Prime ministers and presidents of india

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PRIME MINISTERS AND PRESIDENTS OF INDIA.


  Prime Ministers of India

 


Shri Jawaharlal Nehru

August 15, 1947 - May 27, 1964

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri

June 9, 1964 - January 11, 1966

Shrimati Indira Gandhi

January 24, 1966 - March 24, 1977

Shri Morarji Desai

March 24, 1977 - July 28, 1979

Shri Charan Singh

July 28, 1979 - January 14, 1980

Shrimati Indira Gandhi

January 14, 1980 - October 31, 1984

Shri Rajiv Gandhi

October 31, 1984 - December 1, 1989

Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh

Dec. 2, 1989 - November 10, 1990

Shri Chandra Shekhar

November 10, 1990 - June 21, 1991

Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao

June 21, 1991 - May 16, 1996


Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee

May 16, 1996 - 1 June 1996

Shri H. D. Deve Gowda

1 June 1996 - 12 April 1997

Shri Inder Kumar Gujral

21 April 1997 - 19 Mar 1998

Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee

19 Mar 1998




Dr Manmohan Singh                                            2004

 

                                     P.S:- Shri Gulzarilal Nanda was caretaker Prime Minister of India twice in   1960s.

 

Presidents of India

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Jan. 26,1950 - May 13, 1962

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan

May 13, 1962 - May 13, 1967

Dr. Zakir Hussain

May 13, 1967 - August 24, 1969

Shri Varahagiri Venkata Giri


August 24, 1969 - August 24, 1974

Shri Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

August 24, 1974 - February 11, 1977

Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy

July 25, 1977 - July 25, 1982

Shri Giani Zail Singh

July 25, 1982--July 25, 1987

Shri R. Venkataraman

July 25, 1987- July 25, 1992

Dr.S.D. Sharma

July 25, 1992 - July 25, 1997

Shri K R Narayanan

July 25, 1997 - 2002

 

Period

Description

ANCIENT EMPIRES

 

ca. 2500-1600 B.C.

Indus Valley culture.

ca. 1500-500 B.C.

Migrations of Aryan-speaking tribes; the Vedic Age.

ca. 1000 B.C.

Settlement of Bengal by Dravidian-speaking peoples.


ca. 563-ca. 483 B.C.

Life of Siddartha Gautama--the Buddha; founding of Buddhism.

ca. 326-184 B.C.

Mauryan Empire; reign of Ashoka (269-232 B.C.); spread of Buddhism.

ca. 180 B.C.-A.D. 150

Shaka dynasties in Indus Valley.

ca. A.D. 320-550

Gupta Empire; classical age in North India.

606-47

North Indian empire of Harsha.

711

Arab invaders conquer Sindh, establish Islamic presence in India.

750-1150

Pala Dynasty.

1150-1202

Sena Dynasty.

GROWTH OF ISLAM

 

997-1027

Mahmud of Ghazni raids Indian subcontinent from Afghanistan.

1202

Turkish conquerors defeat Sena Dynasty and overrun Bengal.

1206-1398

Delhi Sultanate.

1398


Timur sacks Delhi.

1414-50

Sayyid Dynasty; renewal of Delhi Sultanate.

1451-1526

Lodi Dynasty.

THE MUGHAL PERIOD

 

1526

Babur lays foundation of Mughal Empire; wins First Battle of Panipat.

1556-1605

Akbar expands and reforms the empire; Mughals win Second Battle of Panipat.

1605-27

Reign of Jahangir; in 1612 East India Company opens first trading post (factory).

1628-58

Reign of Shah Jahan.

1658-1707

Reign of Aurangzeb, last great Mughal ruler.

1707-1858

Lesser emperors; decline of the Mughal Empire.

BRITISH PERIOD

 

1757

Battle of Plassey--British victory over Mughal forces in Bengal; British rule in India begins.

1835

Institution of British education and other reform measures.


