0G2.3. Chronograms. Capital letters occurring apparently at random or in a particular sequence may represent a chronogram. Where there is good reason to assume that a chronogram is being used, do not convert letters considered part of the chronogram from uppercase to lowercase, or from lowercase to uppercase (see also 4D2.2).
DoMI et patrIae VIVIt herVs, forIs et eXterIs VIXIt CLarVs8
Note: Title inscribed around portrait forms a chronogram for 1703
0G3. Punctuation in the source
0G3.1. General rule. Do not necessarily transcribe punctuation as it appears in the source. Instead, follow modern punctuation conventions, using common sense in deciding whether to include the punctuation, omit it, replace it, or add punctuation not present.
Some"Yes, sir, everything's ho-kee-doke, Betty's voice is normal again!"9 [need example] experts think even earlier versions of Shakespeare's portrait exist : "Y'know Will--for a few quid more I could retouch it a little--"
(Comment: Quotation marks added to text transcribed from speech bubble in source)
[need example: poster where different lettering styles and placement indicate breaks that otherwise would require commas]
[B] The unhappy favourite, or, The Earl of Essex : a tragedy / written by Jno. BanksPerdito & Perdita, or, The man & woman of the people
(Source: The unhappy favourite; or, The Earl of Essex. A tragedy. Written by Jno; BanksPerdito & Perdita—or—the Man & Woman of the People)10
Red Jacket concrete bridge dedication, Aug. 22, '1111
(Comment: Title on the panoramic photo has hyphens instead of spaces between words; punctuation is normalized to modern conventions)
[B] London : Printed for A. Millar, over-against Catharine-Street in the Strand, MDCCLI 
[B] The unhappy favourite; or, The Earl of Essex. A tragedy. Written by Jno; Banks
The unhappy favourite, or, The Earl of Essex : a tragedy / written by Jno. Banks
[B] London: Printed for A Millar, over-against Catharine-street in the Strand. M,DCC,LI.)
London : Printed for A. Millar, over-against Catharine-Street in the Strand, MDCCLI 
Alternative rule: Transcribe all punctuation as found in the source of information, with the exception of those marks covered in rules 0G3.5-0G3.7. When following this alternative rule, always include prescribed punctuation as well, even if this results in double punctuation. Prescribed punctuation is treated at the beginning of each chapter within these rules.
[B] The unhappy favourite; or, The Earl of Essex. : A tragedy. / Written by Jno; Banks
(Comment: Commas are not required around or when applying this option, because commas surrounding a conjunction introducing an alternative title are an AACR2 convention, not prescribed ISBD punctuation)
London: : Printed for A Millar, over-against Catharine-Street in the Strand., M,DCC,LI. 
0G3.2. Apostrophes and quotation marks.Transcribe apostrophes and quotation marks as found. Do not supply this punctuation if not present in the source.
George Peck's grand revival of Stetson's Uncle Tom's cabin12
Daniel Webster, New Englands choice for twelfth President of the United States13
"Beat it. I'm busy stirrin' up th' masses"14
0G3.3. Hyphens. Transcribe hyphens used to connect the constituent parts of compound words, normalizing their form as necessary (see Appendix G2). Do not supply hyphens not present in the source.
Yale College, New-Haven15
[B] Report of the Boston Female Anti Slavery Society
0G3.4. Punctuation within roman numerals. Do not transcribe internal marks of punctuation appearing within roman numerals. Omit them without using the mark of omission.
[B] The bye-laws and regulations of the Marine Society, incorporated in MDCCLXXII
0G3.5. Ellipses, square brackets, and virgules. Do not transcribe ellipses ... or square brackets [ ] when present in the source; replace them with a dash -- and parentheses ( )respectively or omit them, as appropriate. Do not confuse a virgule (/) in gothic script with a slash; replace it with a comma or omit it, as appropriate. Make an explanatory note, if considered important.
[GM] If elected...16
Optional note: On material, "elected" is followed by an ellipsis
When replacing “...” with “--“, leave a space after the --, unless the dash is at the beginning.
Y'know Will-- for a few quid more I could retouch it a little--17 [GM] Getting around-- in Germany18
[GM] --and then there were none19
0G3.6. Line breaksendings. Do not transcribe a hyphen or other mark of punctuation used to connect a single word divided between two lines or two portions of a line; transcribe as a single word, ignoring the punctuation. If the function of the hyphen is in doubt (e.g., if it might form part of a compound word), transcribe it.
