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Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. RP-HPLC analysis of Jirakadyarishta and chemical changes during fermentation. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(11):1767-70. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Jirakadyarishta, an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by the fermentation of a decoction of Cuminum cyminum (seeds) is traditionally used for intestinal disorders. RP-HPLC analysis of the decoction and the final processed formulation revealed that apigenin-7-O-[galacturonide (1 --> 4)-O-glucoside] and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide) were the two major constituents of the decoction of C. cyminum. Selective hydrolysis of 7-O-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin during fermentation resulted in an increase in the amount of luteolin and apigenin. The 4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide of luteolin and galacturonide deriVative of apigenin were not hydrolyzed during fermentation. Monomeric phenolics, together with 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), were also introduced into the formulation through the jaggery and other plant materials during fermentation. This communication highlights the importance of the ancient processing methods used in Ayurveda.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. Chemical changes during fermentation of Abhayarishta and its standardization by HPLC-DAD. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(4):575-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Abhayarishta is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared traditionally by the fermentation of the decoction of Terminalia chebula (pericarp), Vitis vinifera (fruits), Embelia ribes (fruits) and Madhuca indica (flowers). In the present communication, chemical changes occurring during fermentation in Abhayarishta have been studied for the purpose of its standardization. An HPLC-DAD method for quantitative estimation of selected marker constituents in the formulation has been developed and validated. A comparison of decoction and final processed formulation revealed that major polyphenolics (chebulagic and chebulinic acid) of T. chebula were hydrolyzed to their respective monomers and, consequently, there was an increase in the amount of chebulic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid and ethyl gallate after fermentation. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) was also found in the formulation. Thus, emphasis is laid upon consideration of processing methods of formulation which has been lacking in the standardization of most of Ayurvedic formulations.

Mallavadhani UV, Narasimhan K, Sudhakar AV, Mahapatra A, Li W, van Breemen RB. Three new pentacyclic triterpenes and some flavonoids from the fruits of an Indian Ayurvedic plant Dendrophthoe falcata and their estrogen receptor binding activity. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54(5):740-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

Extensive chromatographic screening of extracts of the fruits of the Indian Ayurvedic plant, Dendrophthoe falcata, resulted in the isolation of three new triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy-1beta-(2-hydroxy-2-propoxy)-11alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-ene (1), 3beta-acetoxy-11alpha-ethoxy-1beta-hydroxy-olean-12-ene (2) and 3beta-acetoxy-1beta-hydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene (3) along with nine known compounds, 3beta-acetoxy-1beta,11alpha-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3beta-acetoxy-1beta,11alpha-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene (5), 3beta-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-11-one (6), 3beta-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-ene (7), 30-nor-lup-3beta-acetoxy-20-one (8),(20S)-3beta-acetoxy-lupan-29-oic acid (9), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside(10),quercetin-3-O-alpha-L rhamnopyranoside (11), and gallic acid (12). The structures of these compounds were determined using 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry. These compounds were assayed for binding to estrogen receptors-alpha and beta and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (10) was found to be a ligand for both receptors with greater affinity for beta. The triterpenes (1-9) are reported for the first time in the genus Dendrophthoe and assumes taxonomic significance.

Mangal AK, Das MN. Comparative powdered drug analysis of aerial and underground roots of Ficus rumphii (Ashmantaka). Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2001; 22(1-4):99-106.

Abstract.

Ficus rumphii Blume. (Ashmantaka), a moderate size tree occurs throughout India. Root of this tree is considered as emetic and anthelmintic and used in asthma and snake-bite. This paper describes microscopic and fluorescence characters of aerial and underground roots of Ficus rumphii, along with their ash and extractive values. This study will help to identify and differentiates both type of the roots (Aerial and Underground) from each other.

From the foregoing observations it is possible to distinguish the powder drug of aerial and underground materials. The diagnostic characters of the two powder materials are shown below:

(X) Parenchyma cells are thick and rectangular in aerial roots and thin and rounded in underground roots.

(XI) The cork cells of aerial roots are longer as compared with underground roots.

(XII) The pitted cells are present in aerial roots and absent in underground roots.

(XIII) Fibres are present in both types of root powder, but, varying in size. The pitted fibres are present only in aerial roots.

(XIV) Pitted scalariform, pitted reticulate vessels are present in underground roots.

