Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121(5):683-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime alertness. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric population.
Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three groups i.e.Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda (a herbal preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated for self-assessment of sleep over a one week period at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions.
The Yoga group showed a significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average decrease: 10 min, P<0.05), an increase in the total number of hours slept (approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of being rested in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months. The other groups showed no significant change.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION:
Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.
Gupta V, Bansal P, Garg A, Meena A K. “Pharmacopoeial Standardisation of Hibiscuss rosasinensis. Linn”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research;200;1(3):124-126.
The present communication attempts to investigate pharmacognostical and phytochemical details of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn. (Malvaceae):. Results of microscopic studies of leaf show chained midrib of leaf, small and numerous epidermal cells, calcium oxalate crystals and absence of trichomes on both upper and lower surface. The Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, proteins and amino acids in chloroform and alcoholic extract out of six extraction solvents used for these studies. HPTLC studies reveal that alcoholic extract gives 8 spots and chloroform extract depicts 5 spots on the TLC plate. Powdered drug analysis after treatment with 17 different reagents emitted various colour radiations under UV and visible light which may provide a lead in identification of the drug in powder form. The study revealed specific identities for Hibiscus rosa- sinensis, Linn which may play a key role in identification of plant and can be useful in standardization of the herbal drugs.
Khatoon S, Rai V, Rawat AK, Mehrotra S. Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species. J EthnoPharmacol. 2006;104(1-2):79-86. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Different species of Phyllanthus are considered to be very effective hepatoprotective agents in the Indian indigenous systems of medicine and are considered bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, deobstruant and antiseptic. Still Ayurvedic practitioners prescribed fresh juice of 'Bhuiamlki' for jaundice. Various species of Phyllanthus are being sold in India under the trade name 'Bhuiamlki'. During market surveillance of herbal drug, it was observed that almost all the commercial samples, either comprise of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn. or Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. or mixture of Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis. Therefore, in this context the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of all the three species has been carried out with the aim to establish the identification markers of this important hepatoprotective agent (effective in hepatitis B too). The study conclude that all the three species can be differentiated on the basis of macro and microscopic characters, physico-chemical values, HPTLC fingerprint profile, and detection of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin as marker components. Besides, an interesting conclusion can also be drawn that phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin said to protect hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine induced toxicity, may not be exclusively responsible for hepatoprotective activity as these are present only in Phyllanthus amarus while Phyllanthus fraternus and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis also possess significant hepatoprotective activity.
Lobo R, Prabhu KS, Shirwaikar A, Shirwaikar A. Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (whiteturmeric): a review of its chemical, Pharmacological and ethnomedicinal properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61(1):13-21. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Curcuma zedoaria Rosc is a perennial herb found in tropical countries, such as India, Japan and Thailand. Various parts of this plant are used in Ayurveda and other folk medicines for the treatment of different ailments such as diarrhoea, cancer, flatulence and dyspepsia. This study is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of C. zedoaria that covers its traditional and folk medicinal uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology.KEY FINDINGS: Research carried out using different in-vitro and in-vivo techniques of biological evaluation supports most of the claims. SUMMARY: This review presents the botany, chemistry, traditional uses and Pharmacological data of the plant.
Mangal AK, Das MN. Comparative powdered drug analysis of aerial and underground roots of Ficus rumphii (Ashmantaka). Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2001; 22(1-4):99-106.
Ficus rumphii Blume. (Ashmantaka), a moderate size tree occurs throughout India. Root of this tree is considered as emetic and anthelmintic and used in asthma and snake-bite. This paper describes microscopic and fluorescence characters of aerial and underground roots of Ficus rumphii, along with their ash and extractive values. This study will help to identify and differentiates both type of the roots (Aerial and Underground) from each other.
From the foregoing observations it is possible to distinguish the powder drug of aerial and underground materials. The diagnostic characters of the two powder materials are shown below:
(I) Parenchyma cells are thick and rectangular in aerial roots and thin and rounded in underground roots.
(II) The cork cells of aerial roots are longer as compared with underground roots.
(III) The pitted cells are present in aerial roots and absent in underground roots.
