Presidential outlines


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1789 George Washington becomes the first president

Judiciary Act

1790 Samuel Slater builds the first American factory

Alexander Hamilton’s financial program (explain in some detail – include the first tariff and the First Bank of the U.S. (1791)

Notions of Republican Motherhood take on stronger meaning

U.S. Census reveals a population of 3, 929,214: 95% rural and 5% urban

1791 Bill of Rights added to the Constitution

Vermont admitted to the Union

1793 George Washington begins second presidential term

cotton gin invented

Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality

Citizen Genet Affair

Fugitive Slave Law

1794 Jay Treaty with England

Whiskey Rebellion

Battle of Fallen Timbers

1795 Treaty of Greenville

Naturalization Act (be careful of the date)

Pinckney Treaty with Spain

Washington’s Farewell Address – foreign and domestic warnings

(When you have an item that says a state is being admitted to the Union, simply re-write that phrase. This entry needs no further explanation unless there was something special about this state’s admission - such as Vermont was the first state admitted after the original 13.)


1797 John Adams becomes president

XYZ Affair

1798 Navy Department is created

Undeclared naval war with France worsens

Alien and Sedition Acts and the Naturalization Act – place in the same category as the KY and VA Resolutions on your outline)

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Eli Whitney devises technique of using interchangeable parts

1800 Convention of 1800 with France

Second national census shows 5.3 million people including 800,000 slaves

1801 Judiciary Act (midnight judges)

John Marshall appointed Chief Justice


1801 Thomas Jefferson becomes President

1803 Ohio enters the Union

Marbury v. Madison

Louisiana Purchase

1804 War with the Barbary Pirates (Tripolitan War)

Lewis and Clark expedition

Amendment 12 ratified

1805 Jefferson begins second term

1806 Zebulon Pike explores the west

Non-Importation Act

1807 Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

Embargo Act

Robert Fulton credited with inventing the steamboat, The Clermont

1808 Slave trade to the U.S. outlawed by law (part of Constitutional Convention Compromise)

  1. Non-Intercourse Act


1809 James Madison becomes President

1810 Fletcher v. Peck

Macon’s Bill No. 2

1811 Battle of Tippecanoe

Construction of Cumberland Road begun

Charter of the First National Bank Expires

1812 Louisiana enters the Union

Beginning of the War of 1812 (explain the causes)

1813 James Madison begins second presidential term

1814 Hartford Convention

Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812

1815 Battle of New Orleans

Major U.S. imports are woolen and cotton cloth, sugar, and coffee. Main export is cotton.

1816 Tariff of 1816

Second Bank of the U.S. chartered

1817 First AME Church (African Methodist Episcopal) founded in the U.S.

American Colonization society founded

(When wars are written about, the writer should concentrate on causes and results only, unless a specific battle is listed. Results of war can be more than just treaties. Effects on the nation or effects of a war on the world can be explained under results.)


1817 James Monroe becomes president

Beginning of the Era of Good Feelings

First Seminole War

Rush-Bagot Agreement

Mississippi enters the Union

1818 Convention of 1818

Illinois enters the Union

Transatlantic packet ships average 30 days between New York and Liverpool

1819 McCulloch v. Maryland

Financial Panic

Adams-Onis Treaty (Transcontinental Treaty)

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Alabama enters the Union

1820 Missouri Compromise

Maine enters the Union

Washington Irving publishes “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”

What will become known as the “Hudson River School of Art” begins as American painters seek to develop nationality in Art (1820-1860) – identify some of the painters associated with this movement

1821 James Monroe begins second presidential term

Missouri enters the Union

1823 Monroe Doctrine

1824 Henry Clay’s American System

Gibbons v. Ogden


1825 John Quincy Adams becomes President

Erie Canal completed (begun in 1817)

1826 James Fenimore Cooper publishes The Last of the Mohicans

John Audubon publishes Birds of America

1828 Tariff of Abominations

South Carolina Exposition and Protest

Work begins on Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

Noah Webster publishes an American dictionary


1829 Andrew Jackson becomes president

Cult of domesticity takes root

1830 Veto of the Maysville Road Bill

Webster-Hayne debate

Indian Removal Act

1831 Nat Turner’s Rebellion

Black Hawk War (1831-32)

Peggy Eaton Affair

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

First issue of The Liberator published

1832 Worcester v. Georgia

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification

Jackson’s Proclamation in response to S.C.’s Ordinance of Nullification

Veto of Bill to recharter the Second Bank of the U.S.