Source (showing line endings):
[B] I DISCORSI DI NICO-
LO MACHIAVELLI, SO-
PRA LA PRIMA DECA DI
I discorsi di Nicolo Machiauelli, sopra la prima deca di Tito Liuio
0G3.7. Punctuation substituting for letters. Transcribe as a single hyphens any each distinct hyphens, dashes, line, or underscore characters used in the source, whether used as a substitute for one or more letters in a word, or for an entire word.
Mrs. R---n preparing to receive the Duke de Ch---s20
(Comment: Source is a single etched line as wide as two characters, presumably ambiguously representing both “Real” and “Royal,” but in any case, a single line is always transcribed as a single hyphen)
Transcribe asterisks as asterisks.
[B] par Mr. B***
If the values of the missing letters are known, provide the information in a note, if considered important.
[B] Clara H_____d
Optional note: Clara H-d is Clara Hayward
0G4. Spacing 0G4.1. Spacing within words and numbers. In general, follow modern spacing conventions when transcribing from the source. Make no attempt to preserve full or irregular spaces between letters within words. If a word is divided between the end of one line and the beginning of the next, transcribe it as a single word, ignoring the line-break.
Omit internal spaces when transcribing numbers (including roman numerals).
O LFA CTVS22[B] G R AE C AE GRAMMATICES
Source (showing line endings):
[B] DE LAVDI
BVS VRBIS ETRVRIAE
De laudibus urbis Etruriae et Italiae
Alternative rule: Transcribe internal spaces within numbers (including roman numerals). If multiple spaces or different sizes of spaces appear between two characters within the number, transcribe them as a single space.
M. D. CC. XLIV
M. D. CC. XLIV
0G4.2. Spacing between words.If spacing between words in the source is ambiguous, or lacking, include spaces in the transcription to separate the words as needed. If the missing spaces occur in the first five words of the title proper, provide additional title access for the form of title as it appears in the source, without the spaces (see Appendix F).
[B] LAMORTE D'ORFEO
La morte d'Orfeo
0G4.3. Variant spellings. Do not insert or remove spaces that merely represent variant or archaic spellings.8
0G5.1. General rule. Indicate omissions in the transcription or in a quoted note by using the mark of omission. When using the mark of omission, generally give it with a space on either side. However, give a space on only one side if the mark comes at the end of an area, is preceded by an opening parenthesis or opening square bracket, or is followed by a closing parenthesis, closing square bracket, or comma. Do not transcribe a mark of punctuation that precedes the mark of omission unless it is a mark of abbreviation or a period, exclamation mark, or question mark.
[B] Oxford : Printed by Leon. Lichfield ... and are to be sold by the Widow Howell, 1698
Amsterdam : Printed for the Widow Swart ..., 1688
(Comment: The mark of omission has a space on only one side because it is followed by a comma)
[GM] Advertisement, Charleston, S.C. : to be sold ... 250 Negroes! ...24
0G5.2. Information not considered part of any area. If omitting grammatically separable information from the transcription because it is not considered part of any area (pious invocations, etc.; see 1A2.54), do not use the mark of omission. If considered important, give the omitted information in a note.
0G5.3. Information not taken from the chief source of information. If transcribing information from a source other than the chief source of information, omit any words preceding or following the information if they are not considered part of the element and are grammatically separable. Do not use the mark of omission. If considered important, give the omitted text in a note.
[B] The second edition
Note: Edition statement from colophon; full colophon reads: This, the second edition of Le morte Darthur, with Aubrey Beardsley's designs ... is limited to 1000 copies for the United Kingdom and 500 for America, after printing which the type has been distributed
0G6.1. General rule. Indicate an interpolation in the transcription or in a quoted note by enclosing it in square brackets. If transcribing text with missing or obscured letters or words that can be reconstructed with some certainty, include these in the transcription, enclosing them in square brackets. Make an explanatory note, if considered important.
(Comment: The word ends with a superscript)
[GM] Qui [est] la?26
(Comment: Drawing is damaged and word is being interpolated)
0G6.2. Conjectural and indecipherable text.Indicate a conjectural interpolation by adding a question mark immediately after the interpolation, within the square brackets. Supply a question mark enclosed in square brackets for each indeterminable word or portion of word. Make notes to justify the interpolations, provide explanations, or offer tentative readings of indecipherable portions of text, if considered important.
