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1A2. Sources of information

1A2.1. General rule. The prescribed source of information for the title and statement of responsibility area is text (printed or manuscript) provided by the creator or creating body on or with the material.


1A2.2. If printed or manuscript text on or with the material constitutes a title or statement of responsibility, transcribe it in the bibliographic record.

Benj. Franklin / engraved by Geo. E. Perine, N.Y., for the Eclectic, after drawing by C.N. Cochin, 177750

(Comment: A facsimile of Franklin’s signature below image is used as a title for a published portrait likely to be cited by what is printed on the item; the statement of responsibility is also transcribed)

B. Franklin of Philadelphia L.L.D. F.R.S. / M. Chamberlin pinxt. ; E. Fisher fecit.51

(Comment: Name information printed below a portrait is treated as a title; statement of responsibility is also transcribed)

Dom Smith, Vladivostok, 189952

(Comment: HandContemporary hand-written phrase on page of photo album page is contemporary to album’s creation andcompiled by photographer is treated as a title)

Cat show53

(Comment: Manuscript text with the material (in a magazine’s logbook of its photographers’ work) is transcribed as the title)

[Much ado about nothing, act 2, sc. 3] / Chas. A. Buchel54

(Comment: Statement of responsibility transcribed from artist’s signature)

"Is this what you mean?" / Herblock55

(Comment: Quoted dialog is transcribed as the title of a cartoon drawing, with artist’s signature in statement of responsibility)

Etchings by Henry William Bunbury56

(Comment: A unique assemblage of prints and drawings with a specially-printed title page)

1A2.32. If no title is on or with the material, supply the information according to the provisions of 1B91E.

[Eleanor and Frederick Pray, seated in the veranda room, Dom Smith, Vladivostok, Russia]57

(Comment: Hand-written phrase “morning room” on photo album page was added later in ball-point pen and is not treated as a title, but could be quoted in a note)


1A2.43. If no statement of responsibility is on or with the material, omit the statement of responsibility element. If possible, provide information about the creator in a note (see 1FE215).

1A2.54. Omission of numbers, statements of patronage, etc. Omit, without using the mark of omission, information that constitutes neither title information nor a statement of responsibility. Such information may include numbers, statements of patronage, pious invocations, quotations, devices, announcementsdecorative flourishes, epigrams, mottoes, prices, etc. (see 0G5.2). Transcribe or describe this kind of information in a note if it is considered important. However, if such information is a grammatically inseparable part (see 1B1.1) of one of the elements of the title and statement of responsibility area, transcribe it as such. If such information constitutes the only title-like information present in the source, it may be used as a title according to the provisions of 1B59.1. Optionally, transcribe dedications as Other title information (see 1D4).

[example needed] James will find example with photographer’s number in addition to transcribable title]

Francisque Arban, aéronaute francais58

Optional note: Includes Italian poem by Vincenzo Monti, below title.

(Comment: Four lines of text immediately below the portrait’s title are a poem that is omitted from the title but can be mentioned in a note)

To the right hon'ble Lord Bangor, this plate representing a complete perspective view of all the machinery of a bleach mill, upon the newest and most approved constructions, consisting of the wash mill, rubbing boards moved by a crank, and beetling engine for glazing the cloth, with a view of the boiling house; is most respectfully inscribed by ... Wm. Hincks59

(Comment: The dedication inscription surrounds the title and is inseparable)

Scene on the Delaware River at Philada. during the severe winter of 185660


Optional note: At head of title: Souvenir of the coldest winter on record

(Comment: Text above image is omitted from the title and quoted in a note because cataloger judged it characterizes the reason for making the print)



1A3. Form and order of information

Transcribe title and statement of responsibility information in the form and order in which it is presented in the source, unless instructed otherwise by specific rules (see 0G).

Red Jjacket concrete bridge dedication, Aug. 22, '1161

(Comment: Title on the panoramic photo has hyphens instead of spaces between words; punctuation is normalized to modern conventions)

Baltimore from Federal Hall [i.e. Hill]62

(Comment: Bracketed correction for a spelling error on a glass negative that changes the meaning of the title)



1B. Transcribed tTitle proper

1B1. Words considered part of the title proper

1B1.1. The title proper is the first element of the description and is the primary name of the material. When transcribing the title proper, include all text inseparable from the words of the title, i.e., all words that clearly read together without a break, or that are visually or grammatically inseparable. If no title is on or with the material, provide according to the provisions of 1E.

