Preface [Silently edited to create placeholders for G’s preface] Background

IX. Integrity of the copyitem (imperfections)

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IX. Integrity of the copyitem (imperfections)

IX.1. Defects

A greater vulnerability to damage, defect, and loss means that rare materials, especially older materials, are less likely than modern materials to be in a perfect or complete state condition when they reach the cataloger. One of the cataloger’s tasks is to ascertain (within reasonable constraints) whether and how much the copy item in hand deviates from its the original as issued. (See 0B2.2)

X. Precataloging decisions

Before a bibliographic record can be created for an item or group of items awaiting cataloging in an institution’s special collections, appropriate decisions must be made regarding the array of descriptive options available to the cataloger. These precataloging decisions include: determining whether DCRM(G) or AACR2 rules will govern the description, choosing the level of cataloging that will be applied, and determining the extent to which various options in the rules will be exercised.

Because DCRM(G) was written to address the special needs of users of rare materials, it is likely to be the appropriate cataloging code for the majority of graphic materials held in special collections. However, for some categories of materials, the cataloging objectives (see introductory section III) may be met by use of AACR2 or by the application of options within the DCRM(G) rules that permit less detail in the description. Full-level DCRM(G) records that employ all possible descriptive options will not necessarily be the best choice for every item.

The following section provides guidance for catalogers and cataloging administrators faced with these decisions and identifies some of the institutional and contextual factors that should be taken into consideration. It assumes that certain routine choices will already have been made, such as whether the encoding standard for the description will be MARC 21 and whether a resource issued as part of a series or multipart resource will be analyzed.

Institutions may promote efficiency by setting cataloging policies for specific categories of materials in their collections based on their mission and user needs rather than making decisions on an item-by-item basis. For example, an institution may decide to catalog all pre--1900 graphic resources1831 books using DCRM(BG), but trace printers and booksellers only for all pre-18th-century books, but give signature statements50 resources, and not identify production processes except for photographic printsexpansive descriptive notes for 15th- and 16th-century books only.for postcards. It may choose to catalog all later graphic resources books according to AACR2, but add selected genre/form or provenance name headings. It may decide that collection-level cataloging is sufficient for brochurespostcardsmost posters, but provide item-level cataloging for World War Two posters. A mechanism for easily making exceptions to general cataloging policy is desirable as well. If, for example, a curator buys a photographic print due to its unusual production processbook for its notable cloth binding, description of and access to the binding process ought to be given in the bibliographic record, even if it is not the institution’s usual policy to describe bindingsphotographic production processes.

X.1. Decisions to make before beginning the description

X.1.1. Item-level vs. collection-level description

Determine whether the material will receive item-level description, collection-level description, or some combination of the two.

X.1.2. Cataloging code: AACR2 vs. DCRM(G)

Determine which cataloging code will govern the description. Both codes contain optional rules in addition to the required ones, and each allows varying levels of cataloging depth.

In item-level bibliographic records, use of AACR2 results in a description that highlights the basic features of graphic resource but maya publication and obscures some of the differences between manifestations or between variants of a single manifestation. AACR2 is generally considered to be easier and quicker to apply than DCRM(G). AACR2 is most suitable when, in an institutional context, an item was acquired and is of significance primarily for its content rather than its artifactual value. In contrast, use of DCRM(G) produces fuller description of visual content (with more faithful transcriptions of relevant textual data) and more accurate physical descriptions. It will be more likely to facilitate differentiation between manifestations and reveal the presence of bibliographic variants among seemingly identical items. DCRM(G) is most suitable when an item carries artifactual or documentary bibliographical significance, or it is otherwise important to provide distinctions between issuesstates, bibliographical variants, or individual copiesinstances.

X.1.3. Encoding level: DCRM(G) minimal vs. core vs. full

Determine whether the description will be done at a minimal, core, or full level. Each level has its particular uses with attendant advantages and disadvantages.

DCRM(G) minimal level provides for fullerbasic description of visual content (with faithful transcription of relevant textual data) and exact physical description, but requires neither notes nor headings. Minimal-level records can be produced quite quickly. Because name and subject headings may be lacking, the materials represented by these records may be inaccessible through all but known-item searches, and so should be used only after careful consideration. DCRM(G) minimal level may be suitable when accurate physical description is desired but a record with few or no access points is acceptable, or when particular language expertise among current cataloging staff is insufficient for specific proper subject genre or format identification For further information on creating DCRM(G) minimal-level descriptions, see Appendix D.

