its future prospects for the scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India most of them, where Ayurvedic treatment is frequently used, for their ailments and provides instructions to local people how to prepare medicine from the herbs. As much as possible importance is also given for the taxonomic literature.

Sannd Rajesh, Acharya M V, Clinical Effect of 'BRYT' formula as a supportive therapy along with the Conventional regimen on Gulma, Arbuda, with special reference to Cancer. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2000;21(3-4):148-158.

Abstract.

Cancer is a large mortality problem all over the world. The conventional treatment such as Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with fatal side effects, hence fail to give a comprehensive treatment for Cancer. Aetiopathogenasis of Gulma, arbuda resemble that of Cancer. Herbo-mineral drugs are advocated to treat these ailments. Out of these, ‘BRYT’ formula was tried as independent as well as a supportive therapy to the conventional treatments. The formula consists of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f.), Rohitaka (Aphanamixis polystachia Wall.), YashtiMadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) and Tamra bhasma.The study was carried out on 400 patients under 7 groups by Dr. G.C. PRasad et. al. at Institute of Medical Sciences. B.H.U.Varanasi. They were assessed by their general body health including body weight, Hb. GABA (Gama amino butyric acid) and GAD (glutamate decarboxylase) estimation and life span of the patient.It was observed that the patients treated with ‘BRYT’ formula as a supportive therapy to the conventional therapies lead better and longer life devoid of side effects of the treatment as compare to those received only either conventional treatment of ‘BRYT’ formula.

Sannd Rajesh, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv, Bikshapathi T. Clinical effect of Arkakit Nasya in the management of Epilepsy A case study. Scientific Journal of Panchkarma. 2007;8(1):13-14

Abstract.

Apasmara is categorised as a Mansik Roga. This symptomatology resembles with that of Grand mal Epilepsy, now known as Tonic Clonic Epilepsy. Verbal meaning of epilepsy is tendency of having seizure. A number of medicines are enlisted to treat the disease. But these drugs are not free from side effects. They have mild to severe side effects depending upon dose and type of medicine used. Most common side effects are, giddiness, dizziness, nausea, dependency and over reactivity.The present case is a 4 yrs old female child who was having seizure since birth. She was diagnosed for Myocolonic epilepsy at the age of 3 ½ months. The EEG revealed disturbed sleep pattern with excessive high potential discharge in the whole brain. The frequency of discharge was from 3 sec. to 9 sec.which remained for 1.5 to 3 sec. The CT scan and MRI of brain showed no anatomical abnormality. The medicine used to treat the case was Ark Keet. The reference is found in MEGH VINOD, a book written by Muni Megh Raj (461/48). The old plants of Calotropis procera were uprooted and the insects were collected from there. These were placed in a box. After few days they died and turned into a pungent smelling powder. The powder was given as Nasya in the morning for 40 days. No other medicine was given during the treatment. There is a seizure threshold of brain. When this seizure threshold is lowered these become visible. . The pungent smelling powder, which is an animal product, might be having some effect that could reduce the electrical discharges from the brain cells as evident from the EEG after the treatment, or might have increased the seizure threshold and the patient did not suffer the seizure.

Saper RB, Phillips RS, Sehgal A, Khouri N, Davis RB, Paquin J, Thuppil V, Kales SN. Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold via the Internet. JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):915-23. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

CONTEXT:

Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the practice of Rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the prevalence of Ayurvedic medicines available via the Internet containing detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic and to compare the prevalence of toxic metals in US- vs Indian-manufactured medicines and between Rasa shastra and non-Rasa shastra medicines.

DESIGN:


A search using 5 Internet search engines and the search terms Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine identified 25 Web sites offering traditional Ayurvedic herbs, formulas, or ingredients commonly used in Ayurveda, indicated for oral use, and available for sale. From 673 identified products, 230 Ayurvedic medicines were randomly selected for purchase in August-October 2005. Country of manufacturer/Web site supplier, Rasa shastra status, and claims of Good Manufacturing Practices were recorded. Metal concentrations were measured using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Prevalence of medicines with detectable toxic metals in the entire sample and stratified by country of manufacture and Rasa shastra status.

