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Balakrishna K, Kundu AB, Patra A. Roxburghiadiol A and roxburghiadiol B, two 14 alpha-methylsterols from Aglaia roxburghiana. J Nat Prod. 1990;53(2):523-6. Http://


Two new 14 alpha-methylsterols, roxburghiadiol A and roxburghiadiol B, were isolated from the leaves and fruits of Aglaia roxburghiana. Previously their structures were tentatively assigned as 4-bisnormethyl-24-methylene-cycloarta-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol and 4-bisnormethyl-24-methylene-cycloarta-3 beta, 6 alpha-diol, respectively. A reinvestigation using 2D-nmr technique has confirmed the structure 2 for roxburghiadiol B as previously reported, and roxburghiadiol A is now found to be the corresponding 6 beta epimer 1.

Betz Joseph M, Brown Paula N, Roman Mark C. Accuracy, precision, and reliability of chemical measurements in natural products research. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):44-52.


Natural products chemistry is the discipline that lies at the heart of modern pharmacognosy. The field encompasses qualitative and quantitative analytical tools that range from spectroscopy and spectrometry to chromatography. Among other things, modern research on crude botanicals is engaged in the discovery of the phytochemical constituents necessary for therapeutic efficacy, including the synergistic effects of components of complex mixtures in the botanical matrix. In the phytomedicine field, these botanicals and their contained mixtures are considered the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and pharmacognosists are increasingly called upon to supplement their molecular discovery work by assisting in the development and utilization of analytical tools for assessing the quality and safety of these products. Unlike single-chemical entity APIs, botanical raw materials and their derived products are highly variable because their chemistry and morphology depend on the genotypic and phenotypic variation, geographical origin and weather exposure, harvesting practices, and processing conditions of the source material. Unless controlled, this inherent variability in the raw material stream can result in inconsistent finished products that are under-potent, over-potent, and/or contaminated. Over the decades, natural product chemists have routinely developed quantitative analytical methods for phytochemicals of interest. Quantitative methods for the determination of product quality bear the weight of regulatory scrutiny. These methods must be accurate, precise, and reproducible. Accordingly, this review discusses the principles of accuracy (relationship between experimental and true value), precision (distribution of data values), and reliability in the quantitation of phytochemicals in natural products.

ChakrabortySuchandra, Chattopadhyay Gautam ,Saha Chandan. Montmorillonite-KSF induced Fischer indole cyclization under microwave towards a facile entry to 1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazoles. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):201-206.


Fischer indole cyclization of substituted cyclohexane-1,2-dione-1-phenylhydrazones 1 having either electron donating or electron withdrawing group on the phenyl moiety of substituted 1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazoles 2 are efficiently carried out by microwave irradiationandnbsp; in presence of montmorillonite-KSF under solvent free condition.

Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R, Sainis K. An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999 ;52(6):1089-93. Http://


An arabinogalactan of mean M(r) 2.2 x 10(6) has been isolated from the dried stems of Tinospora cordifolia and examined by methylation analysis, pArtial hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified polysaccharide showed polyclonal mitogenic activity against B-cells, their proliferation did not require


Das PC, Patra A, Mandal S, Mallick B, Das A, Chatterjee A. Cleogynol, a novel dammarane triterpenoid from Cleome gynandra. J Nat Prod. 1999;62(4):616-8. Http://


Chemical examination of Cleome gynandra (whole plant excluding seeds) led to the isolation and identification of a novel (20S, 24S)-epoxy-19,25-dihydroxydammarane-3-one hemiketal (1). The structure of the new compound, designated cleogynol, was determined using spectral and chemical


De Senjuti, Chowdhury Shubhamoy , Drew Michael G B, Datta Dipankar. Effect of an ancillary ligand on single helix-double helix interconversion in copper complexes. Copper(I)-water bond. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 171-175.