(IV) Fibres are present in both types of root powder, but, varying in size. The pitted fibres are present only in aerial roots.
(V) Pitted scalariform, pitted reticulate vessels are present in underground roots.
(VI) Selereids are present in both types of powder drugs. Pitted selereids are absent in underground roots.
(VII) Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals are present in both types, but longer in aerial roots.
(VIII) 80% ethanol extracts of both the root powder show maximum fluorescence and under long U.V. radiations.
(IX) Ash values (Total and acid insoluble) are more in underground roots but the extractive values (Water soluble and ethanol soluble) are more in aerial roots.
Mangal AK, Das MN. Pharmacognostic Studies of Melaleuca leucodendron Linn. Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2002; 23(1-4):11-19.
Cajuput (Melaleuca leucodendron Linn.) is an important plant drug of Ayurveda. The drugs consist of leaves and seeds. The present communication deals with morphological, microscopical characters and their quantitative data, cell contents, powdered drug analysis of authentic samples of Melaleuca leucodendron authentication of the commercial sample used in the Indian system of medicine.Leaf may easily be identified by thick walled cuticularised epidermis, parenchymatous ground tissue having collateral vascular bundle surrounded by fibrous bundle sheath having scalariform and thickened vessels. Mesophyll region is often invested with large parenchyma cells containing lemon yellow oil droplets. Stomata are of anomocytic type on both the surfaces differing in their size and frequency. Clustered and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are present in the mesophyll region.Seeds are characterized by seed-coat consisting of thick-walled pitted selereids varying in shape and size, vascular supply through spirally thickened vessels. Solitary tetragonal crystals of calcium oxalate are also present.
Meena A K, Rao M M, Komal Preet, Padhi M M, Singh Arjun, Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants Used In Ayurvedic Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(2): 58-60.
The present Article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb.Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value. Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.
Meena A K, Rao M M, Krishna C M, Komalpreet, Sunil K N, Padhi M M, Babu Ramesh. Evaluation of Phamacognostic and Physicochemical parameters of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(1):41-47.
Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth is commonly known as Kutki belonging to family Scrophulariaceae. It is useful as a laxative, liver-stimulant, improving lactation, appetite stimulant, fabrifuge and as beneficial in bronchial asthma. This plant is native to the Himalayan region and is part of Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for various diseases. The leaf, bark and the underground parts of the plant, mainly rhizomes are widely used in the traditional Indian (Ayurvedic): systems of medicine since ancient times. Rhizomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth plant material was subjected to microscopic characterization and physico-chemical studies. TLC has also been studied to fix the quality standards of this drug. The experiment has revealed a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardization. Photomicrography and TLC profile were employed to fix standards. In this Article attempt has been made to standardize the Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth obtained from reliable source for its physico-chemical parameters like loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract, pH etc.
Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanajeet, Pal Bhavana, Singh Brijendra. “Moringa oleifera – A review” Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010;3 (4):840-842.
Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of “healthful” food who are now promoting M. oleifera. Over the past two decades, many reports have prepared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties.M. oleifera is a tropical tree whose numerous economic
applications and facility of propagation are arousing growing international interest.
Meena A K, Saraswathy A, Shakila R, Sunil Kumar KN, Ariyanathan S, Pharmacognostic studies on Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. root bark. Journal of pharmacognocy. 2010;2(11):374-380.
Root bark of Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. (Family Alangiaceae): is a reputed drug mentioned in the ancient books of Ayurveda and Siddha for the treatment of epilepsy, jaundice, hepatitis etc. Root bark of the plant was subjected to macro-microscopic, photomicrographic, physico-chemical, fluorescence, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix quality standards for this drug. Microscopic studies have shown stratified phellem, rhytidome, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and uni- to triseriate medullary rays in the root bark. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol extracts and alkaloid fraction revealed characteristic chromatographic patterns with presence of alkaloids in varying concentrations. This study would be useful in the identification and authentication of the raw drug.
Meena A K, Singh Brijendra, Kaur Ramanjeet ,Ayush, Pal Bhavana, Niranjan Uttam S, Yadav AK and Nagariya AK. Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Studies on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Root. Drug Invention Today.2010;2(4):217-219.