1833 Force Act

Andrew Jackson begins second term as president

Compromise Tariff

1834 Cyrus McCormick invents the reaper

1835 Samuel Colt patents the revolver

Treaty of New Echota signed with Cherokees

Alexis de Tocqueville writes Volume I of Democracy in America

Beginning of Second Seminole War (ends in 1842)

1836 Texas War for Independence (Include Battle of the Alamo and Battle of San Jacinto)

Specie Circular

First McGuffey’s Readers published

Arkansas enters the Union

Michigan enters the Union

1837 Charles River Bridge v. Warren River Bridge

John Deere invents the steel tipped plow


1837 Martin Van Buren becomes president

“Caroline” Affair

Mary Lyon founds Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary

Financial Panic

1838 Oberlin College admits women

Aroostook War

Trail of Tears

Slaves develop escape routes to the North known as the “Underground Railroad”

1839 Charles Goodyear develops vulcanized rubber

Black mutiny on board the Amistad

Liberty Party formed in New York

Abner Doubleday credited with laying out first baseball diamond at Cooperstown, New York

1840 Independent Treasury System established

1841 William Henry Harrison becomes President


1841 John Tyler becomes President upon Harrison’s death

Independent Treasury System repealed

Brook Farm established

Oregon fever

1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty

Slave mutiny aboard the Creole

1843 Edgar Allen Poe publishes “The Pit and the Pendulum” and “The Tell-Tale Heart”

1844 Samuel F.B. Morse invents the telegraph

1845 Texas enters the Union (joint annexation resolution)

Florida enters the Union

(Procedure for the outline when a President dies in office: Complete everything on the outline from I to VII. Then complete any items you can for VIII to XII. In the case of Harrison just stop after VII. Then complete all of Tyler, omitting IV, election issues, and VI, vice president by term. You can write your evaluation about both presidents if there is enough information to write about both. If not, as in the case of Harrison/Tyler, just write about Tyler.)


1845 James K. Polk becomes President

Slidell Mission to Mexico

1846 Elias Howe invents the sewing machine

Richard Hoe invents the steam cylinder press

Term “manifest destiny” employed for the first time in article by John L. O’Sullivan

Mexican War begins

Bear Flag Republic established in California

Oregon Treaty with England

Wilmot Proviso

Walker Tariff

1847 Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) migrate to Utah

1848 Seneca Falls Convention

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Gold discovered in California

Levi’s introduced in America by Levi Strauss

Free Soil Party organized

Wisconsin enters the Union

1849 Elizabeth Blackwell becomes first woman doctor

California gold rush


1849 Zachary Taylor becomes President

Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery

1850 Millard Fillmore becomes President when Taylor dies

Compromise of 1850, including the Fugitive Slave Law

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

Webster’s Seventh of March Speech

California admitted to the Union

1851 Herman Melville publishes Moby Dick

1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin published

lst compulsory high school education law passed in Massachusetts

Commodore Matthew C. Perry visits Japan (1852-54) and negotiates Treaty of Kanagawa


1853 Franklin Pierce becomes President

Gadsden Purchase

1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act


Republican Party organized

1856 Civil War in Bleeding Kansas

Pottawatomie Massacre

Bessemer Process developed

Sen. Charles Sumner attacked by Rep. Preston Brooks


1857 James Buchanan becomes President

Dred Scott decision

Impending Crisis of the South by Hinton Helper published

Harper’s Weekly begins publication

Financial Panic

1858 Lincoln’s House Divided Speech in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates (include the Freeport Doctrine)

