1. Let ABC be the right triangle below. Given the following sides and angles, find the missing sides and angles.
a. a = 24, c = 25
b. a = 12, c = 13
c. a = 1, b = 1
d. a = 1, b =
e. a = 1, c = 4
f. A = 62°, b = 2
g. a = 3.27, A = 49.5°
h. c = 15.6, A = 72°
i. b = 2.4, A = 41°
j. b = .76, B = 15°
k. a = 8, b = 15
l. b = 12, A = 32°
m. c = 25, B = 27.25°
n. a = b, b = 9
o. a = 12, A = 26.75°
p. b = 4, B = 34°
q. a = 20, c = 33
r. a = 2, b = 4
s. A = 13°, c = 11
t. b = 40, c = 80
2. The length of a path going diagonally across a rectangular field is 200 yards, and the path makes an angle of 25° with the fence. How much fencing is required to go around the field?
3. A staircase is to rise 10 feet 8 inches in a horizontal distance of 13 feet 4 inches. Find the inclination of the handrail to the horizontal (i.e., find the angle between the handrail and a horizontal line).
4. An antenna pole is to be braced by three steel wires which are to be attached to a point on the pole 20 feet from the ground, and which make an angle of 50° with the ground. Find the total amount of steel wire necessary.
5. In order to find the distance to an island offshore, a man on the coast measures a baseline 200 yards long and pointing out toward the island. At each end of the baseline he measures the angle between the baseline and the top of a tall tree on the island (i.e., the angle of elevation to the top of the tree). The angles are 68°20' and 81°30' respectively. Find the distance from the island to the nearer end of the baseline.
6. A hydrofoil going due south approaches pier P. Lighthouse X is situated 1000 yards due west of P, and lighthouse Y is 1000 yards due east of P. When the hydrofoil is at a point A, ÐXAY = 50°. One minute later the hydrofoil is at B, and it is found that ÐXBY = 90°. What is the speed of the hydrofoil in yards per minute?
7. A rectangle has a diagonal of length 7 and a width of 3. Find the length of the long side, and the angle formed by the diagonal and the long side.
8. A farmer owns a right triangular plot of land whose non-hypotenuse sides are x and 2x. What angle does the hypotenues form with the short side?
9. A tree broken in two by the wind forms a right triangle with the ground. If the broken part makes an angle of 40° with the ground and the tip of the tree is now 45 feet from the base, measured along the ground, how tall was the tree?
10. Due to a faulty compass, Daniel Boone walks to his favorite river along a path with bearing N30°E instead of taking the shortest path and heading due north. If the short way is 3 miles long, how much extra mileage did Daniel walk?
11. A monument 200 feet high stands on a level street and the angle of elevation of the top is 3°30' at the position of an observer standing on the street. How far is the observer from the monument?
12. A tree 90 feet high casts a shadow 117 feet long. Find the angle of elevation of the sun.
13. From a tower 94 feet high situated on the bank of a river, the angle of depression of the opposite bank is 25°13'. Find the width of the river.
14. From one edge of an excavation 36 feet wide, the angle of elevation of the top of the wall on the opposite edge is 62°39'. Find the length of the ladder that will just reach the tip of the wall from the point of observation.
15. From a balloon directly above a certain building, the angle of depression of a river eight miles away is 10°14'. Find the height of the balloon above the level of the river.
16. From a tower 58 feet high, the angles of depression of two objects situated in the same horizontal line with the base of the tower and on the same side, are and 45°46 '. Find the distance between the objects.
17. From the top of a hill, the angles of depression of two successive milestones on a straight level road leading to the hill are 15° and 5°. Find the height of the hill.
18. To determine the height of one of the great redwood trees of California a surveyor lays off a distance of 300 feet from its foot and at the end of the line sets up a transit. He levels the telescope and then sights on the top of the tree. If the angle of elevation is 65°12', and the telescope is 5 feet above the level ground, find the height of the tree.
19. From an airplane directly above a town, the angle of depression of another town 18 miles away on level ground was 16°. What was the altitude of the plane when the observation was made?
20. A ladder 24 feet long is resting against a wall at an angle of 65°14'49" with a level floor. If the foot of the ladder is drawn 33 inches farther away from the wall, how far down the wall will the top of the ladder move?