DCRM(G) core level provides for fuller description of visual content (with faithful transcription of relevant textual data) and exact physical description, a full complement of name headings, and at least one subject heading, but requires few notes.2 Core-level records may be suitable for items or collections that carry enough bibliographical or artifactual or documentary significance to benefit from detailed description and controlled heading access, but for which the omission of most notes is acceptable. For further information on creating DCRM(G) core-level descriptions, see Appendix C.

DCRM(G) full level represents the normative application of these rules, yet encompasses a range of potential levels of detail. Full-level records provide for fuller description of visual content (with faithful transcription of relevant textual data) and detailed, complete physical description. Although some notes are required (e.g., the source of the title proper), most are optional and can be applied selectively depending on the nature of a collection or an institution’s needs. For example, notes on the production history of a work, provenence, or particular attributes of the item in hand may be included or omitted as desired.

Although treatment of headings is outside the scope of DCRM(G), full-level records typically contain a full complement of name and subject headings. In addition to those typically given to general materials, DCRM(G) full-level records may contain headings for printers, publishers, former owners, etc. The name headings need not be established using authority records, although full authority work, especially if contributed to the LC/NACO Authority File, will result in greater consistency of headings and improved access.3

The addition of genre/form headings is particularly encouraged in full-level records. Prefer terms found in the Thesaurus for Graphic Materials; official thesauri maintained by the RBMS Bibliographic Standards Committee4 and terms from other authorized thesauri (e.g., the Art and Architecture Thesaurus) may also be used as appropriate.

X.1.4. Bibliographic vVariants

If two or more items can be identified as bibliographic variants of a state, decide whether to describe them using a single bibliographic record or multiple records.

It is taken as a default approach in DCRM(G) that a separate record will be made for each variant that represents what is referred to as an “edition” in AACR2 and a “state” in art scholarship. However, this default approach is not prescriptive and indeed may not be desirable in every situation. Wwithin the rules, alternatives are provided (see 2B3.2, 2B4.2, 2D2, 4GA0) that permit the creation of a single recordseparate records for individual copiesdiffering manifestations. Once the decision has been made to apply these alternative rules, the cataloger must be consistent in applying them to all areas of the description. For further guidance on the cataloging of bibliographic variantsdiffering manifestations, see Appendix E.

X.2. Factors to consider in making these decisions

Consider the following factors when determining appropriate levels of description and access for materials awaiting cataloging. These factors will help to identify items that might deserve more detailed descriptions or higher priority treatment.

X.2.1. Institution’s mission and user needs

Evaluate the relevance of the items awaiting cataloging to the institution’s mission and the needs of its users. Ideally, the institution will have developed internal documentation that will facilitate such an evaluation, including a mission statement, collection development guidelines, and a listing of constituent users and their anticipated needs. The needs of both patrons (researchers, teachers, students, etc.) and staff (collection development, reference, technical services, etc.) should be taken into consideration.

X.2.2. Institutional and departmental resources

Evaluate institutional and departmental resources, especially staffing levels, expertise, and current workloads.

Is staff able to keep up with the inflow of new materials?

Is there a reasonable balance between resources devoted to acquiring materials and those devoted to processing them?

Is current staff expertise in languagesidentification of production techniques, subject areas, descriptive standards, and encoding standards adequate for implementing and/or completing proposed work plans?

Is staff able to work concurrently with more than one code and/or description level?

Are funding and space available for hiring new temporary or permanent staff with the necessary qualifications?

Are adequate reference sources, such as specialized catalogues raisonnés, available for staff use?

How many other projects are in process and what are their requirements and priorities?

The regular review of cataloging priorities is highly recommended and should include discussions with curatorial, public services, technical services, and preservation staff.

X.2.3. Market value and conditions of acquisition of the item or collection

Consider the conditions of acquisition and the estimated market worth of the item or collection awaiting cataloging.

Does the monetary or public relations value of the material justify a higher level of access than would otherwise apply?

Have any access requirements been imposed by a donor as part of the terms of acquisition?

Is the item or collection accompanied by bibliographic descriptive data (e.g., a photographer’s logbook)ons that will facilitate cataloging?

X.2.4. Intellectual and physical characteristics of the item or collection

Finally, evaluate the intellectual and physical characteristics of the items awaiting cataloging.

Is there a unifying characteristic that would justify and facilitate the description of the materials as a group (e.g., artist, subject matter, genre/form, etc.) with a collection-level record?

Is a particular collection renowned?

