Raising standards in writing



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Thurrock Primary Team

RAISING STANDARDS IN WRITING

KS1 & KS2


PIE CORBETT

14th October 2008
The Culver Centre
Storymaking


  • ‘Narrative is a primary act of mind’, Barbara Hardy.

  • Reading/telling helps us to internalise language.

  • We learn language primarily through hearing and saying.

  • Hear it – say it – see it –read it –explore it – write it….

  • Key stories that act as - blueprints for the imagination – you cannot imagine or create out of nothing.

  • ‘The same images, with very little variation, have served all the authors who have ever written’, Samuel Johnson.

  • Releasing cognitive space – making writing easy - finding our story within the universal story.

The ability to tell a story arises out of building up and drawing upon a bank of well-known tales. The best writers in a class are always avid readers – drawing upon the narrative storehouse. Strugglers may have not yet built up that storehouse so they are unfamiliar with the language patterns…. It is not to do with ideas of being ‘unimaginative’ or ‘unintelligent’. There are four basic levels of patterning that children need: - the ‘schema’ or template of a story – the story frame; the narrative building blocks of character, action, setting; the flow of the sentences – syntax; words – especially connectives.


The Storymaking Process



IMITATION – familiarisation.


  • Getting to know the story through – storytelling or rereading.
  • MAKING IT MEMORABLE = Draw it + Drama, etc.


  • Spelling, sentence and paragraph work.

  • The Writer’s Toolkit.

INNOVATION – re-using a well-known text.


  • Substitution.

  • Addition.

  • Alteration.

  • Change of viewpoint.

  • Using the basic story pattern

INVENTION – making up a text.


  • Building up a story – drawing, drama, images, video, first-hand experience, location, quality reading, etc.

Learning the story.
The first thing is to teach the class the story.
a. Communal Stories.
With a simple, repetitive story that can be learned communally (e.g. ‘Little Red Hen’), the tale can be chanted as a class together with the children increasingly joining in as the tale becomes familiar.
Session 1 - You tell the story and draw a large class story map – children copy the map.

Session 2 onwards - The class keep retelling the story with the children gradually joining in more and more and the teacher withdrawing from telling.



  • Children retell in circles – circles perform for the class.

  • Children retell in pairs – pairs retell to other pairs.

Once the story is well-known, tell it to another class who doesn’t know it, one to one or two to two or group to group or whole class.



b. More confident storytellers.

Once the children become reasonably confident, then they can move on to stories that rely less on repetitive patterns. If children have sufficient linguistic ability they can listen to a story, draw a map, pace the story steps and move straight into retelling a version. In this case, they are not learning the story word for word.

1. Tell a new story to the class – take reactions and responses – likes, dislikes, puzzles and patterns.
2. Explain that you are going to retell the same story but will not necessarily use exactly the same words but it will be basically the same tale.
3. On your second retelling, ask the children to sketch a story map that shows the main pattern of events. Explain that they should not try and get in all the details – just the key events.
4. Try ‘walking the key steps’ of the story or boxing it up into its main scenes. Do this as a class or set as a further task for the children.
5. In pairs, they now use their maps to retell the story. They could try this by taking turns to tell the next bit. Explain how they may have to ‘resay’ sentences and ‘go over’ bits of the story as they try to sort out the wording and gain fluency.
6. They should then retell it again, trying to become more fluent. It is worth moving partners around so that you form new pairs. They need to retell the story not once, not twice but at least 3 times to begin to gain fluency – less experienced may well need to retell 6 times or more.
7. Have pairs retell to the class from the storyteller’s chair – take feedback to evaluate – what works well?
8. Try story circles with each child saying a sentence or chunk and passing the tale round the circle.
9. Eventually, tell it to another class which doesn’t know it, one to one or two to two.
As children become more experienced, they should be able to select a short story for themselves from a selection of written down tales, create a map or board, pare it down to the bare bones and work in pairs to develop and refine their own retelling.
c. Improving the telling of stories

Once the children have worked in a pair and reached the point where they can retell a version in a reasonably confident and fluent manner, then they are ready to work on their performance skills. They can perform to a partner, in a three or four, small group and ultimately to the class or another class. Remember that anyone who tells needs to be praised and clapped. Simple pointers include:



  • Most importantly, can the story be heard?