Macy’s Department Store opens in New York City

Minnesota enters the Union

1859 Comstock Lode discovered

Edwin L. Drake drills first oil well

John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia

Oregon enters the Union

1860 South Carolina’s Ordinance of Secession

Crittenden Amendments Proposed

Pony Express Organized

1861 Kansas enters the Union

Confederate States of America created by new Confederate constitution

U.S. railroad track mileage estimated at 30,000 miles


1861 Abraham Lincoln becomes President

Beginning of the War between the States

First Battle of Bull Run

Trent Affair

Morill Tariff Act

1862 Battle of Monitor and Merrimac

Morrill Land Grant College Act

Homestead Act

Greenbacks issued under Legal Tender Act

Confederacy enacts first conscription law in U.S. history

Battles of Shiloh, Fredericksburg, Antietam Murfreesboro, and Fort Donelson

1863 Emancipation Proclamation

Enrollment Act of 1863 passed by Congress (conscription)

Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg

Draft Riots in New York City

National Banking Act

Battles of Chancellorsville, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge

1864 Wade-Davis Bill

Sand Creek Massacre(Colorado)

Atlanta Campaign

Wilderness Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg

1865 Abraham Lincoln begins second term

Hampton Roads Conference

Surrender at the city of Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

End of War Between the States

Freedmen’s Bureau established

President Lincoln assassinated

(List all the battles under the appropriate dates. Give an explanation for and significance of only those battles which are underlined.)


1865 Andrew Johnson becomes President

Beginning of the Johnson Reconstruction Era

13th Amendment ratified

Black Codes passed in many Southern states

Maximilian Affair in Mexico

Ku Klux Klan organized

1866 Atlantic Cable (Cyrus Field)

Second Freedmen’s Bureau Act (passed over Johnson’s veto)

Civil Rights Act (passed over Johnson’s veto)

1867 First Reconstruction Act

Tenure of Office Act and Command of the Army Act (both passed over Johnson’s Veto)

Purchase of Alaska

Horatio Alger begins publishing his stories

Patrons of Husbandry (the Grange) is organized

1868 Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson

Amendment 14 ratified


1869 Ulysses S. Grant becomes President

Tweed Ring operates in New York City

Political cartoons by Thomas Nast expose the Tweed Ring

Black Friday Scandal

Prohibition Party organized

First Transcontinental RR completed (Central Pacific and Union Pacific)

Knights of Labor organized

Wyoming becomes first state to extend full voting rights to women

National Woman Suffrage Association founded to compete with newly founded American Woman Suffrage Association

1870 Amendment 15 ratified

John D. Rockefeller forms the Standard Oil Company

1871 Treaty of Washington (Alabama Claims)

Force Act (also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act)

1872 Amnesty Act

Credit Mobilier Scandal

Liberal Republican party organized

Yellowstone National Park created, the idea of George Catlin

1873 Ulysses S. Grant begins second presidential term

Financial Panic

Demonetization Act (The Crime of ’73)

New York City’s Boss Tweed convicted of fraud

1874 Greenback Party organized

Barbed wire invented by Joseph Glidden

1875 Civil Rights Act

Whiskey Ring Scandal

1876 Belknap Scandal

Battle of Little Big Horn

Sioux War (1875-1876) ends

Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone

Disputed Election of 1876 leads to Compromise of 1877

Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Tom Sawyer


1877 Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President as a result of the Compromise of


End of the Reconstruction Era

Munn v. Illinois (Granger case)

Thomas Edison invents the phonograph

Railroad Strike Riots along the East Coast

1878 Bland-Allison Act

1879 Thomas Edison invents the electric light

Pap Singleton leads Black Exodusters to Kansas

1880 Census shows a population of 50.1 million people


1881 James A. Garfield becomes President

James A. Garfield assassinated

1881 Chester A. Arthur becomes President

Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross

Booker T. Washington founds Tuskegee Institute

Helen Hunt Jackson’s book, A Century of Dishonor, is published

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act

John D. Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust

1883 Pendleton Act

Jan Matzeliger revolutionizes the American shoe industry

Civil Rights Cases argued before the Supreme Court

Brooklyn Bridge opens in New York

1884 Home Life Insurance Building opens in Chicago (Think about how this relates to 9/11/01)


1885 Grover Cleveland becomes President

Contract Labor law

Ottmar Mergenthaler invents the linotype machine

1886 Haymarket Square Riot (Chicago)

End of Apache War that began in 1871

New Presidential Succession Act

American Federation of Labor founded

Wabash RR v. Illinois (Granger case)