RESULTS:

One hundred ninety-three of the 230 requested medicines were received and analyzed. The prevalence of metal-containing products was 20.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2%-27.1%). The prevalence of metals in US-manufactured products was 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-30.4%) compared with 19.5% (95% CI, 11.3%-30.1%) in Indian products (P = 0.86). Rasa shastra compared with non-Rasa shastra medicines had a greater prevalence of metals (40.6% vs 17.1%; P = .007) and higher median concentrations of lead (11.5 microg/g vs 7.0 microg/g; P = .03) and mercury (20,800 microg/g vs 34.5 microg/g; P = .04). Among the metal-containing products, 95% were sold by US Web sites and 75% claimed Good Manufacturing Practices. All metal-containing products exceeded 1 or more standards for acceptable daily intake of toxic metals.CONCLUSION: One-fifth of both US-manufactured and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the Internet contain detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic.

Sharma H, Chandola HM, Singh G, Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease. Part 1--Ayurveda, the science of life. J Altern Complement Med.2007;13(9):1011-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Ayurveda is a natural health care system that originated in India more than 5000 years ago. Its main objective is to achieve optimal health and well-being through a comprehensive approach that addresses mind, body, behavior, and environment. Ayurveda emphasizes prevention and health promotion, and provides treatment for disease. It considers the development of consciousness to be essential for optimal health and meditation as the main technique for achieving this. Treatment of disease is highly individualized and depends on the psychophysiologic constitution of the patient. There are different dietary and lifestyle recommendations for each season of the year. Common spices are utilized in treatment, as well as herbs and herbal mixtures, and special preparations known as Rasayanas are used for rejuvenation, promotion of longevity, and slowing of the aging process. A group of purification procedures known as Panchakarma removes toxins from the physiology. Whereas Western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, Ayurveda demonstrates an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to. It may be projected from Ayurveda's comprehensive approach, emphasis on prevention, and ability to manage chronic disorders that its widespread use would improve the health status of the world's population.

Sharma H, Chandola HM, Singh G, Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease.Part 2--Ayurveda in primary health care. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(10):1135- 50. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system that originated in India more than 5000 years ago. It is still widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide as well. Ayurveda has unique concepts and methodologies to address health care throughout the course of life, from pregnancy and infant care to geriatric disorders. Common spices are utilized, as well as herbs, herbal mixtures, and special preparations known as Rasayanas. Purification procedures known as Panchakarma remove toxins from the physiology. Research has been conducted worldwide on Ayurveda. There are encouraging results for its effectiveness in treating various ailments, including chronic disorders associated with the aging process. Pilot studies presented in this paper were conducted on depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. These preliminary studies yielded positive results and provide a basis for conducting larger, more rigorous clinical trials. Conducting research that compares Ayurveda's comprehensive treatment approach, Western allopathic treatment, and an integrated approach combining the Ayurvedic and allopathic treatments would shed light on which treatment approach is the most effective for the benefit of the patient.

Shi Y, Sahu RP, Srivastava SK. Triphala inhibits both in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth of pancreatic tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:294-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

BACKGROUND:

Triphala is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat variety of diseases; however its mechanism of action remains unexplored. This study elucidates the molecular mechanism of Triphala against human pancreatic cancer in the cellular and in vivo model.

METHODS:

Growth-inhibitory effects of Triphala were evaluated in Capan-2, BxPC-3 and HPDE-6 cells by Sulphoradamine-B assay. Apoptosis was determined by cell death assay and western blotting. Triphala was administered orally to nude mice implanted with Capan-2 xenograft. Tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.