(XV) Selereids are present in both types of powder drugs. Pitted selereids are absent in underground roots.

(XVI) Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals are present in both types, but longer in aerial roots.

(XVII) 80% ethanol extracts of both the root powder show maximum fluorescence and under long U.V. radiations.

(XVIII) Ash values (Total and acid insoluble) are more in underground roots but the extractive values (Water soluble and ethanol soluble) are more in aerial roots.

Maruthikumar T Venkata, Rao G V Panakala, Reddy V Prabhakar, Rao P Hanumantha. Synthesis of 4-(substituted benzyl)-1H,3H-benzo[f]1,3,5-triazepin-2-ones. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 242-244.

Abstract.

This paper presents the synthesis of 4-(substituted benzyl)-1H,3H-benzo[f]1,3,5-triazepin-2-ones 3 from o-phenylenedi- amines 1 and 4-(arylmethylene)-6-phenyl-3H-1,3,5-oxadiazin-2-ones 2.

Maurya R. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Withania coagulans: an Ayurvedic remedy. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62(2):153-60. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

OBJECTIVES:

The use of Withania coagulans, a member of the solanaceae family, has been highlighted in Ayurveda. We have reviewed the chemical constituents and Pharmacological properties of W. coagulans, as well as its morphology. This has included therapeutic effects of the whole plant and its extracts, fractions and isolated withanolides. The hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, central nervous system depressant, immunomodulating, antitumour and cytotoxic activities of W. coagulans have been described. KEY FINDINGS: Research carried out using different biological testing in-vitro and in-vivo techniques supported the claims.

SUMMARY:

This review has covered the morphology, chemistry and Pharmacology of the plant. It has described 37 compounds containing 46 references.

Meena AK, Ajay Kumar Yadav, A Gaurav, R Singh, Kiran Sharma, Uttam Singh, B Singh, M M Rao “Comparative Study of Quality Assessment Of Calotropis Procera Linn. Root at Selected Regions” .International Journal of chemical And Analytical Science.2010; 3(4):831-832.

Abstract.

The herbal drug Alarka is botanically called as Calotropis procera Linn. In the recent past tremendous attempts are being made to evaluate the scientific standards for traditional system of medicines, Particularly in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The use of the plants, plant extracts, and pure compounds isolated from natural sources has always provided a foundation for modern pharmaceutical compounds. Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This shrub has been known to posses Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including- Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and ß-amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester, proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The thin layer chromatographic studies of alcohol extract was also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug. For the evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards phytochemical parameters are adopted. These studies suggested that the observed physiochemical parameters are of great value in quality control and formulation development of Calotropis procera.

Meena A K, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv, Rao M M and Garg V K. Estimation of heavy metals in commonly used medicinal plants: a market basket survey. Environ. Monit. Assess. (2010):.

Abstract.

Popularity of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world because of lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs besides it cost effectiveness and easy availability to poor people Particularly in developing countries. Keeping in view the increased market demand of herbal drugs, it is essential to ensure their chemical quality prior to use. Raw drugs and herbs are usually collected from different places, which might be contaminated with various contaminants. It is pertinent to estimate the levels of heavy metals and other micronutrients, which could be affected by their presence in the surrounding environments.

Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. Keeping this in view, samples of ten plants or plant parts used in drug making were collected from local markets of Punjab for heavy metal and micronutrient estimation. It was found that the samples were contaminated having cadmium, lead, chromium, iron, manganese, and zinc. The highest mean level.

Meena AK, Garg Nitika, Nain Jaspreet, Meena RP and Rao M M. Review on Ethnobotany, phytochemical and Pharmacological profile of Alstonia Scholaris. International Research Journal of Pharmacy.2011;2(1):49-54.

Abstract.

Alstonia scholaris Linn.which is popularly known as the “Saptaparni” or the Devil tree, which are used as a well known remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Folklore system of medicine in India. Alstonia scholaris mainly used for the treatment of diarrhoea and malaria, as a tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Alstonia scholaris mainly contain ditamine, echitamine and echitenine. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of “healthful” food who are now promoting Alstonis scholaris. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the Pharmacological activities of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.

Meena A K, Kandale A, Rao MM, Panda P, Kaur KP. A Review on Leishmaniasis and treatment with natural drugs, International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2010;1 (2).

Abstract.

