Prologue: rizal and his times

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PROLOGUE: RIZAL AND HIS TIMES


  1. THE WORLD OF RIZAL’S TIME

    1. Rizal’s birthday: June 19, 1861 (151 years ago)

    2. American Civil War (1861-65) was raging over the issue of Negro Slavery.

    3. April 1862: Napoleon III of the 2nd French Empire conquered Mexico.

    4. Italians drove out the Austrians and French Armies from Italy.

    5. Prussians (German Kingdom) defeated France and established the German Empire on January 1871.

    6. Flowering of the Western Imperialism: England emerged as the world’s leading imperialist power (1837-1901).

      1. British people acquired the island of Hong Kong.

      2. 1859: imposed her rule over the subcontinent of India.

      3. Conquered Burma.

      4. Other lands in Asia: Sri Lanka, Maldives, Aden, Malaysia, Singapore, and Egypt.

      5. South Pacific: Australia and New Zealand.

      6. France conquered Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

    7. 1853: America re-opened Japan to the world, ending Japan’s 214-year isolation. This modernized the country by freely accepting Western Influences.

    8. Germany was late in the scramble for Colonies.

      1. 1885: proclaimed the Carolines (Yap Island) and Palaus as their own despite of the presence of 2 Spanish ships

      2. This enraged Spain who claimed sovereignty over these islands by virtue of discovery

      3. Relationship of these 2 nations became critical
      4. To avert an actual clash, these 2 countries submitted their concerns to Pope Leo XIII


        1. Pope Leo favored Spain but granted 2 concessions to Germany

          1. Germany has the right to trade in the disputed Archipelagoes

          2. Germany has the right to establish a coaling station in Yap for the German Navy.

    9. Spain, during this colonial ventures, was stagnating as a world power

      1. She lost her rich colonies in Latin America: Paraguay (1811), Argentina (1816), Chile (1817), Colombia and Ecuador (1819)

      2. Lost the Central American Countries: Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatamela, El Slavador, Nicaragua --- (1821), Venezuela (1822), Peru (1824), Bolivia and Uruguay (1825)

      3. But continued colonizing: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines

    10. Filipinos agonized the evil and unjust colonial power of Spain:

      1. INSTABILITY OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

        1. In Spain: struggles between the forces of despotism (single entity rules with absolute power/ one power/ one master)and liberalism

        2. Political instability in Spain affected Philippine affairs: brought frequent periodic shifts in colonial policies and officials

      2. CORRUPT OFFICIALS (Gov. Generals)

        1. Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo (1871-73): executed Frs. Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora (1872)

        2. Gen. Fernando Primo de Rivera: enriched himself by accepting bribes from gambling casinos in Manila

        3. Gen. Valeriano Weyler

          1. Arrived in Manila a poor man and returned to Spain a millionaire

          2. Received huge bribes and gifts of diamonds from wealthy Chinese who evaded the anti-Chinese law.
        4. Gen. Camilo de Polavieja: executed Rizal


        5. After Spain’s loss of colonies in Latin America:

          1. Numerous job-seekers and penniless Spaniards came to the Philippines

          2. They became judges, provincial executives, army officers, and government employees.

          3. They were either relatives or protégés of civil officials and friars.

          4. Mostly ignorant, they conducted themselves with arrogance because of their alien white skin and tall noses.

          5. They became rich by illegal means or by marrying the heiresses of rich Filipino families.

      3. NO PHILIPPINE REPRESENTATION IN THE SPANISH CORTES

        1. To win the support of her overseas colonies during the Napoleonic Invasion, Spain granted locals from their colonies representation in the Cortes, thus Spanish parliament government.

        2. Philippines experienced her first period of representation in the Cortes from 1810-1813.

        3. However, the second (1820-23) and third (1834-37) periods were less fruitful because the Philippine delegates were not energetic and devoted in parliamentary work.

        4. The representation of the overseas colonies (including the Philippines) was abolished in 1837. Since then, the Philippine conditions worsened because there was no means by which the Filipino people could expose the anomalies perpetrated by the colonial officials.