1887 Interstate Commerce Act

Dawes Severalty Act


1889 Benjamin Harrison becomes President

First Pan American Conference held

Jane Addams establishes Hull House

North and South Dakota, Montana, and Washington admitted to the Union

1890 T. Thomas Fortune founds the Afro-American League

Dependent and Disability Pensions Act

McKinley Tariff

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Battle of Wounded Knee

Frontier comes to an end (see Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”)

Boley and other all black towns established in Oklahoma (1889-1910)

Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks established

Idaho and Wyoming admitted to the Union

1891 Populist Party organized

1892 Homestead Strike

Populist Party draws up Omaha Platform (be sure to list the ideas in the platform)

Ida B. Wells strikes out against lynching and is driven from Memphis
24th. GROVER CLEVELAND (2nd Term)

1893 Grover Cleveland becomes President for a second time

Financial Panic

Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed

Grover Cleveland opposes annexation of Hawaii

Jacob Coxey leads March on Washington

McClure’s Magazine founded

Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs open heart surgery

1894 Pullman Strike

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

Thomas Edison invents motion pictures

1895 Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise Speech

In Re Debs (Supreme Court Case)

Venezuelan Boundary Dispute

U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co.

Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Co.

Sears, Roebuck Company opens a mail order business

1896 William Jennings Bryan’s Cross of Gold Speech

Plessy v. Ferguson

George Washington Carver joins the faculty of Tuskegee Institute as a chemist


1897 William McKinley becomes President

Dingley Tariff

Klondike Gold Rush

1898 DeLome Letter

Spanish American War begins

Teller Resolution

Hawaiian Islands annexed

Treaty of Paris

First Grandfather Clause (Louisiana)

1899 Open Door Policy

1900 Boxer Rebellion

Gold Standard Act

Foraker Act

Socialist Party organized in the U.S.

Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington published

Census shows U.S. population is 75.9 million. Life expectancy is 48 years for males and 51 years for females

1901 William McKinley begins second presidential term

William McKinley assassinated


1901 Theodore Roosevelt becomes President

J.P. Morgan organizes the U.S. Steel Corp.

Platt Amendment passed

1902 Venezuelan Debt Dispute

Newlands Reclamation Act

Northern Securities Case

Anthracite Coal Strike

1903 Wright brothers make first airplane flight

Elkins Act

W.E.B. DuBois publishes The Souls of Black Folk

Panamanian Revolution from Colombia

Alaska Boundary dispute settled

1904 Construction of Panama Canal begins

Roosevelt Corollary announced

1905 Theodore Roosevelt begins second term

Lochner v. New York

Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) Debt Dispute

First Niagara Conference (Niagara Movement)

1906 Roosevelt awarded Nobel Peace Prize for settling the Russo-Japanese War

Hepburn Act

Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act

1907 Gentleman’s Agreement

Financial Panic

Oklahoma admitted to the Union

1908 Root-Takahira Agreement

National Conservation Commission established

Muller v. Oregon (write about the Brandeis brief)

First Model T Fords roll off the assembly line

Jack Johnson becomes heavyweight champion of the world


1909 William Howard Taft becomes President

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is established

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

1910 Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy

Dollar Diplomacy pursued by Taft administration

Mann-Elkins Act (Do not confuse this with the Mann Act)