1857-58

Revolt of Indian sepoys (soldiers) against East India Company.

1858

East India Company dissolved; rule of India under the British crown--the British Raj--begins with Government of India Act; formal end of Mughal Empire.

1885

Indian National Congress (Congress) formed.

1905

Partition of Bengal into separate provinces of Eastern Bengal and Assam, West Bengal.

1906

All-India Muslim League (Muslim League) founded.

1909

Morley-Minto Reforms; separate electorates for Muslims.

1912

Partition of Bengal annulled; new province of Bihar and Orissa formed; plans to move capital from Calcutta to Delhi announced.

1916

Congress-League Scheme of Reforms (often referred to as Lucknow Pact) signed.

1919

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms; Government of India Act.

1935

Government of India Act of 1935.


1940

Muslim League adopts Lahore Resolution; "Two Nations" theory articulated by Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah and others.

August 16, 1946

"Direct Action Day" of Muslim League.

INDEPENDENT INDIA

 

August 15, 1947

Partition of British India; India achieves independence and incorporates West Bengal and Assam; Jawaharlal Nehru becomes prime minister of India. Pakistan is created and incorporates East Bengal (the East Wing, or East Pakistan) and territory in the northwest (the West Wing, or West Pakistan); Jinnah becomes governor general of Pakistan.

August 15, 1947-May 27, 1964

Jawaharlal Nehru serves as prime minister and leader of Congress-controlled government.

October 22, 1947-January 1, 1949

Undeclared war with Pakistan; ends with United Nations-arranged ceasefire.

January 30, 1948

Mahatma Gandhi assassinated in New Delhi.

October 20-November 21, 1962

Border war with China.

June 9, 1964-January 11, 1966

Lal Bhadur Shastri serves as prime minister of Congress-led government.


August 5-September 23, 1965

Second war with Pakistan.

January 24, 1966-March 24, 1977

Indira Gandhi serves as prime minister for first time, head of government initially led by Congress, later Congress (R).

December 3-16, 1971

Third war with Pakistan; Bangladesh becomes independent following Indian invasion of East Pakistan.

June 25, 1975-January 18, 1977

State of Emergency proclaimed by Indira Gandhi.

March 24, 1977-July 28, 1979

Morarji Desai serves as prime minister as head of a multiparty front, Janata Party, India's first non-Congress government.

July 28, 1979-January 14, 1980

Chaudhury Charan Singh serves as prime minister as head of a Janata-led coalition government.

January 14, 1980-October 31, 1984

Indira Ganhdi serves as prime minister for second time, head of Congress (I) government.

October 31, 1984

Indira Gandhi assassinated in New Delhi.

October 31, 1984-December 2, 1989

Rajiv Gandhi serves as prime minister of Congress (I)-led government.

December 2, 1989-November 7, 1990


Vishwanath Pratap Singh serves as prime minister of National Front-led coalition government.

November 10, 1990-June 20, 1991

Chandra Shekhar serves as prime minister, heading Samajwadi Janata Party government.

May 21, 1991

Rajiv Gandhi assassinated near Madras.

June 20, 1991-May 15, 1996

P.V. Narasimha Rao serves as prime minister of Congress (I)-led government.

December 6, 1992

Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, destroyed by Hindu activists.

January-March 1993

Communal violence in wake of Babri Masjid destruction wracks Indian cities, especially Bombay, which suffered from a series of bomb blasts in March.

May 1995

Unpopular Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act of 1985 allowed to lapse

April 27-May 7, 1996

General elections for Lok Sabha oust Congress (I) government of P.V. Narasimha Rao.

May 15-28, 1996

Minority Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee resigns after thirteen days.

June 1, 1996


Haradanahalli (H.D.) Deve Gowda, head of thirteen-party United Front, sworn in as India's eleventh prime minister.