Reaction of Cu(ClO4)2.6H2O with the 1:2 condensate of benzildihydrazone and 2-acetylpyridine, in methanol in equimolar ratio yields a green compound which upon recrystallisation from 1:1 CH2Cl2-C6H6 mixture affords [CuL(H2O)](ClO4)2.½C6H6. The complex crystallises in the space group P-1 with a = 8.028(11) Å, b = 12.316(17) Å, c = 18.14(3) Å, a = 97.191(10)o, b = 94.657(10)o and g = 108.039(10)o. It is single helical with the metal having a distorted trigonal bipyramidal N4O coordination sphere. The acid dissociation constant of the Cu(I) complex in CH3CN is 3.34 ± 0.19. The X band EPR spectrum of the compound is rhombic with g1 = 2.43, g2 = 2.10, g3 = 2.02 and A1 = 79.3 x 10-4 cm-1. The Cu(II/I) potential of the complex in CH2Cl2 at a glassy carbon electrode is 0.43 V vs SCE. It is argued that the copper-water bond persists in the corresponding copper(I) species. Its implications on the single helix-double helix interconversion in copper helicates are discussed. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G** level shows that the binding energy of water in the single helical five-coordinate copper(I) species [CuL(H2O)]+ is ~ 40 kJ mol-1.

Francis JA, Raja SN, Nair MG. Bioactive terpenoids and GugguluSteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential anti-inflammatory interest. Chem Biodivers. 2004;1(11):1842-53. Http://


Guggulu, the gum resin from Commiphora mukul, is one of the components of various formulations of traditional Ayurvedic medicine to treat inflammation, obesity, and lipid disorders. In most preparations of Ayurvedic medicine in India, Guggulu is boiled prior to its use. Therefore, Guggulu was boiled with H2O prior to extractions in our study. Bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from the hexane-soluble portion of the MeOH extract of Guggulu yielded cembrenoids, 1-6, a bicyclic diterpene, 7, Guggulusterone deriVatives, 8-11, myrrhanone deriVatives, 12, myrrhanol deriVative, 13, and a lignan, 14. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5, 6, 7, 10, and 12-14 are novel. These compounds were assayed for lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory activities. At 100 ppm, compounds 3, 6, and 14 inhibited the lipid peroxidation by 79, 57, and 58%, respectively, and the rest of isolated compounds showed 20-40% inhibitory activity with respect to the controls. In COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory assays, compound 3 showed 79 and 83%, and compound 8 gave 67 and 54% of inhibition, respectively, at 100 ppm. All fourteen compounds inhibited COX-1 enzyme at 100 ppm. The lipid peroxidation and COX enzyme inhibitory activities exhibited by compounds isolated from C. mukul may substantiate its use in traditional medicine.

Ganzera M, Choudhary MI, Khan IA. Quantitative HPLC analysis of withanolides in Withania somnifera. Fitoterapia.2003;74(1-2):68-76. Http://


One of the most widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine is Ashwaghanda, Withania somnifera, a shrub commonly found on the Indian subcontinent. As this plant is increasingly becoming a popular adaptogenic in the western world, analytical methods for its identification and quality control are in demand. Thus, a HPLC method for the determination of withaferin A and withanolide D was developed. The system was successfully used to investigate the presence of the markers in different W. somnifera plant parts as well as to analyze their content in market products.

Garg S, Bhutani KK. Chromatographic analysis of Kutajarista--an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation. Phytochem Anal. 2008;19(4):323-8. Http://


Kutajarista is a well known polyherbal preparation of which the main ingredient is the stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica. This Ayurvedic medicine is prescribed to treat amoebic dysentery and other disorders such as fever, indigestion and malabsorption syndrome. Herbal medicines are very important since, in common with conventional medicines, they contain biologically active substances that may produce non-trivial side effects when taken in excessive amounts. Very low doses, on the other hand, may have no therapeutic value. In this paper we report the chemical standardisation of Kutajarista by HPLC analysis based upon the presence of the biomarker conessine in the formulation. The standardisation method is simple and reliable, and the precision of method has been tested for repeatability (n = 3) and reproducibility (n = 9). The response of a refractive index detector was linear in the concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL. Recovery studies were performed to check the method for accuracy. The recovery was found to be in range of 99-105%. The developed HPLC method can be used to quantify conessine for quality control of marketed Kutajarista samples.