(Comment: Sitter possibly identified as John Cameron)
(Comment: The word ends with a brevigraph—a special marks of contraction in continuance of the manuscript tradition— that is conjectured to be a )
(Comment: The brevigraph at the end of the word cannot be determined)
[B] El[speth?] [?] McWhorter
(Comment: An autograph with some conjectured letters in the forename and an indecipherable middle initial, transcribed in a local note)
0G6.3. Lacunae in imperfect examples.If the description is based on an imperfect example (see 0B2.2) and missing portion cannot be reconstructed with some certainty, use the mark of omission enclosed in square brackets ([...]) to show lacunae in the resource.
[B] En Barcelo[na] : Por Sebastian Mateu[...] modern minstrels28
Note: Description based on an imperfect copyexample; title page torn with partial loss of imprint, removing all lettering above lower portion of "modern"
(Comment: although image is printed, no other examples are known)
0G6.4. Blank spaces. If transcribing text containing a blank space intended to be completed later, as is common in certificates, pictorial letter sheets, performance advertisements, etc., supply the word “blank” enclosed in square brackets. If the blank has been completed in the item being described, indicate this in a local note, if considered important. If the blank occurs in the first five words of the title proper, provide additional title access for the form of title without the interpolated word “[blank]” (see Appendix F).
This certifies that [blank] is a member of the Native American Republican Association of Philadelphia
Optional local note: Library's copy has member's name supplied in manuscript: "[Charles Naylor"]
0G6.5. Adjacent elements within a single area.If adjacent elements within one area are to be enclosed in square brackets, each is enclosed in its own pair of square bracketsgenerally enclose them in one set of square brackets.
However, if the square brackets enclose the GMD or are due to interpolations such as corrections or expansions (see 0G8.2, 4B3, 4B4, 4B5), use separate pairs of square brackets.
[Edmund Kean as Richard III] [still image]30
[B] Lugduni [Lyon] : [Philippe Tighi?], 1573
0G6.6. Adjacent elements in separate areas. If adjacent elements are in different areas, enclose each element in a set of square brackets.
[B] At London : Imprinted for VVilliam Aspley,  -- , 418 p.
0G7. Inaccuracies, misprints, etc.
0G7.1. Inaccuracies. Transcribe an inaccuracy, misspelling, or misprint as it appears on the material. Follow such an inaccuracy either by “[sic]” or by the abbreviation “i.e.” and the correction within square brackets. If the misprint occurs in the first five words of the title proper, provide additional title access for the form of title without the interpolation and for the form of title as if it had been printed correctly (see Appendix F).
Pehriska-Ruhpa, Moennitarri warrior in the costume of the dog danse [sic]31
Baltimore from Federal Hall [i.e. Hill]32
Dracula, by Hamilton Deane and John L. Dalderston [i.e. Balderston]
(Comment: A poster advertisement for the play Dracula which is by Dean and Balderston)33
Do not correct words spelled according to older or non-standard orthographic conventions, e.g., “françoise” for “française,” or “antient” for “ancient.”
0G7.2. Deliberate misspellings.Do not correct words misspelled for humorous effect. If considered important, make an explanatory note. Additional title access may be provided (see Appendix F).
The Summer Shower, or, Mademoiselle Par, a Pluye34
Optional note: For "Par, a Pluye" read "parapluie"
0G7.32. Reversed, turned, and approximated letters. Transcribe a reversed or turned letter (i.e., an upside-down letter), whether inadvertent or deliberate, as the intended letter. Transcribe two letters of type used to approximate a third letter as the intended letter. However, transcribe letterpress vv as vv (see Appendix G5). Make an explanatory note, if considered important. If the two letters of type used to approximate a third letter occur in the first five words of the title proper, provide additional title access for the form of title with the letters transcribed as set (see Appendix F).