Plumbago zeylanica L.(family: Plumbaginaceae): is an important medicinal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Roots of this plant are the most frequently used plant parts which have traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, such as dyspepsia, piles, diarrhoea, skin diseases, leprosy and rheumatism. Roots are also reported to posses antibacterial, antifungal, abortifacient. Root of plant material was subjected to macro-microscopic, physico-chemical, preliminary phytochemical, TLC to fix the quality standards of this drug. The experiment has resulted a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardization. Photomicrography, TLC. The experiments yielded a set of diagnostic characters like cork cell, stone cell, parenchyma. This study would be useful for standardization of this raw drug derived from root of Plumbago zeylanica L.
Meena A. K.Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Sandeep, Kiran, Rao M. M.. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters on the fruit of Terminalia bellirica roxb. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2 (2):97-99.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia bellirica Roxb.Combretaceae family. Bibhitaka is a large tree, up to 40m height. Leaves petiolate, broadly elliptic, clustered towards the end of branches, Flowers greenish yellow, in solitary, simple, axillaries spikes, Fruits globular;1.5‐2.5 cm in diam.obscurely 5 ‐ angled when dry. It is found in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India, but not in the arid regions, in areas of Upper Gangtic Plain, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chittagong, Konkan, Deccan, S.M. country and most of the part of South India. The mostly part used Fruit, Seed and Bark. The bark is mildly diuretic and is useful in anaemia and leucoderma. Fruits are astringent, acrid, sweet, thermogenic use as anti‐inflammatory digestive, anthelmintic, expectorant and antipyretic, antiemetic. They are useful in cough asthma, bronchitis, ophthalmic disorders, skin diseases, ulcers. The oil obtained from seeds is trichogenous and is useful in dyspepsia, skin diseases, leucoderma and greyness of hair. As there is no detailed standardization work
reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.
Newmaster G Steven, Murugesan Maruthakkutti, Ragupathy Subramanyam, Nallasamy Nagarajan, Balasrbramaniam Velusamy.Ethnobotany genomics study reveals three new species of the genyus Biophytum DC. (Oxalidaceae-Geraniales) friom Velliangiri hills in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.Etnobotany.2009;21:1-10.
Our research utilized Traditional Tribal Knowledge (TK) and Scientific Knowledge (SK) to explore the relationship between scientific and trible system of botanical classification and the corresponding valorisation(s) of biological diversity in the western Ghats of southern India. We worked with two tribal communities, namely, ‘Irulas’ and ‘Malasars’ of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve with an objective of evaluating the ability of different Knowledge system (SK and TK) to distinguish species belonging to the genus Biophytum. We discovered that the tribal informats identified three ethnotaxa representing three new species, namely, Biophytum velliangirianum, B. tamilnadense, which we confirmed using quantitative morphometric analysis of the taxomic evidence including comparisons with several closely related taxa: Biophytum insignis Gamble, B. longipedunculatum Govind. And Biophytum proliferum (Arn.) Wight. The recognition of these taxa has several consequences for conservation of plant diversity in the Nilgiri Biosphere and possible applications to society-at- large given the ethnobiological importance of these new taxa to the local tribals.
Toh May Fern, Burdette Joanna E. Identifying botanical mechanisms of action. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):67-70.
The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine Pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines.
Achenbach H, Hubner H, Brandt W, Reiter M. Cardioactive steroid saponins and other constituents from the aerial parts of Tribulus cistoides. Phytochemistry.2009;35(6):1527-43. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
From the petrol extract of the aerial parts of Tribulus cistoides three steroid sapogenins and two N-acyltyramines were isolated, whereas the methanolic extract gave nine steroid saponins, among them the cardioactive cistocardin, saponin-3, saponin-4 and saponin-7. Furthermore, a furostanol diglycoside was isolated besides 5'-(hydroxysulphonyloxy) jasmonic acid, D-(+)-pinitol and sucrose. The structures were established by spectroscopic investigations of the isolated compounds and their hydrolysis products. 5'-(Hydroxysulphonyloxy) jasmonic acid has been prepared by pArtial synthesis.