1911 Supreme Court applies the “rule of reason” to anti-trust cases

National Urban League founded

Dismantling of the American Tobacco Company and the Standard Oil Company

1912 Magdalena Bay Incident (Lodge Corollary to the Monroe doctrine)

Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) organized

Garrett A. Morgan invents the gas mask

Arizona and New Mexico admitted to the Union

Amendment 16 ratified


1913 Woodrow Wilson becomes President

Henry Ford’s first full assembly line begins producing cars in Highland Park, outside Detroit

Armory Exhibition in New York City (art)

Amendment 17 ratified

Federal Reserve Act

Watchful Waiting Policy (Mexico)

Underwood Tariff

1914 Federal Trade Commission established

Tampico Incident

Proclamation of Neutrality at outbreak of WWI

Panama Canal completed

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

1915 “Birth of a Nation” is released (D.W. Griffith)

1916 Adamson Act

Sussex Pledge

Margaret Sanger opens first U.S. birth control clinic

Jeannette Rankin becomes the first woman elected to the House of Representatives

Keating-Owen Act

Black Tom Explosion

1917 Wilson begins second presidential term

Zimmerman Note

U.S. enters WW I (give causes of American entry into the war)

Literacy Test Act (immigration)

Selective Service Act

Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association

Espionage Act

Virgin Islands Purchased

1918 Wilson’s Fourteen Points

Hammer v. Dagenhart

Sedition Act

Armistice ending WWI

Influenza epidemic begins

1919 Paris Peace Conference

Versailles Treaty

Amendment 18 is ratified (Volstead Act)

Boston Police Strike

  1. Mitchell Palmer begins “Palmer Raids” (Red Scare)

Schenck v. U.S.

Abrahms v. U.S.

Communist Party organized in U.S.

1920 World Court established

Amendment 19 is ratified

1921 Warren G. Harding becomes President

Dillingham Immigration Act (Immigration Act of 1921)

Washington Disarmament Conference begins

William Howard Taft appointed Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court

Harlem Renaissance begins with the musical comedy “Shuffle Along”

1922 Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. (child labor)

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act

Capper-Volstead Act


1923 Calvin Coolidge comes President

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital

Garrett Morgan patents the traffic light

Marcus Garvey begins his “Back to Africa” movement

1924 Bonus Bill (veterans)

Calvin Coolidge begins second presidential term

Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act)

Revenue Acts of 1924 and 1926

Dawes Plan

Teapot Dome Scandal

Approximately 2.5 million radios are in use in the U.S.

McNary-Haugen Farm bill vetoed by Coolidge

1925 Scopes Trial (Be sure to include the attorneys and the side each was on.)

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters organized by A. Phillip Randolph

1927 Cotton picker invented

Charles Lindbergh makes solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean

Sacco and Vanzetti executed

1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact


1929 Herbert Hoover elected President

Vladimir Zworkykin demonstrates the first practical television

Agricultural Marketing Act

Beginning of the Great Depression (include causes)

Young Plan

Wickersham Commission Report

1930 Hawley-Smoot Tariff

London Naval Conference

1931 Hoover Moratorium on War Debts

Scottsboro Affair (Powell v. Alabama)

Empire State and Chrysler Buildings are completed

1932 Stimson Doctrine

Reconstruction Finance Corporation established

Norris-LaGuardia Anti-Injunction Act

Bonus Army marches on Washington, D.C.

Amendment 20 is ratified
32nd. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (Domestic only)

1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt begins becomes President

13 million Americans unemployed

National Bank holiday is proclaimed

Beginning of the First New Deal

Agricultural Adjustment Act

Tennessee Valley Authority

National Industrial Recovery Act

Gold Repeal Resolution

Amendment 21 repeals Amendment 18

Civilian Conservation Corps established

Farm Credit Administration established

1934 Securities and Exchange Act

Federal Communications Act

Reciprocal Tariff Act

First Farm Mortgage Moratorium Act

Townsend’s Old Age Revolving Pension Plan

Huey Long’s Share Our Wealth Society

Wheeler-Howard Act (Indian Reorganization Act)

Democratic victories in Congressional elections

Father Charles Coughlin’s National Union for Social Justice

Federal Housing Administration is established

1935 Beginning of the Second New Deal

Emergency Relief Appropriations Act

Works Progress Administration

Schechter v. U.S. (sick chicken case)