Al Palzer, boxer35
Optional note: Hand-lettered z in "Palzer" looks like an s on the glass negative
Bessario Patriarcha ConstantinopoliAlexander Nowel, Dr. in diuinity, Dean of St. Pauls, in London,...36
Optional note: The Third "n" in Constantinopoli is reversed "S" in "St." is reversed
Representation du feu terrible a Nouvelle Yorck
Optional note: as characteristic of vues d'optique, title is printed in reverse37
Optional note: The "W" in "Wittenberg" is formed using "rv"
0G8. Abbreviations and contractions
0G8.1. When transcribing, do not abbreviate any words not abbreviated in the source.
peint d'après nat. par Ch. Bodmer38
0G8.2. If brevigraphs (special marks of contraction in continuance of the manuscript tradition) have been used, expand affected words to their full form and enclose supplied letters in square brackets (see Appendix G3). Make an explanatory note, if considered important (see 7B4.3). If a brevigraph standing for an entire word appears in the source, supply instead the word itself, enclosed in square brackets. However, transcribe an ampersand or a Tironian sign ( ) as an ampersand. Enclose each expansion or supplied word in its own set of square brackets.
HENRICVS DEI GRĀ REX ANGLIE
Henricus Ddei gra[tia] Rrex Aanglie
If the meaning of a brevigraph is conjectural, apply the bracketing conventions given in 0G6.2.
0G8.3. Do not expand modern abbreviations or modern contractions when transcribing. If the abbreviation occurs in the first five words of the title proper, and is not a commonly-used form of address such as Mr., Mrs., or HRH, provide additional title access for the expanded form of titleif considered important (see Appendix F).
0G9. Superscripts and subscripts
Transcribe superscript and subscript characters on the line unless the sense would be affected (e.g., in a mathematical formula). In abbreviations where the period is located below the superscript characters, transcribe itAlways transcribe the period in an abbreviation at the end of the abbreviation.
M.r King in the Character of Ld. Ogilby
Mr. King in the character of Ld. Ogilby
M. V.dr Gucht Sculp.
M. Vdr. Gucht sSculp.
(Comment: Engraver is Michael van der Gucht, also frequently known as Michael Vander Gucht)
(Comment: Engraver is Caroline Watson)
0G10. Initials, etc.
0G10.1. Transcribe initials, initialisms, and acronyms without internal spaces, regardless of how they are presented in the source of information.
F.S. Chanfrau in the character of "Mose"43
Made in NATO44
(Comment: On poster, acronym is arranged as a half-circle, with spaces between letters)
0G10.2. Treat an abbreviation consisting of more than a single letter as if it were a distinct word, separating it with a space from preceding and succeeding words or initials.
R. St. G.M. pinxt.46
(Comment: Only pinxt. ., meaning “painted it,” is preceded by a space in the original, which is a statement rather than an artist’s monogram; artist is Richard St George Mansergh)
[B] Mr. J.P. Morgan
0G10.3. If two or more distinct initialisms (or sets of initials), acronyms, or abbreviations appear in juxtaposition, separate them with a space.
The cataloger must decide whether printed or manuscript text in the chief source of information constitutes a title and/or statement of responsibility that can be transcribed for the catalog record. Incidental information determined not to be title and/or statement of responsibility (e.g., dedication wordsnumbering, mailing address, customer name) may be described or transcribed in a note. For published material with a conventional title page, see also Appendix H.
1A1. Prescribed punctuation
Titles for graphic material will often not lend themselves easily to the application of the prescribed punctuation. If, however, the data can be separated clearly into title proper and other title information, supply the prescribed punctuation.
John Howell, an Indianapolis newsboy, makes $.75 some days. Begins at 6 a.m., Sundays. (Lives at 215 W. Michigan St.)47
(Comment: The chief source for this photograph is a typed caption card that does not easily divide into primary and secondary parts. The entire caption is treated as the title proper)
Barnum & Bailey greatest show on earth. , dDaring and dangerous equestrian act : in which the courageous artist guides his horse through a flaming hoop of fire...48
(Comment: Circus posters commonly have the name of the circus at the top and a description of the act shown in the image at the bottom. Both sections are treated as the title proper to represent the title distinctively)
Your wartime duty! Don't waste water [still image] : Do not use hose for washing your automobile. Do use water from a pail49
(Comment: This poster title can be separated into primary and secondary parts because the title proper is in large letters above the image and other title information is below the image)
For instructions on the use of spaces before and after prescribed punctuation, see 0E.
Enclose the general material designation [GMD] in square brackets.
Precede the title of a supplement part or section (see 1B811) by a period.
Precede each parallel title by an equals sign.
Precede each unit of other title information by a colon.
Precede the first statement of responsibility by a diagonal slash.
Precede each subsequent statement of responsibility by a semicolon.
For the punctuation of this area when a publication has no collective title, see 1F.