  • Are the words spoken clearly?

  • Is the volume varied in relation to the meaning?

  • Are dramatic pauses used at the right moment?

  • Have any key words been emphasized?

  • Are the words spoken with expression?

  • Does the teller use facial, hand gestures or body movements to reinforce meaning?

  • Does any movement detract from the telling?

  • Does the teller scan the audience, drawing everyone into the tale?

Use a Dictaphone or digital camera to capture retellings so that children can listen to or see themselves – in order to help them refine and improve their storytelling.


d. Working on the wording of a story
When the children know the basic story and can retell it fluently then they are able to develop the actual wording. Be careful that they do not embellish a story so much that it becomes too wordy and the narrative is lost.
A simple ‘story grid’ or flow chart can be drawn to provide a visual overview of each ‘scene’ or main event. Use this to focus on:

  • Description – people, places, objects, creatures.

  • Characterisation and dialogue

  • Suspense and action

  • Crafting the opening and ending

Don’t work on everything at once – just select a focus. Model ideas, to influence the class version of a story. Then ask children to work in pairs or individually. Some key points might include:


Characterisation.

  • Name

  • A few descriptive details

  • How is the character feeling

  • Show this through what they say or do.

  • Change character across the story


Dialogue.

  • Think about how they feel
  • Use powerful speech verbs


  • Use said + adverb

  • Insert stage direction to show what a character is doing when speaking

  • Use only a few exchanges


Description – people, places, objects.

  • Use well-chosen adjectives

  • Use similes/metaphor

  • Use senses and detail

  • Show things through the character’s eyes, e.g. she stared at….

  • Describe key objects

  • Describe settings to create atmosphere

  • Describe the weather and time of day


Openings.

  • Character – Bill stared at the burger in disgust.

  • Setting – A fly crawled up the window pane.

  • Action – Jo ran.

  • Talk – ‘Put that down!’

  • Use a ‘hook’ – Usually, John enjoyed walking to school but…


Endings.

  • Show character’s feelings – Bill grinned.

  • Comment on what has been learned – They knew it had been stupid….


Action and suspense.

* Balance short and long sentences.

* Use questions to draw reader in.

* Use exclamations for impact.

* Use an ominous sound effect, e.g. something hissed.

* Show a glimpse of something, e.g. a hand appeared at the door.

* Use dramatic connectives, e.g. at that moment….

* Use empty words, e.g. something, somebody, it.

* Use powerful verbs.

Helping children internalise the story.

Learning the story is assisted if the children internalise the pattern by using a multi-sensory approach. The following activities also help the children deepen their understanding and appreciation of a story. These activities can therefore be threaded between sessions where children are retelling and refining their version in pairs. This is a list of generic story responses.



  1. Visual Storyboard

This could be a large-scale representation of the story using pictures and labels across a class wall or a small-scale cartoon. Some stories lend themselves to using images or photos as well as paintings or drawings.
2. Likes, dislikes, puzzles and patterns.
a. Make a list about the story of likes, dislikes, puzzles and patterns – share and discuss.

b. Each pair to make a list of 5 questions they are curious

about. Later on, list these as a class and see if other pairs can

provide ideas or answers. Ask for ‘deep’ questions – ones to which you cannot just answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ but you could talk about.


3. Poem.
a. Choose a favourite moment in a story. Write a short, descriptive poem to capture the scene:

 Silence.

Theseus stares into darkness,

Creeps forwards,

Each footfall a heartbeat

Of desperation.

Till red eyes flicker

Like fiery rubies ahead.

b. Choose a moment in the story. Use a simple frame (I heard…., I saw…, I touched…., I wondered….) to write a senses poem in role as a character in the story, e.g.
I heard the distant rumble of the Minotaur’s hot breath.

I heard the dark hooves scraping the sandy floor.

I heard the heavy beat of my heart as it drew nearer.
I saw the sudden sharp flash of its red eyes glinting in the darkness.