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae):. Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis):but some can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. dono-vani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi): the L. mexicana complex with 3 main species (L. mexica-na, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis): L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L. [V.] braziliensis, L. [V.] guyanensis, L. [V.] panamensis, and L. [V.] eruviana):. The different species are morphologically indistin-guishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies. Leishmaniasis may be divided into the different types depending upon the organ system it affects as Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous leish-maniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and Viscerotropic leishmaniasis. The present chemotherapy for this disease includes treatment with the antimonial drugs and amphotericin B and some natural alkaloids. Because of certain disadvan-tages, the present research is diverted towards different alternative systems of medicines like Ayurveda.

Meena A K, Kandale A, Rao MM, Panda P, Kaur KP. A Review on Leishmaniasis and treatment with natural drugs, International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2010;1 (2).

Abstract.

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae):. Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis):but some can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. dono-vani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi): the L. mexicana complex with 3 main species (L. mexica-na, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis): L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L. [V.] braziliensis, L. [V.] guyanensis, L. [V.] panamensis, and L. [V.] eruviana):. The different species are morphologically indistin-guishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies. Leishmaniasis may be divided into the different types depending upon the organ system it affects as Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous leish-maniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and Viscerotropic leishmaniasis. The present chemotherapy for this disease includes treatment with the antimonial drugs and amphotericin B and some natural alkaloids. Because of certain disadvan-tages, the present research is diverted towards different alternative systems of medicines like Ayurveda.

Meena A K, Kandale Ajit, Nigam Sukriti, Panda P, Singh Brijendra, Rao M M. “Review On Marine Organisms with Antileishmanial Activity” Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010; 3 (4):818 - 821.

Abstract.

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae):. Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis):but some can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. donovani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi): the L. mexicana complex with 3 main species (L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis): L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L. (V.): braziliensis, L. (V.): guyanensis, L. (V.): panamensis, and L. (V.): peruviana):. The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies. Leishmaniasis may be divided into the different types depending upon the organ system it affects as Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and Viscerotropic leishmaniasis.The present chemotherapy for this disease includes treatment with the antimonial drugs and amphotericin B and some natural alkaloids. Because of certain disadvantages, the present research is diverted towards different sources like Ayurvedic and marine drugs.

Meena A K, Kandale Ajit, Panda P, Rao M M and Reddy Govind. Review on Citron- Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and medicinal Uses. International Research Journal of Pharmacy.2011;2(1):14-19.

Abstract.



The citron is a fragrant fruit with the botanical name Citrus medica, which applies to both the Swingle and Tanaka systems. It is a prominent member in the genus Citrus, belonging to the Rutaceae or Rue family, sub-family Aurantioideae. The citron is unlike the more common citrus species like the lemon or orange. While the most popular fruits are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is very dry, containing only little insipid juice. Moreover, the main content of a citron is the thick white rind, which is very adherent to the segments, and cannot be separated from them easily. Thus, from ancient through medieval times, the citron was used mainly for medical purposes: to combat sea sickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments, and other disorders. The essential oil of the flavedo (the outermost, pigmented layer of rind): was also regarded as an antibiotic. Citron juice with honey was considered an effective antidote to poison. In India, the peel is a remedy for dysentery and is eaten to overcome halitosis. The distilled juice is given as a sedative. The candied peel is sold in China as a stomachic, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. In West Tropical Africa, the citron is used only as a medicine, Particularly against rheumatism. The flowers are used medicinally by the Chinese. In Malaya, a decoction of the fruit is taken to drive off evil spirits. A decoction of the shoots of wild plants is administered to improve appetite, relieve stomachache and expel intestinal worms. The leaf juice, combined with that of Polygonum and Indigofera is taken after childbirth. A leaf infusion is given as an antispasmodic. In Southeast Asia, citron seeds are given as a vennifuge. In Panama, they are ground up and combined with other ingredients and given as an antidote for poison. The essential oil of the peel is regarded as an antibiotic.The citron fruit is usually ovate or oblong, narrowing towards the stylar end. However, the citron's fruit shape is highly variable, due to the large quantity of albedo, which forms independently according to the fruits' position on the tree, twig orientation, and many other factors. This could also be the reason for its being protuberant, forming a "v" shape after the end of the segments towards the stylar end. The rind is leathery, furrowed, and adherent. The inner portion thick, white and fleshy – the outer uniformly thin, and very fragrant. The pulp is usually acidic, but also sweet and even pulps less variety are found.Most citron varieties contain a large number of seeds. The monoembryonic seeds are white colored; with dark inner coat and red-purplish chalazal spot for the acidic varieties, and colorless for the sweet ones. Some citron varieties are also distinct with their persistent style.The extract of peel of Citrus medica showed the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential. Ethyl acetate extract of Citrus medica peel showed maximum 1;1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH): and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. Further, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities have been carried out. Analgesic activity has been evaluated for its central and peripheral Pharmacological actions. Therefore, the Citrus medica peel extract may be used as a future antioxidant for the treatment of inflammation and pain.