Rabindranath Tagore (1861 - 1941)
Nobel Prize for Literature (1913)

Sir C.V. Raman (Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman)(1888 - 1970)
Nobel Prize for Physics (1930)

RAMAN" effect which fetched him the Noble Prize in 1930. He was the first Asian scientist to win the Nobel Prize. The Raman effect occurs when a ray of incident light excites a molecule in the sample, which subsequently scatters the light. While most of this scattered light is of the same wavelength as the incident light, state (i.e. getting the molecule to vibrate). The Raman effect is useful in the study of molecular energy levels, structure development, and multi component qualitative analysis.



Dr. Hargobind Khorana
Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology (1968)

Mother Teresa (1910 - 1997)
Nobel Prize for peace (1979)

Dr. Amartya Sen
Nobel Prize for Economics (1998)

Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)

V.S. Naipaul (1932- )

States, U.T and Capitals of India


States and Union Territory

Capital


Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Port Blair

Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

Assam

Dispur

Bihar

Patna

Chandigarh

Chandigarh

Chhatisgarh

Raipur

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

Silvasa

Daman & Diu

Daman

Delhi

Delhi

Goa

Panaji

Gujarat

Gandhinagar

Haryana

Chandigarh

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Jammu & Kashmir

Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)

Jharkhand

Ranchi

Karnataka

Bangalore

Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram


Lakshadweep

Kavaratti

Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Manipur

Imphal

Meghalaya

Shillong

Mizoram

Aizawl

Nagaland

Kohima

Orissa

Bhubaneswar

Pondicherry

Pondicherry

Punjab

Chandigarh

Rajasthan

Jaipur

Sikkim

Gangtok

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

Tripura

Agartala

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow

Uttaranchal

Dehradun

West Bengal

Kolkata

FREEDOM FIGHTERS








Gandhiji

Sardar Patel

Gandhiji's life was dedicated to the ideals of Truth, Non- violence and Love. He was the architect of India's freedomand one of the greatest men of this century

 


India's Man of Steel. He gave up his practise in order to fight for the freedom of the country. He was sent to prision. As the Deputy Prime Minister of free India, he became the architect of the integrity of India by mer- ging of hundreds of princely states with the Indian Union.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Ramaprasad Bismil

"Swaraj is our brithright" thundered Tilak, the Lion of India. He founded schools and published newspapers all for his motherland. He wore him- self out till his last breath, to awaken his countrymen.

A Brave revolutionary who up his life smilingly for the sake of the Motherland. He was hunted by the police and betrayed by fellow workers. He was the brave leader of Kakori Rail Dacoity Episode.

Bhagath Singh

Khudiram Bose


He is the symbol of the heroism of the youth of India. A revolutionary. He threw a bomb when the Legislature was in session, to warn the British Government. He was put to death but lives in the hearts of his countrymen.

 


It was this hero who threw te first bomb on the Bristish who were crushing India. The boy of sixteen defied the police. At the age of nineteen,hebecame a martyr, wiht the holy book the Bhagavadgita ( The Divine Song) in his hand and with the slogan  ' Vande Mataram' on his lips.

Tatia Tope

Ashfaqulla Khan

A hero of the fight for freedom in 1857. His very name made the mighty English generals tremble. Deceived by his friend, he faced death like a hero, for the sake of his country.

The pathan patriot who kissed the hangman's noose wiht the name of Allah on his lips. A youth endowed with a body of iron and will of steel, he dedicated everything to the service of India and of freedom and challenged the cunning and the strength of an empire.

Madame Cama




The fiery patriot who first unfurled India's flag at an international assembly. She turned away from a life of luxury and lived an exile - to serve her country. And the mighty British Government grew afraid of her.








Great Scientists








Dr.C.V.Raman

Vikrama Sarabhai

The Genius who won the Nobel prize for Physics, with simple equipment barely worth Rs.300. He was the first Asian scientist to win the Nobel Prize. He won honour as a scientist and affection as a teacher and a man

One of the greatest scientists of India. As Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, he guided research of the greatest improtance to the country. A born scientist and a beloved teacher.