Helen Keller63

(Comment: Name typed on a 20th century portrait photograph provides a title)

Voyage a la lune64

(Comment: Text printed on a 19th century cartoon provides a title)

Reserve boxes, open-air circus, Luna Park, Coney Island, N.Y. City65

(Comment: Words printed on a stereograph mount read together as a title)

Cucumis sativus vulgaris, cucumern66

(Comment: Text beside a 16th century botanical book illustration provides a title)

Boston national bloomer girl's base ball club, L.J. Galbreath, originator and owner67

(Comment: All the text in a single-line caption on a postcard provides a title)

Portrait of an Irish chief, drawn from life at Wexford68

(Comment: size and location of lettering on material indicate that “drawn from life at Wexford” is part of a satiric title and not a statement of responsibility)

Philip Bosco as physicist Niels Bohr in "Copenhagen" and Claudia Shear as Mae West in "Dirty Blonde"69

(Comment: Hand-lettered line of text on a 21st century drawing provides a title)

Vues de Paris et ses environs en photographies70

(Comment: Title on cover of a 19th century photo album)

If the title is preceded or followed in the source by other elements of information, transpose these elements to their appropriate areas in the description (or give them in a note) unless case endings would be affected, the grammatical construction of the information would be disturbed, or the text is otherwise grammatically inseparable from the title proper. In the latter cases, transcribe the information as part of the title proper.

Karen Female Institute, Tounghoo, with the native board of managers in their hunting dresses [still image] / drawn by Mrs. Ellen B. Mason, from a photograph71

(Comment: The phrase “from a photograph” is printed at the end of the title but is also directly below the statement of responsibility. Cataloger judgment resolves the ambiguous placement by transposing the phrase out of the title)

Prang's American vValentine and birthday cards72

(Comment: The publisher’s name is an integral part of the title proper)

If considered important, make a note to indicate the original position of transposed elements.


1B1.2. If a date appears in the source in such a way as to constitute part of the title, transcribe it as such (as part of the title proper or other title information, whichever is appropriate). See also 4D1.4.

Near Sale's house, 23 Oct. 1880, Otago Harbour73

The Stewart Island trip, on board the Wakatipiu, Christmas Day, 189574

1B1.3. If only a series title is on an item, supply provide a title according to the provisions of 1B91E.

[Use Harlot’s progress as example: plate 1 has “A Harlot’s Progress Plate 1” in lower left, below image; subsequent plates just have “Plate 2,” “Plate 3,” etc.].75



1B1.4. If words are missing or illegible, supply the information in brackets or indicate the gap with a bracketed mark of omission. (See also instructions in 0G.)

[Strikes] With Nose, Chief76

Uncl[e] Tom's Cabin77

[…] modern minstrels78



1B2. Note on the source of the title proper

Always make a note on the source of the title proper.

Doctor Syntax, in the middle of a smoaking hot political squabble, wishes to whet his whistle

Note: Title from item

E.H. Sothern as Malvolio79



Note: Title from ink note on back of mount

1B3. Forms of the title proper

The title proper can take a variety of forms, some of which are exemplified below.


1B3.1. Title proper inclusive of other titles or other title information appearing before the chief title:

Bill Graham presents in San Francisco Grateful Dead, Junior Wells Chicago Blues Band, and the Doors80

(Comment: “Grateful Dead, Junior Wells Chicago Blues Band, and the Doors” is the chief title.)

This view of La Valletta, taken from the Gargur Battery during the siege in 1800 is most humbly inscribed ...

(Comment: “View of La Valletta” is the chief title)81

1B3.2. Title proper inclusive of alternative titles:

Weighed & found wanting, or, Tthe effects of a summer's ramble82



1B3.3. Title proper consisting solely of the name of a responsible person or body:

Murray Riss83

(Comment: The photographer’s name is the printed title for his published portfolio)

1B3.4. Multiple versions of a title are on or with the material. The choice of the title proper depends on cataloger judgment. Typical situations involve news photographs with cutlines and slugs in addition to longer captions. Photographs can have multiple titles from usage in different publications. Multiple titles may also be available when photographic negatives and their corresponding prints are cataloged as a multipart resource.