Do the materials have a topical focus that has recently acquired importance or urgency (e.g., due to a scholarly conference hosted by the institution or the hiring of a new professor with a particular specialty)?

Is cataloging copy generally available?

Were the items purchased primarily for their content?

Do the specific copies items have artistic or artifactual value?

Is the institution collecting deeply in the area?

Are detailed descriptions likely to reveal variants that will be of interest to researchers?

Are detailed descriptions likely to help prevent the inadvertent purchase of duplicates or the failure to acquire desirable variants?

Is the item or collection vulnerable to theft or vandalism?

Would a more detailed description help prevent unnecessary handling by staff and researchers?

Would a more detailed description assist in retrieval of digital surrogates?

0. General Rules


0A. Scope

0B. The basic description

0C. Chief source of information

0D. Prescribed sources of information

0E. Prescribed punctuation

0F. Language and script of the description

0G. Transcription

0A. Scope

These rules provide instructions for cataloging graphic materials, other than maps, whose rarity, value, or interest (i.e., their continuing or potential aesthetic or documentary value) make special description necessary or desirable. They cover instructions for the descriptive areas in bibliographic records only (see also introductory sections I-II). Specifically, they may apply to:

Single two dimensional pictorial works. Typical examples include prints, posters, drawings, paintings, photographic prints, negatives, transparencies, and slides. Resources may be unpublished (though they may exist in multiple copiesinstances) or published.

Illustrations in published books, magazines, etc.

Groups of two dimensional pictorial works, published and unpublished. These groups include albums, portfolios, multipart resources, and collections assembled prior to acquisition (e.g. by artist or collector), or locally for cataloging purposes.

Born-digital images such as digital camera photography and computer-generated architectural renderings

0B. The basic description

0B1. Required elements

The description must always include the following elements, regardless of the completeness of the information available:

Title proper (see 1B)

Date of creation or publication (see 4D)

Extent (see 5B)

Size and format (see 5D)

Also include other elements of description as set out in the following rules, if available and appropriate to the chosen level of description.

0B2. Basis of the description

0B2.1. General rule. Base the description on the material in hand.

0B2.2. Imperfections. If describing material known to be imperfect, and details of a perfect (or more perfect) example can be determined, base the description on the perfect example. Use square brackets only where required for description of the perfect example. In such cases, the details may be determined by examining additional examples or by referring to reliable descriptions in other sources. As appropriate, cite the source used for the description in a note (see 7B3, 7B12). Make a local note describing the imperfection of the material in hand (see 7A4.1).

Betty the cook maids head drest. - London : W. Humphrey, 17761

Note: Imprint from George

Local note: Imperfect; trimmed below title, removing imprint

If no reliable evidence of the details of a perfect example is available, describe the material as it is. Make a general note indicating that the description is based on an imperfect example. See also 0G6.3.

0C. Chief source of information

The chief source of information is text provided by the creator or creating body on or with the material. Possible sources include the front and back of the image, the container, digitally embedded metadata, and caption lists. Transcribe information found in the chief source. When no suitable creator-supplied text is present, supply information is supplied in square brackets as necessary. For published material with a conventional title page, see Appendix H.

0D. Prescribed sources of information

The prescribed source(s) of information for each area of the description is set out in preferred order below. Do not transcribe any information not present in a prescribed source for that area.

Area Prescribed sources of information

1. Title and statement of responsibility Chief source

2.EditionState Chief source

3. Material (or type of publication) specific (Not applicable to graphic materials)


4. Publication, distribution, etc. Chief source

5. Physical description The material as a whole

6. Series Chief source

7. Note Any source

8. Standard number and terms of availability Chief source

In all cases in which information for areas 1, 2, 4, or 6 is taken from elsewhere than the chief source, make a note to indicate the source of the information (see 7B3, 7B6, 7B7.1, 7B8). For published material with a conventional title page, see Appendix H.

0E. Prescribed punctuation

Precede each area, other than the first, by a period-space-dash-space (. -- ) unless the area begins a new paragraph.

Precede or enclose each occurrence of an element of an area with standard punctuation as indicated in the “prescribed punctuation” sections in of these rules.

Precede each mark of prescribed punctuation by a space and follow it by a space, with the following exceptions: the comma, period, closing parenthesis, and closing square bracket are not preceded by a space; the opening parenthesis and opening square bracket are not followed by a space.

End paragraphs with normal punctuation (usually the period).

If an entire area or element is omitted from the bibliographic description (e.g., because it is not present in the source), also omit its corresponding prescribed punctuation. Do not use the mark of omission.