21. Two observers are stationed 1 mile apart on a straight east-west level road. An airplane flying north passes over the road between them, and as it crosses over the road, the angles of elevation are observed to be 72°30' and 77°15'. Find the altitude of the plane (in feet).
22. A horizontal oil tank 28 feet long and 6 feet in diameter is filled with oil to a depth of 4 feet. Find the weight of the oil, one cubic foot weighing 50 pounds. 23. A horizontal cylindrical tank, 7 feet in diameter and 25 feet long, is partly filled with water so that the wetted arc of the circumference of the tank is 7.7 feet. How many gallons are there in the tank, allowing 7 gallons to the cubic foot? 24. Find the area of the larger of the two segments into which a circle is divided by a chord 25 inches long which is at a distance of 9 inches from the center. 25. Approximate the angle of elevation of the sun if a boy 5 feet tall casts a shadow 4 feet long on the ground.
26. From a point 15 meters above level ground an observer measures the angle of depression of an object on the ground as 68°. Approximately how far is the object fro the point on the ground directly beneath the observer?
27. The string on a kite is taut and makes an angle of 54°20' with the horizontal. Find the approximate height of the kite above level ground if 85 meters of string are out and the end of the string is held 1.5 meters above the ground.
28. The side of a regular pentagon is 24 cm long. Approximate the radius of the circumscribed circle.
29. From a point P on level ground the angle of elevation of the tip of a tower is 26°50'. From a point 25 meters closer to the tower and on the same line with P and the base of the tower, the angle of elevation of the tip is 53°30'. Approximate the height of the tower.
30. A ladder 20 feet long leans against the side of a building. If the angle between the ladder and the building is 22°, approximately how far is the bottom of the ladder from the building? If the distance from the bottom of the ladder to the building is increased by 3 feet, approximately how far does the tip of the ladder move down the building?
31. As a weather balloon rises vertically its angle of elevation from a point P on the level ground 110 km from the point Q directly underneath the balloon changes from 19°20' to 31°50'. Approximately how far does the balloon rise during this period?
32. From a point A, 8.2 meters above level ground, the angle of elevation of the tip of a building is 31°20' and the angle of depression of the base of the building is . Approximate the height of the building.
33. In order to find the distance d between two points P and Q on opposite shores of a lake, a surveyor locates a point R which is 50 meters from P and such that RP is perpendicular to PQ. Next, using a transit, ÐPRQ is found to measure 72°40'. What is d?
34. A guy wire is attached to the tip of a radio antenna and to a point on horizontal ground which is 40 meters from the base of the antenna. If the wire makes an angle of 58°20' with the ground, approximately how long is the wire?
35. An octagon is inscribed in a circle of radius 12 cm. Approximate the perimeter of the octagon.
36. A builder wishes to construct a ramp 24 feet long which rises to a height of 5 feet above level ground. Approximate the angle that the ramp should make with the horizontal.
37. A rocket is fired at sea level and climbs at a constant angle of 75° through a distance of 10,000 feet. Approximate its altitude to the nearest foot.
38. A CB antenna is located on the top of a garage 16 feet tall. From a point on level ground which is 100 feet from a point directly below the antenna, the antenna subtends an angle of 12°. Approximate the length of the antenna.
39. An airplane flying at an altitude of 10,000 feet passes directly over a fixed object on the ground. One minute later the angle of depression of the object is 30°. What is the speed of the airplane in miles per hour.
40. A motorist is traveling along a level highway at a speed of 60 km per hour directly toward a distant mountain. She observes that between 1:00 PM and 1:10 PM the angle of elevation of the tip of the mountain changes from 10° to . Approximate the height of the mountain.
41. An airplane pilot wishes to make his approach to an airstrip at an angle of 10° with the horizontal. If he is flying at an altitude of 5,000 feet, approximately how far from the airstrip should he begin his descent?
42. In order to measure the height hof a cloud cover, a spotlight is directed vertically upward from the ground. From a point d meters from the spotlight, the angle of elevation q of the light image on the clouds is then measured. Find h if d = 1000 meters and q = 59°.