Homi Bhabha

Dr.J.C.Bose

The architect of Nuclear Science in Modern India. He was a painterand worshipped the beauty of Nature.Science and art both enriched his mind an life. He was the ideal personality India needs today

The great biologist who showed that plants, too can 'feel' in their own way. He saved money ;he bought a small laboratory and build his equipment; and scientists in Euorpe and America wondered at his discoveries.

Sathyendranath Bose

Dr.P.C.Ray

A renowned Indian scientist. He developed a new branch of physics. He worked with Albert Einstein, Madame Curie and other scientists of world renown.


An Indian Scientist who won fame in many countries. Eighty years ago he began the manufacture of medicines in India. A Great teacher, he gave his salary to students interested in science.

Birbal Sahani




A Great scientist who lived only for knowledge. He declined high posts. He was a genius who shone in several spheres. He was a great teacher and a great man.










Great Poets













Tulasidas

Kalidas

The great poet who composed the 'Ramacharita- manasa' His boyhood was in poverty and suffering;but yet he became a great scholar.

One of the greatise poets and dramatists in sanskrit. His chronicle of the kings of the Raghy clan ( Rughuvamsha)  the greatplay 'shakuntala' and other works .


Bankim Chandra

Namadeva

One of the greatest novelists of India who gave the poeple the scared mantra - Vande Mataram' The begal Novel practically began with him.

Namadeva who lived during the end of the 13th century  is one of the  best known saint poets. Namadeva lived in Constant communion with lord  Panduranga.

Tenali Ramakrishna

Maharshi Valmiki

A Poor orphan in his boyhood, he rose to be the favourite adviser of powerful king. A Scholar and a poet, he exposed superstition and stupid pride ot ridicule

The Adikavi, the Poet of Poets, of India, who gave the world the immortal epic, the 'Ramayana'. By Profession a highway robber, he came under the spell of Maharshi Narada and became a 'Brahmarshi'.













Great Leaders











Lal Bahadur Shastri


Lala Lajpat Rai

Lal Bahadur proved to be one of the heroes of the history of India. A Great general in Gandhiji's Army of peaceful soldiers of freedom. He became the symbol of India'svalour and self-respect

A Great national leader who came to be called the 'Lion of punjab.' Worked tirelessly to improve education, to promote unity among Hindus and to reform society.

Motilal Nehru

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

A boyhood of poverty. In later life wealth, luzury and pomp as that princes could not match. And then in later life, a great leader of India's  fight for freedom. Motilal went to prison too. His son was Jawaharlal Nehru.

Born in a class considered low and outcaste, he fought untiringly for the down trodden.The boy who suffered bitter humiliation became the first Minister for Law in free India, and shaped the country's Constitution.

Rajaji

M.S. Golwalkar

A leader gifted with amazing intellectual brilliance. He gave up his lucrative law practice for the sake of the country. He was at once a child of Indian culture and a citizen of the world.

He was well known as ' Guruji' throughout Bharat, and was the second Sarsanghchalak of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. His life was wholly dedicated tot he service of the motherland.

GREAT PERSONALITIES







Savithri

Draupadi

She chose a noble young man for her husband. She knew he had only a year to live, but yet she married him. Even the God of Death bowed to her love and devotion and restored her husband to life.

The wife of the great Pandavas. renowned alike for her loveliness and her granite will. Volcanic, she reduced her enemies to the ashes. But her story is a saga of suffering.

Ekalavya

Sister Nivedita

A Student's distinction lies in his devout pursuit of know- ledge, and not merely in his heritage. This manifests in a splendid manner in Ekalavya's life. He worshipped an idol of his 'Guru' mastered archery. when his master desired his right thumb as fee,he smilingly sacrificed it.

Young Margaret Noble came under the spell of Swami Vivekananda. She came from distant Ireland to India to serve the people of this land. She was give the name of ' Nivedita' as one dedicated to God.