        5. Result: Propaganda Movement that led to Philippine Revolution (1896) was launched.

      4. HUMAN RIGHTS ARE DENIED

        1. Result of no Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes

        2. Freedom for Filipinos was denied

      5. NO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW
        1. Teachings of the Spanish Missionaries: “All men, irrespective of color and race, are equal before God.”


        2. Spanish colonial authorities, who were Christians, did not implement Christ’s precept of brotherhood of all men.

        3. Brown-skinned Filipinos are inferior beings: subjects to be exploited

        4. Brown Filipinos and white Spaniards may be equal before God, but not before the law and certainly not in practice.

      6. MALADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

        1. Justice was costly, partial, and slow. Poor Filipinos had no access to the courts because they could not afford the heavy expenses of litigation.

        2. Wealth, social, prestige, and color of skin were preponderant factors in winning a case in court.

        3. Justice delayed is justice denied: Juan de la Cruz (1886-1898) – 12 yrs

          1. Suspect for murder without preliminary investigation and proper trial

          2. Jailed in Cavite for 12 years. In 1898, the Americans came and found him in jail still awaiting trial.

      7. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

        1. Spaniards called the brown-skinned and flat-nosed Filipinos “INDIOS” (Indians)

        2. Filipinos dubbed the Spaniards as “BANGUS” (Milkfish)

        3. A Spaniard, no matter how stupid he was, always enjoyed political and social prestige and superiority.

        4. Fr. Jose Burgos:

          1. complained the Spanish misconception that a man’s merit depended on the pigment of his skin

          2. complained of the lack of opportunities for educated young Filipinos to rise in the service of God and country

      8. FRAILOCRACY

        1. Spanish political philosophy: union of Church and State

        2. “government of friars”
        3. Augustinians, Dominicans, Franciscans controlled the religious and educational life of the Philippines: they acquire tremendous political power, influence, and riches.


        4. A friar’s recommendation is heard by the governor general and provincial officials. He could send a patriotic Filipino to jailor denounce him as a filibustero (traitor)

        5. These friars were portrayed by Rizal in his novels as Padre Damaso and Padre Salvi

      9. FORCED LABOR

        1. “POLO:” forced labor imposed on Filipinos in the construction of infrastructures and public works

        2. “Falla:” sum of money paid to government to be exempted from the polo.

        3. ABUSES:

          1. FIRST: Spanish residents, contrary to law, were not recruited for “polo”

          2. SECOND: Laborers received only a part of their supposed original stipend. Worse, they got nothing.

            1. People who pay taxes are compelled to work gratis.

          3. THIRD: this caused inconvenience and suffering because common laborers are disturbed from their work in farms, shops, and labors are far from homes and towns.

      10. HACIENDAS OWNED BY THE FRIARS

        1. Spanish friars were the richest landlords for they owned the best haciendas (agricultural lands) in the Philippines.

        2. The rural folks became tenants.

          1. They resented the loss of their lands which belonged to their ancestors since pre-Spanish times

          2. The friars were recognized as legal owners of said lands because they obtained royal titles of ownership from the Spanish Crown.

          3. Rizal, whose family and relatives were tenants of a land, tried to initiate agrarian reform.

          4. Rizal’s advocacy ignited the wrath of the friars, who retaliated by raising rentals of the lands.

        3. Friar ownership of the productive lands contributed to the economic stagnation of the Philippines.
          1. Essay of Rizal: “INDOLENCE (lack of concern) OF FILIPINOS”: Deceptions made by friars making the local folks believe that plantations are prospering because they were under their care.


      11. GUARDIA CIVIL (Constabulary)

        1. Supposed to maintain peace and order in the society

          1. Service: to suppress bandits in the provinces

          2. They don’t observe their duty: maltreating innocent people, looting their livelihoods, raping women

        2. Rizal directed his stinging satire against the hatred Guardia Civil, through Elias in Noli Me Tangere.

          1. Exposed Guardia Civil as ruthless: disturbing peace & persecuting honest men

          2. He proposed to improve the military organization by having it composed of good men who have good education and principles; men who are conscious of the limitations of authority and power.