RESULTS:

Exposure of Capan-2 cells to the aqueous extract of Triphala for 24 h resulted in the significant decrease in the survival of cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 microg/ml. Triphala-mediated reduced cell survival correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Triphala-induced apoptosis was linked with phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and ERK at Thr-202/Tyr-204 in Capan-2 cells. Above mentioned effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS generation. Pretreatment of cells with pifithrin-alpha or U0126, specific inhibitors of p53 or MEK-1/2, significantly attenuated Triphala-induced apoptosis. Moreover, NAC or U0126 pretreatment significantly attenuated Triphala-induced p53 transcriptional activity. Similarly, Triphala induced apoptosis in another pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 by actiVating ERK. On the other hand, Triphala failed to induce apoptosis or activate ERK or p53 in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-6) cells. Further, oral administration of 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg Triphala in PBS, 5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft. Reduced tumor-growth in Triphala fed mice was due to increased apoptosis in the tumors cells, which was associated with increased activation of p53 and ERK.

CONCLUSION:

Our preclinical studies demonstrate that Triphala is effective in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in both cellular and in vivo model. Our data also suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of Triphala is mediated by the activation of ERK and p53 and shows potential for the treatment and/or prevention of human pancreatic cancer.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Rao MM. Rationality of using different oils and fats for human body. Arya Vaidyan. 2004;18(1): 51-53.

Abstract.:

The significance of the use of oils is very far above the ground in Ayurveda. Most of the Ayurvedic preparations are based on soils and oil itself is considered as a medicine in Ayurveda. In this paper the authors attempt to standardize oils obtained from different sources with the support of contemporary knowledge.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Hazra J, Alam MM, Rao MM. Clinical evaluation of Arogyavardhini Vati, Kaishore Guggulu and Chakarmardakera taila in the management of kitibha (Psoriasis).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.2007;28(No. 1-2):61 – 71.

Abstract.:

Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent intractable disease with worldwide distribution. It consists of almost 10% of all skin disorders. The illusion of treating Psoriasis continuous and limitations of conventional modalities and disillusionment with systemic modalities like lever scare of methatrexate. Mutugenic potential of PUVA skeletal toxicity of retinoid and local systematic side/ toxic effects of corticoSteroids necessitate search for newer and safer drugs. Preliminary clinical trials with Kaishore Guggulu, Arogyavardhini and Mimbudin were conducted by peripheral Institutes. Functioning under CCRAS and results were encouraging . The present study with Arogyvardhini Vatti, Kaishore Guggulu and Chakarmardakera Tail a revealed 13 cases having good response, 23 cases having fair response, 12 having poor response, only 02 having no response and 07 cases were dropped out.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Hazra J, Alam MM, Tewari NS, Rao MM. Clinical evaluation of Kanchanar Guggulu and gokshuradi Guggulu in the management of manifested case of Slipada (Filariasis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2008;29(2): 39 – 47.

Abstract.:

Slipada (Filariasis) is mosquito borne disease which initially either remains latent or presents ambiguous features whn manifested. The pitting oedema or progressive hardened swelling becomes irreversible in proportion to duration of the disease. As such in chronic manifested stage, very few medicines are likely to bring about complete recovery or to prevent the episodes. So the drugs likely to act in chronic dormant stage are supposed to have anti tumour, anti inflammatory and diuretic effect. N this series, Kanchnar Guggulu and Goksuradi Guggulu were put to clinical trial in 50 patients of chronic manifested Slipada (Filariasis). Considering prognosis of the disease the result seems encouraging since only with a 4 weeks course of treatment 32% of patients had good response, 44% patients had Fair rspsonse. 16% had poor response, 2% had no response and 6% were dropped out.

Srikanth N, Mangal AK, Lavekar GS. An Insight on Indigenous Ophthalmic Medicinal Flora: An Ayurvedic Pharmacological Basis. Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2005; 26(3-4):65-74.

Abstract.