Tweed suits the smartest for daily spring wear

(Comment: The cataloger opted to use the cutline printed above the long caption is used as the title proper; the slug at the end of the caption, “Washington Fashions, April 22, 1929” could be used in a note. The long caption that begins “Mrs. Wm. B. Bankhead, wife of Representative Bankhead of Ala. who makes her home at the Carlton …” can be excerpted in a subject summary note)84

Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California85


Note: Title on print: "Destitute pea pickers in California. A 32 year old mother of seven children"

(Comment: The caption for the negative and that of the print cataloged as a multipart resource are similar but not identical for transcription. The cataloger opted to use the negative’s caption is used as the title proper and quote the print title is quoted in a note)

Franciscus Valesius, D.G. Dux Alenson et Brabant, Comes Flandriae, Protect Belgicae86

Note: "Francis of Valois, Duke of Aniou, of Brabant, &c., Earle of Flanders, &c., Protector of the Belgicke libertie"--letterpress title above engraved plate

(Comment: cataloger opted to use title engraved within plate as title proper because it was felt important to collocate multiple impressions of the plate)



1B4. Title elements scattered by layout or typography

If parts of the title are scattered over the item, compose the title proper based on those elements distinguished by position, typography, or size of lettering.

Our choice, Grover Cleveland, A.G. Thurman. Democratic nominees, for president, for vice president87

Note: Title assembled from words scattered on four banners, above and below the image

(Comment: Title words assembled from four banners above and below the image, starting with the largest type size)

If the title information is arranged decoratively, or other elements of the description (e.g., creator or publisher) are interspersed with the title information, deduce the logical sequence and then record the title in its semantic order.

Grateful Dead, Junior Wells Chicago Blues Band, and the DoorsEx libris George Wharton Edwards88

(Comment: The opening words of the posterbookplate, “Bill Graham presents in San FranciscoDramatic arts” describe the publisher of the poster and aresymbolism and are quoted in a note. The title words are deciphered from psychedelic letteringassembled from two banners and a line of text below the statement of responsibility)


1B5. Titles in multiple languages

If there are different titles in two or more languages or scripts, choose the title proper on the basis of the sequence or layout of the titles. If these are insufficient to enable the choice to be made or are ambiguous, choose the most comprehensive one of the several titles (see also 1C and 1D).

Chef der Blut Indianer. Kriegs Chef der Piekan Indianer. Kutana Indianer [still image] : Chef des Indiens Sangs. Chef de guerre des Indiens Piékanns. Indien Koutané = Chief of the Blood-Indians. War-chief of the Piekann Indians. Koutani Indian89

(Comment: The German title is first and is also in the largest letters)

If the same title appears in two or more languages or scripts, transcribe as the title proper the one typographically more prominent, or by reference to the order of the titles, or, if necessary, the one easiest to transcribe (see also 1C and 1D).

St. Petersbourg, L'Academie des arts90

Note: Title from item. A second title is printed in Russian with Cyrillic letters.

(Comment: The French title appears first, on the left. The second title in Cyrillic letters can be mentioned in a note)

1B65. Insufficiently descriptive or distinctive titleTitle from beginning words of text

1B5.1. If no title can be found, and the material has non-incidental text, use the beginning words of the text as the title proper.

H.R. Robinson, 52 Courtland St., Caricatures and prints91

(Comment: Resource being cataloged is Robinson’s illustrated advertisement)

Free speech, free soil, free men. This is to certify that [blank] is a member of the [blank] Wide-awake Club92

(Comment: Material has blank spaces to be filled in later. See 0G6.4)


1B5.2. If a transcribed title does not accurately or adequately describe the nature and content of the item, supply additional information in the note area. Provide additional title access to a distinctive devised title if considered important (see Appendix F)..

Lower West Side, Buffalo, N.Y., 1972-7793



Summary nNote: Photographs show the poor and ethnically diverse communities of Buffalo's Lower West Side, representing the first of four visits Rogovin made to this area over a thirty-year period (from 1972-2002)

Note: Title from photographer's notes.

(Comment: The title identifies a place, and the subject summary note explains that people rather than buildings are the focus)

Bailey's fine candies, 45 West Street, Boston94

Note: Trade card shows a smiling boy sledding down a snowy hill to promote the sale of Bailey's candy.

Provide additional title access through a devised or supplied title if considered important (see Appendix F).

1B67. Collective or group title for multipart resources

If a clearly identifiable and consistently used comprehensive title is provided for some or all of the items in a multipart resource, transcribe this as the title proper. If considered important, transcribe the title proper of the individual items themselves in a contents note (see 7B15). If creating separate records for individual items, apply the appropriate rule (1B11 or area 6, see [precataloging decisions]).