I saw the ragged hair and the flared nostrils.
I touched the cold walls for comfort.

I touched the thin string of Ariadne’s hope.
I wondered if my fear would turn into dust…


5 Riddles.

Choose an object from the story. Make up clues about it as a riddle for others to guess, e.g.

I am curved like a crescent moon,

Like a giant’s finger nail

But twenty times more deadly.

I sit on the head

But hear nothing….


5. Exploring feelings.
a. Your own: choose story moments which made you feel something (happy? sad? bored?) and explore why:

The flight made me feel sad because….

b. Different characters: write in role as a selected character, explaining how he/she/it felt at that moment in the story. Present as a monologue:



I am weary because…

6. "What if" re-telling.
Think of a "what-if" moment in the story when events could be different. Make notes or draw events and prepare to tell what happens next in your new version. This works best if you can give examples, e.g. Theseus drops the ball of string and cannot find it in the darkness…


7. Dialogue.
Chose a favourite moment in the story and write some dialogue for that moment, either as part of a play, as a duologue for a pair to perform or as a piece of story writing. Discuss with the class possible scenes.

8. Design.
Design and draw a building or machine from the story. Use show boxes and card to make simple dioramas, showing a key moment in the story.


9. Re-enact.
Improvise a re-enactment – or script a play version to perform for another class.

10. Letter Writing.
In role as a character, write a letter to another character or a member of your family or a friend, explaining what has happened, how you feel and what might happen, e.g. imagine you are the Minotaur in the labyrinth. Write a letter to your Mum!

11. Phone a Friend.

a. Choose a specific moment in the story. In role as a character, phone a friend, another character or a member of your family, explaining what has happened, how you feel and what might happen, e.g. imagine you are Jack at the top of the Beanstalk being chased by the giant – phone your Mum to warn her to fetch the axe!

b. Phone an ‘agony aunt’ for advice.


12. Characters.
Draw pictures the characters as you imagine them. Describe them in words by annotating an image.
13. Personal.

Does anything in the story remind you of something that happened to you, e.g. a time of surprise, a time of fear, a time of shame, a time of violence, a time of fun? Tell or write the anecdote.



14. Dilemmas.

List the main dilemmas in the story on a story map or story mountain. Explain what choices the character had and what you would have done in their place, e.g. should Europa ride the bull; should she marry the king; should Pasiphae tell anyone her secret, etc.



15. Ethics.

List ethical issues in a story – the rights and wrongs of behaviou, e.g. explore the role of Daedalus in the story. Was he right to help the queen and build the labyrinth? Should he have said no? Divide into two groups and prepare arguments on both sides for a mini debate.




16. Cartoons.

Make story strip cartoons.



17. Exploring feelings - anger.
List the moments when characters were angry. Map these onto a storymountain/storymap, showing the peaks and troughs. Discuss and list the causes. Discuss and list possible alternatives to revenge!

18. Explore themes, e.g. loss.
List the moments of loss in the story and the different ways the characters react.

19. Hot seating.

Prepare questions/answers for later on when the class put the main characters in the ‘hot seat’.


20. Freeze frames.

As a group select a key moment in the story and prepare a ‘freeze frame’ to show the rest of the class.


21. Miming scenes.

Prepare to mime a scene from the story. Will the rest of the class be able to guess which scene?

22. Meetings.

Prepare to hold a meeting, e.g. to discuss in role as local people what is happening and how the monster might be overthrown.

23. Puppet theatre.

Prepare a script to use with finger puppets and a mini theatre.


24. Journalists.

Work as a pair – one child in role as a character from the story and the other as a journalist – interview, take notes.


25. ‘News’ programmes.

Groups work in role as an outside broadcasting unit – TV or radio – prepare a broadcast about a key scene.


26. Gossip.

Between characters about events. These could be main characters or bystanders. Use pretend mobile phones.


27. Statements to police.

In role as a character or witness from the story - a police officer takes down details of what happened.


28. Drawing/Writing in role.

Drawing scenes or maps, create documents to accompany the story, e.g. end of term report for a character, diary entry, letters to another character, newspaper articles, official report or letter, passes for the palace, etc.