CHAPTER I: ADVENT OF A NATIONAL HERO

  1. Rizal as a Genius: physician (ophthalmic surgeon), poet, dramatist, essayist, novelist, historian, architect, painter, sculptor, educator, linguist, musician, naturalist, ethnologist, surveyor, engineer, farmer, businessman, economist, geographer, cartographer, bibliophile, philologist, grammarian, folklorist, philosopher, translator, inventor, magician, humorist, satirist, polemicist, sportsman, traveler, and prophet.

  2. BIRTH OF A HERO:

    1. Rizal’s birthday: June 19, 1861 (151 years ago)

    2. Birthplace: Calamba, Laguna

    3. Baptized in the Catholic Church; His name “Jose” was chosen by his mother who was a devotee of the Christian Saint San Jose. (St. Joseph)

  3. RIZAL’S PARENTS:

    1. Jose was the 7th of the 11 children of Francisco Mercado Rizal & Teodora Alonso Realonda
  4. THE RIZAL CHILDREN: (2 boys and 9 girls)


    1. SATURNINA (1850 – 1913) – eldest/ nickname: Neneng

    2. PACIANO (1851-1930) – older brother

      1. Second father to Jose

      2. He immortalized him in Noli Me Tangere as Pilosopong Tasyo

    3. NARCISA (1852-1939) – nickname: SIsa/ School Teacher

    4. OLIMPIA (1855-1887) – nickname: Ypia

    5. LUCIA (1857-1919) –her husband was denied of Christian burial because of Rizal

    6. MARIA (1859-1945) – nickname: Biang

    7. JOSE (1861-1896)– nickname: Pepe

    8. CONCEPCION (1862-1865) – nickname: Concha/ died of sickness at the age of 3

    9. JOSEFA (1865-1945) – nickname: Panggoy/ died an old maid at the age of 80

    10. TRINIDAD (1868-1951) – nickname: Trining/ died an old maid at the age of 83

    11. SOLEDAD (1870-1929) – nickname: Choleng

    12. Doña or Señora (if married) & Señorita (if single)

  5. RIZAL’S ANCESTRY

    1. Domingo Lameo

      1. Rizal’s great-great grandfather on his father side: Chinese Immigrant

      2. Married a Chinese Christian Girl: Ines de la Rosa

      3. Assumed the surname “Mercado” because he was a merchant

        1. Francisco Mercado: their son

          1. Married a Chinese-Filipino: Cirila Bernacha

            1. Juan Mercado: their son/ Rizal’s grandfather
              1. Married a Chinese-Filipino: Cirila Alejandro


              2. Had 13 children

                1. Francisco Mercado: youngest/ Rizal’s father

  6. THE SURNAME RIZAL

    1. The real surname of Rizal was Mercado

    2. “Rizal”, was given by a Spanish alcalde mayor (provincial governor) of Laguna, who was a family friend.

    3. Rizal in Spanish: “a field where wheat, cut while still green, sprouts again”

  7. THE RIZAL HOME

    1. Was one of the distinguished stone houses in Calamba during Spanish times.

    2. By day, it hummed with the noises of children at play and the songs of the birds in the garden.

    3. By night, it echoed with the dulcet notes of family prayers.




  1. A GOOD AND MIDDLE-CLASS FAMILY.

    1. The Rizal family belonged to the principalia, a town aristocracy in Spanish Philippines.

    2. From the farms, which were rented from the Dominicans, they harvested rice, corn, and sugarcane. They raised pigs, chickens, and turkeys in their backyard.

    3. In addition to farming and stockraising, they managed a general good store and operated a small flour-mill and a home-made ham press.

    4. They owned a carriage, which was a status symbol of the ilustrados (“learned”/ “enlightened”). They also have a private library.