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)

Glass-Steagall Banking Act

Social Security Act

Huey Long assassinated

Committee for Industrial Organization established (CIO)

1936 U.S. v. Butler

1937 Franklin D. Roosevelt begins second presidential term

United Auto Workers’ sit down strikes

Court Packing Plan

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin

Farm Security Administration

Business recession begins (1937-39)

1938 AFL expels CIO unions - Congress of Industrial Organization formed

Fair Labor Standards Act

Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act

10.4 million Americans unemployed

1939 Marian Anderson’s concert at the Lincoln Memorial

1940 Burke-Wadsworth Act (conscription)

Smith Act

1941 Roosevelt begins third presidential term

March on Washington Movement

Fair Employment Practices Committee established

1942 National War Labor board established

Internment of more than 110,000 Japanese Americans

War Production Board established

Manhattan Project established

Irving Berlin writes “White Christmas”

Rationing of sugar, coffee, butter, meat, cheese, and gasoline begins

1943 War Labor Disputes Act (Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act)

Race riots in Detroit, Harlem, and 45 other cities

1944 Korematsu v. U.S.

Serviceman’s Readjustment Act passed (G.I. Bill)

1945 Roosevelt begins fourth presidential term

Roosevelt dies; Truman assumes the Presidency

32nd. Cont. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (Foreign Policy only)

1933 Roosevelt becomes President

Good Neighbor Policy announced

Independence Act for the Philippine Islands

1934 Platt Amendment abrogated

Nye Committee Hearings Begin (1934-1936)

1935 First Neutrality Act

1936 Pan-American Conference

1937 Roosevelt begins second term

Cash and Carry Neutrality Act

1939 World War II begins in Europe as Germany invades Poland

Neutrality Act of 1937 is amended

1940 France signs armistice with Germany

Destroyer for Military Bases Exchange

1941 Roosevelt begins third presidential term

Four Freedoms Address

Lend Lease Act

Hitler attacks the U.S.S.R.

Atlantic Charter

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

U.S. declares war on Japan (be sure to include immediate specific actions the U.S. takes against the Japanese)

1942 Corregidor surrenders to Japanese

Battles of Bataan, Coral Sea, Guadalcanal

U.S. forces invade North Africa with the Allies (Operation Torch)

1943 Allied Invasion of Italy

Cairo Conference

Teheran Conference

1944 D-Day (Operation Overlord)

France is liberated

Dumbarton Oaks Conference

1945 Roosevelt begins fourth presidential term

Yalta Conference

Roosevelt dies

(Give an explanation for and the significance of only those battles that are underlined. List the other battles with the dates.)


1945 Harry S. Truman becomes president upon death of F.D.R.

First atomic bomb exploded

Potsdam Conference

San Francisco Conference

World War II ends with the Surrender of Germany (May) and Japan (August) after atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1946 Philippine Islands become independent

Republicans win both houses of Congress

Employment Act

Atomic Energy Commission is established

1947 National Security Act

New Presidential Succession Act

Taft-Hartley Act

Truman orders loyalty probe

Marshall Plan

Truman Doctrine

Jackie Robinson enters Major League Baseball

“To Secure These Rights” is issued by the Presidential Commission on Civil Rights

1948 Displaced Persons Act (immigration)

State of Israel founded

Truman appoints Presidential Commission on Equality of Opportunity in the Armed Services

Berlin Blockade

Selective Service Act

1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Point Four Program

Communist victory in China

1950 NSC-68 delivered to President Truman

Korean War begins

Alger Hiss convicted of perjury

Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisc.) alleges communists in government

McCarran Internal Security Act

1951 Amendment 22 is ratified

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg convicted of conspiring to commit espionage

1952 Hydrogen bomb exploded

President Truman seizes the steel mills: Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer


1953 Dwight Eisenhower becomes President

U.S. helps restore the shah to power in Iran

Korean War ends

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare created

Earl Warren becomes Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

1954 Army-McCarthy hearings

Siege of Dienbienphu in Vietnam; Geneva Accords signed, U.S. refuses to accept them

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization formed (SEATO)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

Both U.S. and U.S.S.R. have H bombs

C.I.A. takes covert action in Guatemala

Jinmen(Quemoy)-Mazu (Matsu) crisis occurs/Formosa Resolution

1955 AFL-CIO is organized

Rosa Parks’ action leads to Montgomery Bus Boycott

Marian Anderson becomes first black to sing at the Metropolitan Opera

U.S. backs Diem Regime in Vietnam

1956 Suez Crisis

Federal Highway Act

Hungarian Revolution occurs

Elvis Presley wins national fame with such songs as “Heartbreak Hotel”

1957 Eisenhower begins second term

Civil Rights Commission created by Civil Rights Act of 1957

Sputnik in orbit

Eisenhower Doctrine

Federal troops sent to Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas

1958 Explorer I in orbit

U.S. Marines sent to Lebanon

1959 Congress admits Alaska and Hawaii to the Union

Cuban Revolution, Castro ousts Batista

Soviets shoot down U-2 spy plane

1960 Sit ins begin with a sit in at the Woolworth Department Store in Greensboro, N.C.

1961 Eisenhower’s Farewell Address

(Eisenhower’s administration was characterized by a domestic policy known as “Modern Republicanism” and foreign policies of “brinksmanship” and “massive retaliation”.)


1961 John F. Kennedy becomes president

“New Frontier” domestic program is announced

Peace Corps organized

Amendment 23 is ratified

Alliance for Progress

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Berlin Wall built

Mapp v. Ohio decided

Civil rights Freedom Rides begin (CORE)

1962 First American astronaut orbits the earth

U.S. troops sent to South Vietnam

Students for a Democratic Society Port Huron statement

Cuban Missile Crisis

James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi

1963 Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique is published

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

March on Washington; M.L. King’s “I Have a Dream Speech”

Bombing of Birmingham’s 16th St. Baptist Church

John F. Kennedy is assassinated


1963 Lyndon Johnson becomes President upon Kennedy’s death

1964 Beatles perform in the U.S.

Economic Opportunity Act launches the War on Poverty

Civil Rights Act

Amendment 24 is ratified

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Mississippi Freedom Summer (civil rights)

Race riots occur in many northern cities

1965 Johnson begins second term - announces the “Great Society” domestic program (Please make sure that you identify all the specific programs of the Great Society.)

Malcolm X assassinated

Civil rights March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama (Bloody Sunday)

Anti-war protests begin

Voting Rights Act

Medicare established

Escalation of the war in South Vietnam

Department of Housing and Urban Development created

Stokely Carmichael calls for Black Power

1966 National Organization for Women (NOW) is created

Black Panthers’ Organization is founded

1967 Racial disturbances occur in several large cities notably Newark and Detroit.

Amendment 25 is ratified

1968 Siege of Khe Sanh

Tet Offensive

My Lai Massacre occurs but is not yet revealed (Vietnam)

Martin Luther King is assassinated

Student Anti-war protests escalate - Columbia University students seize the campus

Robert Kennedy is murdered

Violence occurs at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago

Richard Nixon elected president

(When looking for information to place under social change, remember that the decade of the 1960s was one filled with social change -the women’s rights movement, Vietnam War protests, issues of academic freedom on college campuses, the sexual revolution, illegal drugs, hippies, yippies etc. Think about the importance of the year 1968.)


1969 Richard Nixon becomes President

Men land on the moon

My Lai massacre revealed

543,400 U.S. troops in Vietnam - Nixon begins their withdrawal

Nixon “Silent Majority” speech

Woodstock Festival

Nixon Doctrine

Detente Policy announced

1970 U.S. troops invade Cambodia on orders of Nixon

Students killed at Kent State and Jackson State Universities

Environmental Protection Agency is established

1971 Amendment 26 is ratified

Lt. William Calley court-martialed for the My Lai Massacre

Pentagon Papers are published

Nixon’s New Economic Program

New China policy announced

1972 Revelation of Watergate scandals begins

Nixon visits Communist China

Senate passes Equal Rights Amendment

John Mitchell resigns as chairman of CREEP (Committee to Re-elect the President)

George Wallace, candidate for president, is shot in Laurel, MD.