Goel Jyotsna, Kadervelu K, Garg V K, Meena A K, Chopra R, Rawat A, Kumar S, Mishra G K and Chitra. A pilot scale evaluation for adsorptive removal of Lead (II): using treated Granular Activated Carbon (GAC):. Journal of Environmental Technology;2005;26:489 – 499.


Wastewaters discharged from the defence serviceable industries pose a serious environmental hazard due to their heavy metal load. The present study focused on optimizing the operational variables viz, hydraulic loading rate, bed height and feed concentration through bench scale study and using that for assessing the efficiency of pilot scale system with sulphur loaded carbon (AC-S): as the adsorbent in the removal of Pb (II):. Static mode adsorption studies were also carried out for Pb (II): removal using treated (AC-S): and untreated carbon (AC):. AC-S shows about 35 percent increase in maximum adsorption capacity over that on AC. The maximum adsorption capacity in the column mode for Pb (II): at the optimized conditions: bed height of 0.4 m, hydraulic loading rate of 7.5 m3h-1m-2 and the feed concentration of 6 mg l-1 for achieving 50 % breakthrough concentration was found to be 2.89 mg g-1. Adsorption mechanism involved during Pb (II): in the column has also been explored. Bohart - Adams model was used for modeling the bench scale data and predicting the adsorption behavior at pilot scale level.

Gupta P, Akanksha, Siripurapu KB, Ahmad A, Palit G, Arora A, Maurya R. Anti-stress constituents of Evolvulus alsinoides: an Ayurvedic crude drug. ChemPharm Bull (Tokyo).2007;55(5):771-5. Http://


Bioactivity-guided purification of n-BuOH soluble fraction from the ethanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoides resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutyl 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutoxy)-phenyl]-2-propenoate (1) and 1,3-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid methyl ester (2) along with six known compounds, caffeic acid (3), 6-methoxy-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside coumarin (4), 2-C-methylerythritol (5), kaempferol-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-beta glucopyranoside (7) and quecetine-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8). The structure of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, while known compounds were confirmed by direct comparison of their NMR data with those reported in literature. This is the first report of the presence of phenolic constituents in Evolvulus alsinoides. The isolated compounds 1-5 and 8 were screened for anti-stress activity in acute stress induced biochemical changes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Stress exposure has resulted in significant increase of plasma glucose, adrenal gland weight, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and corticosterone levels. Compound 1 displayed most promising antistress effect by normalizing hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, CK and adrenal hypertrophy, while compounds 2 and 3 were also effective in normalizing most of these stress parameters, however compounds 4, 5 and 8 were ineffective in normalizing these parameters.

Gupta V, Meena A K, Krishna C M , Rao M M, Sannd R, Singh H, Panda P, Padhi M M and Babu Ramesh. Review of plants used as Kshar of family Piperaceae. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(2):81-88.


Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. Kshara is a kind of medication described in Ayurveda Texts for the management of various disorders. The genus Piper L. is estimated to contain over 1000 species which are distributed mainly in tropical regions of the world. This review mainly focuses on the plants of family Piperaceae that are used in Kshar so that more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization, therapeutic level determination of Kshar plants.