Ahmed R, Ali Z, Wu Y, Kulkarni S, Avery MA, Choudhary MI, Khan IA. Chemical Characterization of a Commercial Commiphora wightii Resin Sample and Chemical Profiling to Assess for Authenticity. Planta Med. 2011. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
The gum resin of “COMMIPHORA WIGHTII” [(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.] is an Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, inflammation, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases and is known as guggul. Morphologically, it is not easy to distinguish guggul from closely related gum resins of other plants. Reliability of the commercially available guggul is critical due to the high risk of adulteration. To check authenticity, a commercial guggul sample was investigated for its chemical markers and 17 metabolites were identified, including three new, 20( S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene ( 1), 8 β-hydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4,6-diene ( 2), and 5-(13' Z-nonadecenyl)resorcinol ( 17) from the ethyl acetate soluble part. During the current study, compounds 14- 17 were identified as constituents of “MANGIFERA INDICA” gum, as an adulterant in the commercial guggul sample. This discovery highlighted the common malpractices in the trade of medicinal raw material in the developing world. The structures of the compounds were deduced by the spectroscopic technique and chemical methods, as well as by comparison with the reported data. The structure of 20( S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene ( 1) was also unambiguously deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique.
Anandjiwala S, Kalola J, Rajani M. Quantification of eugenol, luteolin,ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black (Krishna Tulsi) and green (Sri Tulsi)varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using high performance thin-layer chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2006;89(6):1467-74. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Ocimum sanctum (family Lamiaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda, commonly known as Tulsi. In the present work, we quantified 4 marker compounds, viz.eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, from the leaf of green and black varieties of O. sanctum using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with densitometry. The methods were found to be precise, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intraday analyses in the range of 0.52 to 0.91%, 0.77 to 1.29%, 0.11 to 0.16%, and 0.34 to 0.42% and for interday analyses in the range of 0.73 to 0.96%, 1.02 to 2.08%, 0.11 to 0.12%, and 0.39 to 0.64% for different concentrations of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Instrumental RSD values were 0.24, 0.39, 0.21, and 0.18% for eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Accuracy of the methods was checked by conducting a recovery study at 3 different levels for the 4 compounds, and the average recoveries were found to be 99.73, 99.3, 100.58, and 100.57%, respectively. Eugenol content ranged from 0.175 to 0.362% (w/w) and luteolin from 0.019 to 0.046% (w/w) in the samples analyzed. Green variety was found to contain higher amounts of ursolic acid [0.478 and 0.348% (w/w), from Sources 1 and 2, respectively] than the black variety [0.252 and 0.264% (w/w) from Sources 1 and 2, respectively]. Black variety had 0.174 and 0.218% (w/w) of oleanolic acid from Sources 1 and 2, respectively, while it was not detected in the green variety. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid ran at the same Rf value and could not be resolved in several solvent systems tried. However, we observed that only ursolic acid gave yellow fluorescence under 366 nm ultraviolet light after deriVatization with anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent. The HPTLC-densitometry methods for the quantification of the 4 markers in O. sanctum leaf will have the applicability in quality control.
Arif T, Bhosale JD, Kumar N, Mandal TK, Bendre RS, Lavekar GS, Dabur R.Natural products--antifungal agents derived from plants. J Asian Nat Prod Res.2009;11(7):621-38. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
A new spectrum of human fungal infections is increasing due to increased cancer, AIDS, and immunocompromised patients. The increased use of antifungal agents also resulted in the development of resistance to the present drugs. It makes necessary to discover new classes of antifungal compounds to cure fungal infections. Plants are rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites of wide variety such as tannins, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and other compounds, reported to have in vitro antifungal properties. Since the plant kingdom provides a useful source of lead compounds of novel structure, a wide-scale investigation of species from the tropics has been considered. Therefore, the research on natural products and compounds derived from natural products has accelerated in recent years due to their importance in drug discovery. A series of Molecules with antifungal activity against different strains of fungus have been found in plants, which are of great importance to humans. These Molecules may be used directly or considered as a precursor for developing better Molecules. This review attempts to summarize the current status of important antifungal compounds from plants.