0F. Language and script of the description

0F1. General rule

0F1.1. In the following areas, transcribe information on or with the material in the language and script (wherever feasible) in which it appears there:

tTitle and statement of responsibility5


pPublication, distribution, etc.


0F1.2. Give interpolations (see 0G6) into these areas in the language and script of the other information in the area, except for prescribed interpolations and other cases specified in these rules (e.g., 4B5, 4B6.2, 4C6.2). If the other information in the area is romanized, give interpolations according to the same romanization.

0F1.3. In notes, give information other than titles, citations, and quotations in the language and script of the cataloging agency.

0F2. Romanization

0F2.1. If it is not feasible to transcribe from the material using a nonroman script, romanize the text according to the ALA-LC Romanization Tables. Do not enclose the romanized text within square brackets. Make a note to indicate that the romanized text appears in nonroman script on the material (see 7B2.2)


Родина-мат зовет!2


Rodina-mat' zovet!

0F2.2. Optionally, if it is feasible to transcribe from the material using a nonroman script, also provide parallel romanized fields using the ALA-LC Romanization Tables. Do not enclose the romanized text within square brackets, but indicate in a note that the romanization does not appear on the source.

Note: Romanization supplied by cataloger

0G. Transcription

Transcribe information in the form and order in which it is presented in the source, according to these general rules 0B-0G, unless instructed otherwise by specific rules. Do not use the mark of omission to indicate transposition.

0G1. Letters, diacritics, symbols, and rebuses

0G1.1. Letters and diacritics. In general, transcribe letters as they appear. Do not add accents and other diacritical marks not present in the source. Convert earlier forms of letters and diacritical marks to their modern form (see Appendix G2). In most languages, including Latin, transcribe a ligature by giving its component letters separately. Do not, however, separate the component letters of æ in Anglo-Saxon; œ in French; or æ and œ in ancient or modern Scandinavian languages. If there is any doubt as to the correct conversion of letters and diacritical marks to modern form, transcribe them from the source as exactly as possible.




Iohn Bull's house sett in flames

[add example Iohn or something like that to illustrate that I is not changed to J]


Fun upon fun, or the firſt and ſecond part of Miſs Kitty Fiſhers Merry thought4


Fun upon fun, or, Tthe first and second part of Miss Kitty Fishers Merry thought

0G1.2. Symbols, etc. Except for rebuses, replace symbols or other matter that cannot be reproduced using available typographical facilities with a cataloger’s description in square brackets. This includes “yͤ” (frequently mis-transcribed as “ye”). Make an explanatory note if necessary.


Sould by Will. Faithorne att yͤye sign of yͤye shipp within Temple Bar5


Sould by Will. Faithorne att [the] sign of [the] shipp within Temple Bar

0G1.3 Rebuses. Replace pictures in rebuses with the intended words in square brackets. Make an explanatory note (see also 4D2.2).

The [Bute] interest in the [city], or, Tthe [bridge] in the [hole]. -- [London] : Sold in May's [Buildings] Covent [Garden] [by George Bickham, 1760]6

Note: Title and publisher's address in the form of a rebus. Bute represented as a boot in the rebus.

(Comment: Date and publisher’s name supplied by cataloger)

0G2. Capitalization and conversion of case

0G2.1. General rule. Convert letters to uppercase or lowercase according to the rules for capitalization in AACR2, Appendix A. Do not convert case when transcribing roman numerals.

0G2.2. Letters i/j and u/v. If the rules for capitalization require converting the letters I or V to lower case or i, j, u, or v to upper case i/j or u/v to uppercase or lowercase, apply the following table for conversion except in the case of gothic script. If the source uses a gothic script that does not distinguish between the letters i/j or the letters u/v, transcribe the letters as i and v respectively. For information on early printing as it pertains to the transcription of i/j and u/v, see Appendix G4. If any of the letters is transcribed within the first five words of the title proper in converted form, provide additional title access using alternative forms of the title proper as needed (see Appendix F).

Uppercase letter to be converted

Lowercase conversion

I (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word6


II at end of word


II elsewhere in word


V (vowel or consonant) at beginning of word


V (vowel or consonant) elsewhere in word


VV representing single letter7


Lowercase letter to be converted

Uppercase conversion

i (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word


j (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word


u (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word


v (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word


vv representing single letterError: Reference source not found





Les oeuures morales de Plutarque / translatees de grec en françois, reueues et corrigees en plusieurs passages par le translateurOleum oliuarum

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