The illustration of the Siberian War

(Comment: The This title is printed on each picture in the group, in addition to an individual title for each printof a series of prints is used as a title proper when cataloging the whole series)

Photographic views of Kern County, California95

(Comment: Title for a set of 460 photographs by Carleton Watkins)

Beebe Windmill, Hildreath Lane & Ocean Avenue (moved several times), Bridgehampton, Suffolk County, NY96

(Comment: The creator of a set of architectural drawings and photographs provided this title and similar information is written on the drawings and in a photo caption list)


If a title given on some or all of the items in a multipart resource is not consistently used from item to item and none is given preference in reference sources, choose the one title that identifies the collection resource most adequately and succinctly. Do not enclose the title in square brackets. Provide additional title access if considered important (see Appendix F).

1B8. Title supplied from another source

If no title is in the prescribed source, but one is transcribed from another source, enclose it in square brackets. Cite the source in a note.

[The great triumphal chariot of Maximilian I]97

Note: Title from Bartsch, 1001.339.

[Villa d'Este, Tivoli]

Note: Title from list of illustrations in The Acorn

(Comment: Material is untitled, but was identified in the published volume in which it originally appeared) 98

[Summer meeting at Long Branch, N.Y.][still image][graphic] : [Start]. – [proof before letters]99

Note: Title from final, published print.

(Comment: Material is untitled, but examples of the image with this printed title are known to exist)

[The destruction of Lower Manhattan]100

Note: Title from BleakBeauty.com

(Comment: A Web site reference source provides the title for a set of photographs originally taken in the 1960s and reprinted in 2007)

If no title is in the prescribed source and two or more sources disagree on the title, either in content or in language, and none can be credited with representing the creator's intent, choose the title from the most authoritative source and transcribe it in square brackets. If considered important, give additional title access to the variant titles.


1B9. No title proper

1B9.1. If no title can be found, and the material has a printed text, use the opening words of the text as the title proper, if the words provide a reasonably distinctive title. .

H.R. Robinson, 52 Courtland St., Caricatures and prints101

(Comment: Resource being cataloged is Robinson’s illustrated advertisement)

Free speech, free soil, free men. This is to certify that [blank] is a member of the [blank] Wide-awake Club102

(Comment: Material has blank spaces to be filled in later. See 0G6.4)

Betty Boop. "Yes, sir, everything's ho-kee-doke, Betty's voice is normal again!"103

(Comment: A comic strip name and the words from the first balloon provide a distinctive title)

1B9.2. If the opening words of the text are not suitable, or ifIf there is no text, devise a brief descriptive title, preferably in the language and script of the cataloging agency, and use this devised title, enclosed in square brackets, as the title proper.

[Rosa Parks, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Mrs. H.C. Foster (Autherine Lucy), prior to civil rights rally at Madison Square Garden, New York City]104

(Comment: A news photograph with a generic cutline “At civil rights rally” and a lengthy caption. The devised title summarizes the subject content)

[Christmas card from "Esther and Max De Pree" to Charles and Ray Eames]105


(Comment: The words “Merry Christmas” on the front of the card are not distinctive and a title is devised)

[Spirit Knob, Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota]106

(Comment: Stereograph has three series titles and no item title. “Lake Minnetonka views,” “Views about the Lake,” and “From Series of Minnesota Views.”)

1B9.2.1. For documentary material, give the factual content as far as possible, enclosed in square brackets. Details of the content, nature, scope, context, motivation, arrangement, etc., of the material may be fully described in the note area. Include the following kinds of information in the devised title, as appropriate:

the subject type or form of material, e.g., view, portrait;

an identification of the main subject(s) depicted, i.e., persons, events, activities, and objects;

geographical location(s) depicted, if known and significant;

the date (including month and day, if considered important) or span dates of what is being depicted if different from the date of publication or execution (see also 4D).

Single items:

[President Abraham Lincoln, half-length portrait, facing front]107

[Exterior view of the market hall in Budapest, 1931]108

[Sketches of the Signal Corps during the American Civil War]109

Multipart resources:

[Child labor in the United States depicted in field work and other agricultural activities]110

[Portraits of rulers, politicians, military figures and other notables, chiefly relating to the reign of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, 1864-67]111


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