Hemalatha T, Pulavendran S, Balachandran C, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R.Arjunolic acid: a novel Phytomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic applications. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(3):238 47. Http://


Herbal plants with antioxidant activities are widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for cardiac and other problems. Arjunolic acid is one such novel Phytomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic applications. It is a triterpenoid saponin, isolated earlier from Terminalia Arjuna and later from Combretum nelsonii, Leandra chaeton etc. Arjunolic acid is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The scientific basis for the use of arjunolic acid as cardiotonic in Ayurvedic medicine is proven by its vibrant functions such as prevention of myocardial necrosis, platelet aggregation and coagulation and lowering of blood pressure, heart rate and cholesterol levels. Its antioxidant property combined with metal chelating property protects organs from metal and drug induced toxicity. It also plays an effective role in exerting protection against both type I and type II diabetes and also ameliorates diabetic renal dysfunctions. Its therapeutic multifunctionality is shown by its wound healing, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection conferred by arjunolic acid can be explained by its property to reduce the oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant levels. Apart from its pathophysiological functions, it possesses dynamic insecticidal property and it is used as a structural molecular framework in supramolecular chemistry and nanoscience. Esters of ajunolic acid function as gelators of a wide variety of organic liquids. Experimental studies demonstrate the versatile effects of arjunolic acid, but still, further investigations are necessary to identify the functional groups responsible for its multivarious effects and to study the molecular mechanisms as well as the probable side effects/toxicity owing to its long-term use. Though the beneficial role of this triterpenoid has been assessed from various angles, a comprehensive review of its effects on biochemistry and organ pathophysiology is lacking and this forms the rationale of this .

Islam MT, Islam SA, Latif SA. Detection of arsenic in water, herbal and soil samples by neutron activation analysis technique. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;79(3):327-30.Http://


Arsenic contamination of ground water is well understood while other environmental systems are rarely considered to be contaminated by arsenic. A vital issue is whether or not appreciable arsenic transmits through the food chain. Reportedly, Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (AHMPs) manufactured in Asia were found to be contaminated by harmful level of Arsenic. This study was aimed to quantify the arsenic levels in water, herbal and soil samples collected from the same origin using highly accurate neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Harmful level of arsenic was detected in most of the water and soil samples. Moreover, a considerably harmful level of Arsenic was detected in herbal samples collected from the same origin. As a result, AHMPs manufactured in Asia might be contaminated by arsenic through arsenic contaminated herb plants.

Kandale Ajit, Meena, A K, Rao M M, Panda P, Mangal AK, Reddy G and Babu Ramesh. Marine algae: An Introduction, Food value and Medicinal uses. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2011;4(1):219-221.


Seaweeds offer a wide range of therapeutic possibilities both internally and externally. The term seaweeds refer only to macrophytic marine algae, both wild and cultivated, growing in saltwater. Botanically, seaweeds are classified as green, brown, or red. A Particular seaweed’s placement in one of these groups is determined first by its photosynthetic pigments, then its reproductive mode, then its micro and macro morphologies, and finally by its phycopolymers. In the last three decades the discovery of metabolites with biological activities from macroalgae has increased significantly. However, despite the intense research effort by academic and corporate institutions, very few products with real potential have been identified or developed. Substances that currently receive most attention from pharmaceutical companies for use in drug development or from researchers in the field of medicine-related research include: sulphated polysaccharides as antiviral substances, halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra as antifouling compounds, and kahalalide F from a species of Bryopsis as a possible treatment of lung cancer, tumours and AIDS. Other substances such as macroalgal lectins, fucoidans, kainoids and aplysiatoxins are routinely used in biomedical research and a multitude of other substances have known biological activities. Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed that grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and the North and Baltic seas. This species is often included in kelp preparations along with other types of seaweed. As an herbal medicine, seaweed has been used for traditional cosmetics, treatments for cough, asthma, hemorrhoid, boils, goiters, stomach ailments, and urinary diseases, and for reducing the incidence of tumors, ulcers, and headaches.

Karunakaran C , Dhanalakshmi R, Manikandan G, Gomathisankar P. Photodegradation of carboxylic acids on Al2O3 and SiO2 nanopArticles. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 163-170.