29. Trials.

Prepare notes for a trial. The teacher will be in role as judge. Children work as solicitors to defend or accuse, plus witnesses and characters from the story – as well as bystanders. Who deserves to be put on trial and what for? Which items from the story museum might be used as evidence?


30. Role on the wall.

Someone lies down on sheets of paper – an outline is drawn now add comments, quotes, to build a picture of the character.


33. Thoughts in the head.

Work in pairs – choose a place to stop in the story. In role – say aloud what the different characters might be thinking – is it the same as what they are saying….?


34. Story Boxes

Each child has a show box – objects, drawings, etc are placed into the box to represent the story. Alternatively create a class story museum to represent a story.

35. Vary retellings.

Try retelling a story silently by miming. Retell as fast as you can (Babblegabble). Retell in triangles chunk by chunk, taking turns. Retell like tennis – back and forth. Pairs retell and the teacher calls out instructions – speed up, slow down, word by word, make it angry, make it sad, etc.



Making storytelling special.
Storyteller’s hat

Storyteller’s chair

Storyteller’s cloak

Magic Carpet

Story Music

Story lights

Story box or bag

Storytelling Castle


STRATEGIES FOR LEARNING THE STORIES (for teachers).


  1. Choose a story.




  1. Adapt the story.




  1. Decide on actions.




  1. Draw a map.




  1. Record it sentence by sentence with a space between and practise.


Innovation.
Substitutions.

This seems to be the simplest form of innovation. Many children find it simple enough to alter basic names of characters, places and objects.



Once upon a time there was a little girl called Poppy who lived in a town.

Early one morning her Mother said to her, ‘take this basket of food to your Granpa’s house.’ Into the basket she put – a loaf of bread, a shiny apple, a ham sandwich and a bottle of fizzy lemonade.
Additions.

This may make a second simple enough stage. The child keeps the same basic pattern and sentences. However, extra sentences are added in, embellishing on the original. These might include:



  • additions to words in a list;

  • adding in more description, e.g.


Once upon a time there were 3 Billy Goats Gruff who lived beside a river. Every day they stared over the river at the lush green grass that grew there.

Early one morning, Baby Billy Goat Gruff woke up. It was a cold, misty morning. He started to look for some grass but he could not find any…



Next, he walked and he walked and he walked till he came to the butchers. There he met a rat, a fat rat.

I’m hungry,” said the rat, “What have you got in your creel….




  • adding in new incidents, e.g.

The butcher grew curious. He opened the bag and out shot the puppy! It ran into the farmyard and was chased off by a little boy – whack, whack!

The boy chased the puppy and the puppy chased the cat and the cat chased the rat down the lane and into the market place.
And at that moment back came Mr Fox.

Where is my puppy….?”


Alterations.

This might make a third stage. In this stage you make a change rather than just an ‘addition’. An ‘alteration’ is a significant change that leads to consequences, usually altering the story is some fashion. There might be two levels of approach to retelling using 'alterations'.



  1. The original plot is maintained, using many of the original sentences. However, alterations are made within the plot. These might include –

  • altering characters, e.g. so that a good character becomes greedy;

  • altering settings, e.g. so that a character journeys through a housing estate rather than a forest;

  • altering the way the story opens or ends;

  • altering events but sticking to the basic plot.

Inside she saw three bowls of what looked like some sort of stew.

I’m hungry’, thought Goldy, as she sat down at the table. She took just one mouthful and that was enough. The stew must have had peppers or chilli in it for it was so spicy that she almost spat it out! She noticed a cookery book on the kitchen shelf – Mexican recipes!



  1. The original plot is altered – so that the tale takes a new direction. Many of the original sentences and connectives may be used but the plot takes on a variation of the original. For instance - the plot begins in the same way but one incident steers it in a new direction. (An ‘alteration’ uses both ‘imitation’ and ‘innovation’ – but some of the tale will be an ‘invention’.)


Change of Viewpoint.