    5. They sent their children to the Colleges in Manila.

  2. HOME LIFE OF THE RIZALS

    1. Whenever the children, including Jose, got into mischief, they were given a sound spanking.

    2. They believed in the maxim: “Spare the rod and spoil the child.”

    3. Every day, the Rizals heard Mass. They pray the Angelus, Rosary before sleeping.

    4. After the family prayers, all children kissed the hands of their parents.


CHAPTER 2: CHILDHOOD YEARS IN CALAMBA


  1. CALAMBA, THE HERO’S TOWN

    1. Birth town/ childhood town: shaped Rizal’s mind and character

      1. South: Mount Makiling (beyond the mountain: Batangas)

      2. East: Laguna de Bay

      3. North: Antipolo

    2. Calamba was owned by the Dominican Order

    3. Poem: “In memory of my Town”

  2. EARLIEST CHILDHOOD MEMORIES

    1. Happy days in the family garden

      1. He was frail and undersized child: was given the tenderest care by his parents

      2. A kind old woman was employed as an aya (nurse maid) to look after his comfort

      3. He was left alone to muse on the beauties of nature or to play by himself

    2. Daily Angelus Prayer

    3. Nights at the azotea after the nightly Rosary

      1. Imaginary tales told by the aya aroused in Rizal an enduring interest in legends and folklore

      2. Aya: threat of terrible tales if supper is not eaten

    4. Nocturnal walk in the town

  3. THE HERO’S FIRST SORROW

    1. Jose was closely attached to Concha (Concepcion)

    2. Jose was a year older than Concha. He learned the sweetness of sisterly love from her.

    3. Unfortunately, Concha died of sickness when he was only 3 years old. He cried for the first time: caused by love and grief.

    4. This was Jose’s first sorrow.

  4. DEVOTED SON OF THE CHURCH

    1. 5 y.o.: was able to read the family’s Spanish Bible
    2. Fr. Leoncio Lopez: a Filipino priest. Jose listens to his stimulating opinions on current events and sound philosophy of life.


  5. PILGRAMAGE TO ANTIPOLO: 7 y.o.

    1. To fulfill his mother’s vow when Jose was born

    2. Crossed Laguna de Bay: first lake voyage

    3. Did not sleep the whole night: awed by the Pasig River and the silence of the night. Experienced his first sunrise

    4. Went to Manila afterwards to visit: Saturnina, eldest sister. Jose’ first glimpse of Manila.

  6. THE STORY OF THE MOTH: fable of the young moth and the old one

    1. Story told by her Mother: Made the profoundest impression on him

    2. She was teaching Jose to read in Spanish: El Amigo de los Ninos (The Children’s Friend) when everyone was asleep.

    3. She was her ultimate critique in his poetical compositions.

    4. Jose marveled how her mother sounded good in reading her Spanish phrases.

    5. Jose watched a cheerful flame and moths encircling it when he paid little attention to reading.

    6. Mother told Jose a story when she noticed that he was not interested anymore in reading.

    7. The word ‘story’ promised something new and wonderful on Jose. Jose was full of curiosity and wonder.

    8. Warning of the old moth. Jose did not notice how her mother’s story ended he was fixated on how the moth died because of its attraction to the flame. For Jose, it died a martyr to its illusions.

    9. Mother’s advice: don’t behave like the young moth. Don’t be disobedient, or you may get burnt as it did.

    10. For Jose: Moths know how to warn younger moths. They advised like her mother. The light for Rizal seemed to be more beautiful.

    11. Noble death: sacrificing one’s life for the light. It is something worthwhile.

  7. ARTISTIC TALENTS

    1. 5 y.o. : sketches with his pencil/ molding of clay and wax objects that attracted his fancy

    2. Painted in oil colors a new banner for the town fiesta: better than the original


    3. Spending so much time making images in clay and wax rather than participating in games: “laugh at me now, someday when I die, people will make monuments and images of me.”

  8. FIRST POEM: “to my fellow children”

    1. Gift for literature

    2. Poem is about loving the mother tongue : age of Jose was 8

    3. Earliest nationalist sentiment

    4. People who truly love their native language will surely strive for liberty like the bird which soars to freer space above.

    5. Tagalog is equal to Latin, English, Spanish, and any other Language.

  9. FIRST DRAMA

    1. A Tagalog Comedy, written after his first poem was done: bought by a gobernadorcillo from Paete and staged it in his town fiesta.