1973 Richard Nixon begins second term as president

Vice President Agnew forced to resign; Gerald Ford is appointed Vice President

Roe v. Wade

Wounded Knee Incident

Arab oil embargo

Existence of White House tapes is revealed

Saturday Night Massacre

War Powers Act

1974 Impeachment hearings begin

President Nixon resigns


1974 Gerald Ford becomes president upon Nixon’s resignation

Nelson Rockefeller appointed as Vice President

Ford pardons Richard Nixon

Ford’s Whip Inflation Now (WIN) Policy is announced

1975 Two assassination attempts on Ford by women in California are thwarted by the Secret Service

Government of South Vietnam surrenders to North Vietnam

Former Attorney General Mitchell and presidential aides Haldeman and Ehrlichman are sentenced to prison for their roles in Watergate

1976 Celebration of the “Bicentennial Year”


1977 Jimmy Carter becomes President

Roots by Alex Haley serialized on television

Star Wars released

Resurgence of Christian fundamentalism

Pardons granted to draft evaders of the Vietnam War

Government Spending Program to alleviate unemployment announced

Trans-Alaska Pipeline opens

Department of Energy created

Human Rights Policy is announced

1978 Bakke v. University of California

Panama Canal treaties

Camp David Accords

U.S. and China establish full diplomatic relations

1979 Moral Majority established by Jerry Falwell

Accident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania

U.S.-China diplomatic recognition finalized

Soviet Union invades Afghanistan

Iranians storm U.S. Embassy in Teheran and seize hostages

Space vehicle Voyager II photographs Jupiter

Boat people flee Vietnam

Department of Education is created

1980 Carter Doctrine

Inflation continues as consumer prices rise 13.3% in 1979 and recession continues

Attempt to rescue Iranian hostages fails

U.S. announces boycott of summer Olympic game in Moscow (make sure you explain why)

Peacetime draft registration is begun

“Superfund” created to pay for cleaning up toxic waste sites

Women graduate from U.S. military academies for the first time (significance?)

Prime rate of interest is at 21.5 percent


1981 Ronald Reagan becomes President

AIDS first observed in the U.S.

Economic Recovery Tax Act

Economic recession, unemployment at 8 percent

U.S. steps up role in El Salvador

INF talks begin

Sandra Day O’Connor appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court

Space shuttle flights begin

1982 Prime rate of interest at 14 percent*

U.S. troops are ordered to Lebanon

Unemployment at 10.1 percent*

U.S. aid to Contras in Nicaragua is revealed

Voting Rights Act of 1965 is renewed

1983 Prime rate of interest at 10.5 percent*

Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars) is announced

More than half of women over 20 are holding jobs outside the home

Equal Rights Amendment dies unratified by 3/4 of the states (why?)

Terrorists kill U.S. marines in Lebanon

Invasion of Grenada

Sally Ride becomes first American woman in space

1984 U.S. marines leave Lebanon

C.I.A. mines Nicaraguan harbors

Unemployment drops to 7.1 percent; interest rates fall*

USSR boycotts Los Angeles Olympics

AT&T broken up

1985 Ronald Reagan begins second presidential term

Reagan Doctrine announced

Gorbachev comes to power in the Soviet Union

1986 U.S. bombers attack Libya

Tax Reform Act

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

Republicans lose control of the Senate

Iran-Contra scandal breaks

1987 One day drop of 508 points in the stock market

1988 U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement

Agreement on Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

Moscow Summit meeting

“Understanding AIDS” mailed to 107 million households

(Please make sure that Reagan’s economic policy is thoroughly discussed under domestic policy in your outline. In fact you can combine all the starred* items under economic policy in general.)


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