This contribution highlights hidden knowledge about various ophthalmic plant drugs scattered elsewhere in various corners of ancient literatures of Ayurveda and provides the basic knowledge concerning ophthalmic drugs found in medical classics of ancient and medieval period, which forms a base for further research and validation. An attempt has also made to classify the Ayurvedic ophthalmic plants drugs based on their mode of action with Ayurvedic Pharmacological basis.

Srikanth N, Mangal AK, Lavekar GS. Scientific exposition of medicinal plants in painful ophthalmic conditions: An Ayurvedic Pharmacological perspective. Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2007; 28(3-4): 25-40.

Abstract.

Antiquity of ophthalmic use of medicinal plants goes back to the period of (1000 B.C.). A mention of different analgesic ophthalmic drugs is found in Garudapurana. The present work aims at exposition of hidden knowledge about single ophthalmic plant drugs indicated in “ocular pain” scattered elsewhere in ancient and medieval Ayurvedic literature and to impart the basic knowledge concerning these drugs which forms a base for further research and revalidation. A special edition has also been made to analyse these drugs based on Pharmacodynamic/kinetic principles mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacology, to arrive rational conclusions concerning the probable mode of action of these agents and creating possible basis for formulation of strategy for developing appropriate topical drops and oral dosage forms to achieve ocular analgesia without adverse effects.

Srikanth N, Venkateswarlu B, Singh Rajesh.Jirinkalgikar Nikhil, Rao MM, Haripriya N, Sharma MM, Sharma BS, Narayana Ala. Reflective note on Aroamatic plants cited in Sarvaushadhi Guna Kalpakam : A Telugu compendium on Ayurveda Materia Medica.Journal of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2008;38 (1): 41-54.

Abstract.:

The antiquity of use of medicinal and aromatic plants, poly herbal, mineral based formulations for therapeutic and cosmetic purpose goes back to the Vedic period (6000 BC) Ayurvedic classics further detail about varied applications of aroma in environmental and public health, pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. The scope and therapeutic utility of Aromatic Plants further expanded at a large as a result of continuous additions from experimental research outcome, experimental knowledge and documented as codified texts. Sarvausadhi Guna Kalpakam adds to such works of modern period on medicinal and aromatic plants. A special chapter entitled “Sugandhi Dravyaguna Manjari” is dedicated to describe details of aromatic plants, animal products and minerals. Here an attempt has been made to place a note on aromatic medicinal plants described in Sarvausadhi Guna Kalpakam that could serve as a basic document to scientists, scholars and physicians for their ready reference and further utility in research, clinical practice, etc.

Srikanth N, Venkateswarlu B, Rao MM, Haripriya. An insightful Exposition on Sarvaushadhi Guna Kalpakam: A less familiar compendium on Ayurvedic Materia Medica. . 2008;38(2):171-178.

Abstract.:

The plants, metals, minerals and animal products have been in vogue since centuries for the prevention, management and cure of illness of human kind. Nighantu have added much to the indigenous pharmacopeia in addition to the inherent knowledge of Vedic and Samhita periods. Moreover eminent scholars of modern era have significantly contributed to the enrichment of Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia through systematic documentation and presentation of information in user friendly manner for easy browsing. Sarvausadi Guna Kalpakam is one such unique contribution of modern period on Ayurvedic Materia Medica available in Telugu Scrip. An attempt has been made to place a brief account on the methodology and contents of the text that would facilitate the scientists, physicians and research scholars for proper utilization of this knowledge.

Varanasi Subhose, Narayana Ala, Bhatnagar VK, Rao MM. Biography of Sodhala and his contribution to Ayurveda. Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35 (1):43-62.