  10. AS BOY MAGICIAN/ PERFORMER

    1. Making a coin appear or disappear in his fingers and making a handkerchief vanish in thin air

    2. Magic lantern exhibitions: lamp casting its shadow on a white screen. He twisted his fingers into fantastic shapes, making their enlarged shadows on the screen resemble certain animals and persons.

    3. Puppet shows: manipulating marionettes

  11. LAKESHORE REVERIES

    1. “meditations” at the shore of Laguna with his dog (Usman) on the sad conditions of his oppressed people

    2. Guardia Civil: everyday in his town, unarmed villagers are always injured. Villager’s only fault: not taking his hat off and not bowing.

    3. There was no restraint put upon brutality

    4. He always asks himself: if people live the same way across the lake
    5. Jose grieved deeply over the unhappy situation of his beloved fatherland.


    6. The Spanish misdeeds awakened in his boyish heart a great determination to fight tyranny.

    7. With these injustices, Jose made a vow dedicating himself in studies to avenge the many victims of his hometown. (same idea was written to his friend, Mariano Ponce)

  12. INFLUENCES ON THE HERO’S BOYHOOD

    1. HEREDITARY

      1. Malayan Ancestors: love for freedom, desire to travel, and courage.

      2. Chinese Ancestors: serious nature, frugality, patience, and love for children.

      3. Spanish Ancestors: elegance of bearing, sensitivity to insult, and gallantry to ladies.

      4. Father: profound sense of self-respect, love for work, habit of independent thinking.

      5. Mother: religious nature, spirit of self-sacrifice, and passion for arts and literature.

    2. ENVIRONMENTAL

      1. Scenic beauties of Calamba and the beautiful garden of the Rizal family stimulated the inborn artistic and literary talents of Jose.

      2. The religious atmosphere at his home fortified his religious nature.

      3. Paciano: love for freedom and justice

      4. Sisters: courteous and kind to women

      5. Fairy tales told by his aya: awakened his interest in folklore and legends.

      6. Tio Jose Alberto: who had studied for 11 years in a British School in Calcutta, India, and had travelled in Europe inspired him to develop his artistic ability.

      7. Tio Manuel: a husky and atheletic man, encouraged him to develop his frail body by means of physical exercises, including horse riding, walking, and wrestling.

      8. Tio Gregorio: a book lover, intensified his voracious reading of good books.
      9. Fr. Leoncio Lopez, fostered Rizal’s love for scholarship and intellectual honesty.


      10. Sorrows:

        1. Death of Concha and the imprisonment of his mother, contributed to strengthen his character, enabling him to resist blows of adversity in later years.

        2. Spanish abuses and cruelties, the brutal acts of the Guardia Civil and the alcalde, the unjust tortures inflicted on innocent Filipinos, and the Execution of the Gom-Bur-Za, awakened his spirit of patriotism and inspired him to consecrate his life and talents to redeem his oppressed people.

    3. DIVINE PROVIDENCE

      1. A person may have everything in life – brains, wealth, and power – but, without the aid of Divine Providence, he cannot attain greatness in the annals of the nation.


CHAPTER 3: EARLY EDUCATION IN CALAMBA AND BINAN

  1. HERO’S FIRST TEACHER

    1. Typical schooling of an ilustrado son: 4Rs --- Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic, Religion

    2. Knowledge was forced into the minds of students by means of memory method aided by the teacher’s whip.

    3. First teacher: Jose’s Mother

      1. At the age of 3: Jose learned the alphabet and prayers

      2. Discovered that her son had a talent for poetry

      3. She encouraged him to write poems and told him stories: to lighten the monotony of memorizing the ABCs and to stimulate her son’s imagination