43. A ship leaves port at 1:00 PM and sails in the direction N34°W at a rate of 24 miles per hour. Another ship leaves port at 1:30 PM and sails in the direction at a rate of 18 miles per hour. Approximately how far apart are the two ships at 3:00 PM?
44. From an observation point A a forest ranger sights a fire in the direction . From a point B, 5 miles due west of A, another ranger sights the same fire in the direction S54°10'E. Approximate, to the nearest mile, the distance of the fire from A.
45. An airplane flying at a speed of 360 miles per hour and flies from a point A in the direction of 137° for 30 minutes and then flies in the direction 227° for 45 minutes. Approximate, to the nearest mile, the distance from the airplane to A.
1. Find the height of the tree in Figure 1.
2. Find the distance from A to B across the river in Figure 2.
3. Find the distance across the pond in Figure 3.
4. Find the height of the building in Figure 4.
5. In Figure 1, find the line-of-sight distance from A to the top of the tree.
6. In Figure 2, find the line-of-sight distance from B to C.
7. In Figure 5, the angle of depression from the top of the lighthouse to a man in a ship is 23.5°. Find the distance AB from the man to the cliff.
8. In Problem 7, find the line-of-sight distance, AC, from the man to the top of the lighthouse.
9. A radio antenna is 50 ft high. The angle of elevation from the antenna to a landing airplane at an altitude of 420 ft is 6°20' (see Figure 6). Find the line-of-sight distance from the top of the antenna to the plane.
10. In Problem 9, find the horizontal distance, AB, from the top of the antenna to a point directly below the plane.
11. A flagpole is 85 ft high. When the sun is 52° above the horizon, what is the length of the shadow cast by the flag-pole? [Hint: The angle of elevation of the sun is 52°.]
12. In Problem 11, what is the angle of elevation of the sun if the length of the shadow cast by the flagpole is 100 ft?
13. Find the height of the Eiffel tower in Paris, using the information in Figure 7.
14. Find the height of the cliff in Figure 8.
15. A man standing at the top of a 65-m lighthouse observes, two boats. Using the data given in Figure 9, determine the distance between the two boats.
16. A 12-ft ladder leans against a cabin. The top of the ladder rests against the highest point on the cabin. If the foot of the ladder is 7 ft from the base of the cabin, how high is the cabin?
17. Find the length of the base of an isosceles triangle if each of the equal sides is 23 cm long and the angle is 28°.
18. A circle of radius 4 inches is inscribed in a regular hexagon. Find the length of one of its sides.
19. Find the angle between the diagonal and the longer side of a rectangle 5 cm by 8 cm.
20. A circle is inscribed in a regular pentagon whose perimeter is 25 cm. Find the radius of the circle.
21. An air traffic controller stands in a 120 ft high control tower. Two planes wait in the same runway to take off. The angle of depression to the first plane is 14°35' and the angle of depression to the second plane is 9°16'. Find the distance between the planes. Assume that the tower and the two planes lie on the same line.
22. An aerial photograph was taken of a mountain ridge from a plane directly overhead. At the time the photo was taken, the sun made an angle of 26° with the horizon. A representation of the photo is given in Figure 10. How high is the ridge at point A?
23. A princess is imprisoned in a room of a castle that is surrounded by a moat. The angle of elevation from the edge of the moat to the bottom of the window in the princess's room is 71°. A knight equipped with a transit wishes to rescue the princess. He determines that the angle of elevation (from ground level) from a point 12 feet directly behind the moat and in line with the window is 52°43'. How long a ladder does he need in order to rescue the princess?
24. A satellite orbits the earth at a height of 520 miles. The angle to a point H on the horizon in Figure 11 is 62°8'. Use these data to approximate the radius of the earth. 25. The diameter of the earth is 7926.4 miles. If you are flying in a plane at an altitude of 35,000 ft 7.6 miles, how far away is the horizon?
26. The sun is approximately 149.5 million km from the earth. From a point on the earth, the sun's diameter subtends an angle of 31'58". What is the approximate diameter of the sun? (See Figure 12.)
27. In December 1974, the American space probe Pioneer 11 made its closest approach to Jupiter, which has a diameter of 88,000 miles. Photos showed that from the probe, the angle subtended by Jupiter's diameter was 57°42'. How close did the probe get to Jupiter?