Abstract.:

Sodhala was a scholar of Ayurveda as well as Sahitya Jyotisya, Vyakarna and also a good poet who belongs to Gujarate. Sodhala contributed two important works to Ayurveda literature namely 1. Sodhala Nighantu, 2 Godanigraha.Sodhala Nighantu consists of two parts and contains about 2.050(790+1,260) verses. Te section on synonyms, the Namasangraha, and the other one is on properties and actions of drugs, the Gunasangraha. The arrangement of the material constitutes an unprecedented innoVation in the literature of Nighantu (Ayurveda drug’s lexicons or dictionaries). The Gadanigraha is composed of two district parts and contains about 10,054 (2700+7354) versus. The first part is a collection of formulae arranged according to the several types of pharmaceutical preparations and the second one is a comprehensive text dealing with both Nidana and Chikitsa arranged as for the Astangas (8 major divisions) of Ayurveda. The work seems to be later than SodhalaNighantu because most of the drugs mentioned in this work are not found in the SodhalaNighantu. The diseases are arranged in systematically which is a new feature and their order is differ from MadhavaNidana. From the available evidences we can assume that Sodhala might be belongs to 1200 AD The contributions of Sodhala are noteworthy and they are important landmark works in history of Ayurveda.

Varanasi Subhose, Saket Ram T, Bhatnagar VK, Narayana Ala, Rao MM. A Review of Brahmavaivarta purana (BVP) with Reference to Ayurveda. Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2007; 37 (1).

Abstract.:

Brahmavaivaartapurana is one of the important Mahapurana, which is considered as a Vaisnavapurana. The text is divided into four parts called Khanda i.e. Brahmha, Prakrti, Ganapati and SrikrsnajanmaKhanda. The total number of chapters are 276 and comprising about 20,500 verses. Brahmavaivartapurana comprises both ancient and medieval materials. It considers Ayurveda as Pancama Veda and devoted 16th chapter of Brahmakhanda which describes the origin of Ayurveda its propagators headed by Bhaskara (sun God) and his 16 students and they corresponding books in detail. An account of the Jvara (fever) and other diseases, Dinacarya (daily routine), Ritucharya (seasonal regimen), Tridosa (three humours), their Prakopa (Vitiation and prashamana (Pilliation) etc. are described in this book. BVP deals with the do’s and don’t’s of food intake, sleep and sexual indulgence in detail which are deemed to be Trayopasthamba (three sub pillars of health). The book provides an account of Plant Tulsi’s origin and its spiritual importance Prakriti (Nature’s) origins, Paricamahabhuta nature of the body are described in PrakritiKhanda. At the flag end of the book there is a legend describing the origin of Lord Dhanvantari and describes his scholarship in the field of Veda and Sastra. On the whole purana provides glimpse of the life style of a Vaisnava devoutee and the people of the time when it was compiled. It serves the purpose of a practical manual to lead a healthy life and ensure spiritual growth in the life of any individual who believes in the precepts of this book.

Venkateswarlu B,Vasanth P, Srikanth N,Rao MM, Padhi MM. Musali - A Medico-Historical Review. Journal of Indian Institute of History of Medicine.2008;38(1): 55-70.

Abstract.:

Musali is a Sukrala dravya (Aphrodisiac drug) and number of formulations mentioned in the classics with Musali as one of the ingredients. There are two varieties of Musali are mentioned in BhavaprakasaNighantu viz. Sapheda Musali and Kali Musali. Various botanical sources for both Sapheda and Kali Musali have been described in the literature. The actual botanical source of Sapheda Musali is tuberous roots of Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Tuberous roots of different Chlorophytum species are also sold under the name of Sapheda Musali, as the description of Sapheda Musali in the classics can also be attributed to Cholorophytum species. Botanical source of Kali Musali is tuberous roots of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. A detailed account Musali covering multiple aspects. viz. synonyms, properties, actions and indications of Musali, reasons for different botanical sources of Musali has been made which would help academicians, scholars, scientists pharmaceutical industries etc. for further exhaustive review comprising medico-historical etymological, botanical, Pharmacological aspects from ancient and contemporary literatures would provide a clarity in identification of the plant.




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