    4. Private tutors were employed: Spanish and Latin

  2. JOSE GOES TO BINAN --- Jose experienced his first homesickness

  3. FIRST DAY IN BINAN SCHOOL

    1. School of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz

    2. Students laughing at Jose’s answers
  4. FIRST SCHOOL BRAWL


    1. Jose met the bully, Pedro (Maestro Justiniano’s son)

      1. Jose was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher

      2. Jose challenged Pedro to a fight

      3. Jose having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel, defeated the bigger boy.

      4. For this feat, Jose became popular among his classmates.

      5. After the class: a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged Jose to an arm-wrestling match.

        1. They went to a sidewalk of a house and wrestled with their arms.

        2. Jose, having the weaker arm, lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk.

      6. Jose was not quarrelsome by nature, but he never ran away from a fight.

  5. PAINTING LESSONS IN BINAN

    1. Juancho: father-in-law of the school’s teacher

    2. Jose, lured by his love for painting, spent many leisure hours at the painter’s studio.

    3. Old Juancho freely gave him lessons in drawing and painting.

    4. Jose and his classmate, Jose Guevarra, who also loved painting, became apprentices of the old painter.

    5. They became favorite painters of the class

  6. DAILY LIFE IN BINAN

    1. 4am: hearing the mass, Jose studies then goes to mass afterwards

    2. Breakfast, goes to class and went out at 10. Jose goes home at once, have lunch and studies.

    3. Goes to school at 2, and goes out at 5. Prays with cousins and goes home afterwards.

    4. He studies lessons, drew a little, and then eats his supper.

    5. Prays, and plays with his nieces in the street when the moon is out.

  7. BEST STUDENT IN SCHOOL
    1. Jose beat all the Binan boys in academic studies.


    2. Older classmates were jealous of his intellectual superiority.

      1. They wickedly squealed to the teacher whenever Jose had a fight outside the school, and told lies to discredit him before the teacher’s eyes.

      2. Consequently: teacher had to punish Jose --- five or six blows.

  8. END OF BINAN SCHOOLING

    1. Letter from sister, Saturnina: arrival of the steamer Talim which would take him from Binan to Calamba. This was Jose’s first time to ride in a steamer.

    2. Rizal’s premonition: not returning to Binan

  9. MARTYRDOM OF GOM-BUR-ZA (1872)

    1. About 200 Filipino Soldiers and workmen of the Cavite arsenal under the leadership of Lamadrid, Filipino Sergeant, rose in violent mutiny because their usual privileges were abolished, including exemption from tribute and polo (forced labor) by: Gov. Rafael de Izquierdo.

    2. The mutiny was suppressed.

    3. The Spanish authorities, in order to liquidate Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, leaders of the secular movement to Filipinize the Philippine Parishes, magnified the failed mutiny into a “revolt” for Philippine Independence.

    4. Despite the archbishop’s plea for clemency because of their innocence, they were still executed.

    5. Paciano, enraged by the execution of Burgos, his beloved friend and teacher, quit his studies and returned to Calamba, where he told the heroic story of Burgos to Jose, who was 11 years old.

    6. The martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za inspired Rizal to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people. This motivated him to develop his studies.
    7. He dedicated his 2nd novel, El Filibusterismo, to Gom-Bur-Za.


  10. INJUSTICE TO HERO’S MOTHER

    1. Dona Teodora was arrested on a malicious charge that she and her brother, Jose Alberto, tried to poision the latter’s perfidious wife.

    2. Jose Alberto, a rich Binan ilustrado, had just returned from a business trip in Europe.

      1. During his absence his wife abandoned their home and children.

      2. When he arrived in Binan, he found her living with another man.

      3. Infuriated by her infidelity, he planned to divorce her.

      4. Dona Teodora, to avert family scandal, persuaded him to forgive his wife.

      5. The family trouble was amicably settled, and Jose Alberto lived again with his wife.

    3. However, the wife of Jose Alberto, with the connivance of the Spanish lieutenant (had been friends of the Rizals and was treated as their honored guest in their home) of the Guardia Civil, filed a case in court accusing her husband and Dona Teodora of attempting to poison her.

    4. This lieutenant happened to have an ax to grind against the Rizal family, because at one time Don Francisco (Rizal’s father) refused to give him fodder for his horse. Taking the opportunity to avenge himself, he arrested Dona Teodora.

    5. After arresting Dona Teodora, the Spanish Lieutenant forced her to walk from Calamba to Santa Cruz, a distance of 50 kilometers.

    6. After arrival to Santa Cruz, Dona Teodora was incarcerated at the provincial prison, where she languished for 2 and ½ years and was later on acquitted.




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