28. A surveyor stands in a gully. Her eyes are 5 feet 2 inches above the ground, and she is standing 12 feet from one side of the gully. Using a transit, she estimates that the angle of elevation from her eyes to the top of that side of the gully is 17°22'. How deep is the gully?
29. The grade of a ramp or road is equal to the vertical distance the road rises divided by the horizontal length of the road. If a ramp has a 22% grade and is 12 m long, how high does it rise?
30. The exit ramp off a freeway has a constant 2.35% grade. Cars using this ramp arrive at an overpass that is 12.6 m above the freeway. What is the horizontal distance from the beginning of the exit ramp to a point on the freeway directly below the overpass?
31. A ship leaves port and travels 55 km due south. It then changes course and sails 41 km bearing N27°15'W. How far is the ship from port at this point?
32. A ship travels 16 miles/hr. It sails for 3 hours due north and then changes course and sails at a bearing of N61°25'E. How far is the ship from port 8 hours after leaving port?
33. A ship is 142 km due south of a naval base. A second ship is 216 km due east of the base. Find the bearing of the second ship from the first ship.
34. A ship started at point A and sailed 23.6 miles bearing N27°E. It then changed course and sailed 37.2 miles bearing S63°E to reach point B. How far is it from point A to point B?
35. In Problem 34, what is the bearing of the ship if it returns to point A by the most direct route?
36. A ship is sailing due east and at noon passes a lighthouse 8 miles due north. At 1 P.M. the bearing of the lighthouse is N23°W. Assuming that the ship is sailing at constant speed, find the speed of the ship in miles/hr.
1. a. A = 73°42' B = 16°18' b = 7 b. A = 67°22.8' B = 22°37.19' b = 5
c. A = 45° B = 45° c = d. A = 30° B = 60° c = 2
e. A = 14°30' B = 75°30' b = f. B = 28° a = 3.76 c = 4.26
g. B = 40°30' b = 2.79 c = 4.3 h. B = 18° a = 14.84 b = 4.82
i. B = 48°50' a = 2.1 c = 3.2 j. A = 75° a = 2.84 c = 2.94
k. A = 28°6' B = 61°54' c = 17 l. B = 58° a = 7.50 c = 14.15
m. A = 62°45' a = 22.2 b = 11.4 n. A = 45° B = 45° c = 12.73
o. B = 63°15' b = 23.8 c = 26.7 p. A = 55° a = 5.86 c = 7.09
q. A = 37°18' B = 52°42' b = 26.2 r. A = 26°36' B = 63°24' c = 4.47
s. B = 77° a = 2.47 b = 10.72 t. A = 60° B = 30° a = 69.28
2. 532 yards 3. = 39°3' 4. 78.3 ft
5. 120.6 ft 6. 1145 yds/min 7. q = 25.38 s = 6.32
8. 63°24' 9. 96.5 ft 10. mile
11. 3270 ft 12. 37°34' 13. 200 ft
14. 78.35 ft 15. 1.43 mi 16. 43.1 ft
17. 685.9 ft 18. 654.26 ft 19. 5.16 mi
20. 18 in 21. 9750 ft 22. 24,850 lb
23. 1594 gal 24. 616.6 in2 25. 51°
26. 6.1 m 27. 70.6 m 28. 20.4 cm
29. 20.2 m 30. 7.4 ft, 1.5 ft 31. 29.7 km
32. 30.7 m 33. 160 m 34. 76.2m
35. 73.5 cm 36. 12° 37. 9,659 ft
38. 5.26 ft 39. 197 mph 40. 1.88 km
41. 28,800 ft 42. 1,664 m 43. 55 m
44. 3 m 45. 325 m
1. 70.2 ft 3. 148.8 m 5. 83.4 m 7. 80.5 m
9. 3354.1 ft 11. 66.4 ft 13. 300 m 15. 11.6 m
17. 11.1 cm 19. 30° 21. 274.2 ft
23. 30.4 ft (the distance form the edge of the moat to the bottom of the window)
25. 245.6 miles (using the value 7.6 miles in the computation)