Al2O3 and SiO2 nanopArticles effect photodegradation of carboxylic acids, and their photonic efficiencies are comparable to those of TiO2 P25 Degussa, TiO2 Hombikat, TiO2 anatase, TiO2 rutile, ZnO, SnO2, and ZrO2 nanosemiconductors. All the nanopArticles show sustainable photoactivity and the degradation rates increase linearly with oxalic acid-concentration and photon flux. The photonic efficiencies of degradation are in the order: formic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid > citric acid. The mechanism of photodegradation is discussed.

Kaur P, Sharma M, Mathur S, Tiwari M, Divekar HM, Kumar R, Srivastava KK, Chandra R. Effect of 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera on stress indices in Wistar rats. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9(6):897-907. Http://



Isolation of biologically active fractions and compounds from the roots of Withania somnifera, a plant used extensively as a constituent of Rasayana, in Ayurveda and to test their adaptogenic activity on stress indices using the cold-hypoxia-restraint (C-H-R) model.


Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of the roots of Withania somnifera led to the isolation of a new species of withanolide 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide. Structure elucidation, was carried out using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), and mass spectroscopic analysis. Stress-related indices were evaluated, namely serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum corticosterone levels, and serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels.


There was a significant decrease in a serum CPK, LDH, and LPO levels in animals pretreated with (1) fraction-I (20 mg/kg body weight), (2) 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide (2.5 mg/kg body weight) in comparison to control when subjected to C-H-R stress.


The results show that the a new species of withanolide, 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide (compound-1) could prove to be an effective agent to counteract C-H-R stress.

Khan MT, Ather A, Thompson KD, Gambari R. Extracts and Molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses. Antiviral Res. 2005;67(2):107-19. Http://


Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM), Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small Molecules, like phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g.mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising anti-herpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV agents.

Kidwai Mazaahir, Bura Nisha, Mishra Neeraj Kumar. Niobium(V) pentachloride-catalyzed efficient and highly rapid synthesis of bis(indolyl)-methanes under mild conditions. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 229-232.


Niobium(V) pentachloride has been found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for electrophilic substitution reaction of indole using various aromatic aldehydes at room temperature, to afford the corresponding bis(indolyl)methanes in good yields. The remarkable feature of this new protocol is high conversion in shorter reaction time with simple experimental and workup procedure

Kumar A, Nair AG, Reddy AV, Garg AN. Bhasmas: unique Ayurvedic metallic-herbal preparations, chemical characterization. Biol Trace Elem Res.2006;109(3):231-54. Http://


Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic metallic preparations with herbal juices/fruits, known in the Indian subcontinent since the seventh century BC and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Twenty bhasmas based on calcium, iron, zinc, mercury, silver, potassium, arsenic, copper, tin, and gemstones were analyzed for up to 18 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis, including their C, H, N, and S contents. In addition to the major constituent element found at % level, several other essential elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn have also been found in microg/g amounts and ultratrace (ng/g) amounts of Au and Co. These seem to remain chelated with organic ligands derived from medicinal herbs. The bhasmas are biologically produced nanopArticles and are taken along with milk, butter, honey, or ghee (a preparation from milk); thus, this makes these elements easily assimilable, eliminating their harmful effects and enhancing their biocompatibility. Siddha Makaradhwaja, a mercury preparation is found to be stoichiometrically HgS without any traces of any other element. Similarly, Sweta Parpati is stoichiometrically KNO3 but is found to have Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, P, and Cl as well. An attempt has been made to correlate the metallic contents with their medicinal importance. Na and K, the two electrolytic elements, seem to be well correlated, although K/Na varies in a wide range from 0.06 to 95, with specifically low values for Ca-, Fe-, and Zn-based bhasmas. K/P also varies in a wide range from 0.23 to 12, although for most bhasmas (n = 12), it is 2.3 +/- 1.2. Further, Fe/Mn is linearly correlated (r = 0.96) with Fe in nine noniron bhasmas.

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