Raja Rammohan Roy

Rammanohar Lohia

Raja Rammohan Roy has come to be called the ' Maker of Modern India'. With out giving up what was good and noble in the past he laid the foundations for a great future. HE was a great scholar and a independent thinker.


The Socialist leader of a fearless and dynamic personality. Both before independence and in free India he went to prison several times for the sake of the people.

Madhanlal Dhingra

Veer Abhimanyu

Dhingra died young but his life was one of the heroism and glory. In London, the heart of the British Empire, he killed an enemy of India. He died gladly for his country.

The matchless youth who won immortality by his shining heroism in the great Mahabharatha war. Pitted against the mightiest of the mighty in the enemies' ranks, this warrior barely sixteen became sheet anchor of the Pandavas.

Lakshmana

Karna

Younger brother of Sri Rama, Lakshmana personifies brotherly love and self - effacement. When Sri Rama  had to wage war against Ravana to rescue Sita, he whole heartedly collaborated in hte venture.

A Great Hero of hte 'Mahabharata'. Karna lived such a life that he became another name for generosity and loyalty. It was his misfortune to be shunned as a person of low caste. He sacrifice his life for his master.

Dr.Ananda K.Coomaraswamy

Madana Mohana Malaviya

Ananda K. Coomaraswamy who was born in Ceylon ( Sri Lanka ) and grew up in England, taught the west the way to approach and understand the arts of India. His whole life was dedicated to the study and exposition of Indian culture.

The founder of Benaras Hindu University. His boyhood was spent in utter poverty. By his scholarship, pure life and selflessness he won such respect that he collected more that thirteen million rupees for the university.


Dr.M.Visvesvaraya

Bhishma

One of the makers of modern India. 'MV" was a genius.  Perfectly honest and devoted to his work, he set new standards of efficiency.

One of the most honoured figures of the Indian epic, the Mhabharata. He gave up marriage and throne  for his father's sake. To the people of India he is the symbol of mature wisdom.

Dadheechi

Bhargiratha

Dadheechi after acquiring spiritual knowledge, led a pious life. When prayed for by Indra and other gods, he readily sacrificed his life as well as body, in order that the gods might win in their war against demons.

Thegreat hero who brought down the Ganga from the heaven to the earth. Bhagiratha has become another name for a will of steel that never accepts defeat.

Vidura

Dhondo Keshava Karve

A Great man who shines even in the galaxy of the mighty characters of the ' Mahabharata'. Affection did not dim his wisdom. Fearlessly he walked the path of righteousness. He showed the same pathe to others.

Maharshi Karve lived for a hundred and four years. After he completed his education he pledged his life to the service to others. He chose poverty and walked the pathe strewn wiht criticism and opposition.

Bahubali

Nandalal Bose


Bahubali defeated his elder brother who was puffed up with  pride, but at that very moment understood his life's aim. He gave back the kingdom to his defeated brother and went away to meditate the God. He enriched the lives of his fellowmen with the light he received.

A Celebrated painter of modern India. A genius who was admired in many countries. His was an attractive personaity, which combined boundless learning and a unique genius with unaffected modesty and gentle humour.

Lava-Kusha

Keshava Baliram Hedgewar

Sons of Rama and Sita. After Rama sent away sita who was pregnant, to the forest the twin children were born to her in the hermitage of sage Valmiki. Lava and kusha ties the horse of Rama and successfully fought Bharata, Lakshmana and Rama himself. At last  are finally reunited with Rama.

Founder of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. His strong desire was that all the people should dedicate themselves for the service of the Motherland forgetting the differences of caste creed. etc He shone simple and loving personality.

Jijabai

Chanakya

The mother of Shivaji who was the protector of the country as well religion. She was the embodiment of self - respect. That great mother suffered in silence and became a source of inspiration to her heroic son

He vowed to dethrone the haughty king who was harassing the people of the land. His 'Arthashastra' is a classic of statecraft and is reverently studied in Europe and else where.








 















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