Meena A. K.Kaur Ramanjeet, Pal Bhavana, Sachan Ayushy, Singh Brijendra, Singh Uttam, Kiran, Singh R. “Review On Muco adhesive Buccal film And Its Importance” International Journal of chemical And Analytical Science.2010;1 (4):64-67.

Abstract.

For many decades, treatment of an acute disease or a chronic illness has been mostly accomplished by delivering drugs using various pharmaceutical dosage forms including tablets, capsules, pills, suppositories, creams, ointments, liquids, aerosols, and injectables as

carriers. However, this route presents some problems for a few drugs. The enzymes in the GI fluids, GIT-pH conditions, and the enzymes bound to GIT membranes are a few factors responsible for the bioavailability problems. During past few years, increasing interest has arisen in the use of bioadhesive formulations for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Bioadhesive formulations have a wide scope of applications, for both systemic and local effects.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorption of cadmium (II): ions from aqueous solution using different adsorbents, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2004;63:410 –416.

Abstract.:

A comparative study on the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on a few low cost and locally available untreated and chemically treated adsorbents is carried out. Mustard husk, carbon aerogel and treated GAC are found to be most effective adsorbents in addition to treated GAC for the removal of cadmium from the aqueous solution at varing process parameters such as , pH(2-12): adsorbent dose (0.5-1;2g/100mL):contact time (24-72 h): and initial cadmium concentration (1-5mg/L):. Treated GAC carbon aerogel, and mustard husk show 100, 87 and 72 mg/L cadmum aqueous solutions in 48 h. The adsorption parameters are determent using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm studies

indicate that the adsorption process is a monolayer coverage of cadmium on surface of treated GAC and fits into the Langmuir model. The adsorptive behaviour of cadmium on untreated mustard husk and carbon aerogel satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e.multilayer formation of the surface of the adsorbent with an exponential distribution of the site energy. The results of the experimental studies as well as the model parameters are presented.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar PN. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of lead from contaminated water using different adsorbents. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection .2002;22 (11): 1257 –1266.

Lead is one of the heavy metals with specific toxicity and cumulative effects. Lead poisoning causesdamage to liver, kidney and reduction in haemoglobin formation, mental retardation and abnormalities in fertility and pregnancy. The chief sources of lead in water are the effluents of leadprocessing industries and manufacturing industries, like storage batteries, insecticides, food andbeverages. Lead accumulation in the environment causes serious ecological problems and thisrequires the application of cheap and effective methods for its removal from the contaminatedaqueous streams. The adsorption studies on the removal of lead from aqueous solution usinglow cost adsorbents was carried out under varying experimental conditions. On the basis of screening studies on the selected adsorbents, treated GAC, mustard husk and treated sawdusthad shown maximum adsorption efficiency for the removal of lead. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The paper presents the results of the experimental studies as well as the model parameters.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorption of Ni (II): and Zn (II): from aqueous solution by various adsorbents, Indian Journal of Environmental Protectio.2005;25(1): 8-21.

Abstract.

The adsorption studies on the removal of Ni (II): and Zn (II): from aqueous solution using treated GAC and carbon aerogel were carried out under varying experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption was observed to be a function of solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of Ni (II): and Zn (II): ions and adsorbent dose. Experimental results support the hypothesis that ion-exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for the binding of Ni (II): and Zn (II): ions on the surface of treated GAC and carbon aerogel. The Langmuir model was found to be in good agreement with experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of Ni (II): and Zn (II): on treated GAC and carbon aerogel. On the basis of experimental results and the model parameters, it can be inferred that the treated GAC and carbon aerogel may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the removal of Ni (II): and Zn (II): from contaminated industrial effluents. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Thermodynamic constant (Kad ):standard free energy ( GO):enthalpy (dHO): and entropy (dSO): were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.




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