The story plot is used as a basis for a retelling but from a new viewpoint. For instance – the 3 pigs is retold from the fox’s point of view or rewritten as a newspaper item. This approach might involve: -



  • retelling from a different character’s view;

  • retelling in a different form (text type) – as a letter, diary entry, etc.

  • retelling in a totally new setting, e.g. Skillywidden in a city;

  • retelling in a different time, e.g. Mr Fox in modern times;

  • retelling in a different genre, e.g. retelling a folk tale as a thriller.


Goldy froze. She had heard the door handle give the slightest squeak and could see that it was steadily turning. Somebody was trying to get in! She ducked under the table and kept quite still.

Re-use the basic plot.

This involves unpicking the basic plot and recycling it in a new setting with new characters and events – only the underlying pattern remains, e.g. resetting Little Charlie as a quest involving hobbits or spaceships searching for a new planet.



The quality of the children’s innovations is in direct relation to the quality of the class innovation and shared writing.

INVENTION.


  • Hold regular story inventing sessions. These should be:

  • oral

  • guided by the teacher

  • reusing familiar characters, settings and patterns


  • reusing connectives, sentence patterns

  • an opportunity for new ideas, drawing on a range of stories and life



Capturing the story


  1. Story map

  2. Story mountain

  3. Story boxes




  1. Start from the basic Story Ingredients.

  • Who - Where - What

  • keep it simple;

  • use props;

  • start with a character, place or event;

  • use a trigger if stuck.




  1. Ignite the writing.




  • Use objects, images, drama, video, interesting experiences to stimulate the imagination.

  • Children should draw, decide and tell before writing.



  1. Use a basic story frame – teach and practise planning.




  1. Problem/resolution

  2. Warning

  3. Quest

  4. Wishing

  5. Lost/found

  6. Defeating the monster

  7. Little Miss Muffet, 3 Bears, Humpty

  8. Cinderella

  9. Magical – place, events, powers

  10. Character flaw

  11. Base a story on anecdotes.

  12. Retell urban legends

Reading as a writer.
Getting under the car bonnet of writing.


Read

  • as a writer;

  • problem-solve to see how texts are structured;

  • notice how effects are created;

  • texts act as blueprints;
  • texts act as powerful models.




Learn

  • discuss how the author created impact (authorial intent);

  • label the writing technique;

  • list it on a wall chart;

  • children write key examples in their writer’s journal for future reference;

  • collect more examples.



Apply

Box up:


  • Humpty Dumpty – 4 boxes.

  • Three bears – 5 boxes.

  • Adventure at Sandy Cove - 5 boxes – story mountain.

Adventure at Sandy Cove

“Hurry up,” shouted Joe as he climbed over the rocks. Carefully, Rahul followed. The two boys stopped at a rock pool and began to search for shells. “Hey, what’s this?” shouted Joe to Rahul. In the rock pool was a small, black box wrapped in plastic. The boys tugged it loose. What was inside? Joe pressed the silver catch and the lid popped open. The box was full of sparkling jewels!


At that moment, a scruffy old man shouted at the boys. His wolf-like dog barked menacingly. Joe snapped the lid down, picked up the box and the two boys began to scramble over the rocks. They slipped and struggled towards the cliffs.

“Quick! Let’s hide in here,” said Joe, rushing into a cave. It was dark and damp inside and they could hear water dripping. They felt their way further in and crouched behind a rock. Rahul’s heart pounded like a drum. All at once, the scruffy man appeared at the cave mouth. He shone a torch around. The light cast shadows on the cave wall. The children ducked down and kept as still as stone, but the dog could sense them. It padded closer and closer, growling menacingly. Rahul gripped Joe’s arm. They could see its white teeth, smell its damp hair and feel its hot meaty breath.

Suddenly there was a distant shout. ‘Here Dog!’ hissed the man, roughly grabbing its collar. “Those boys have got away. Quick. After them!” Joe and Rahul held their breath until they could hear the sound of the man and his dog stumbling back across the rocks. They waited for a long while before creeping out. Even though the beach was empty, the boys ran home as fast as they could.
At first Mum didn’t believe them. It was only when Joe opened the box that she decided to call the police. When the police arrived they told Mum that the big house up the road had been burgled only the night before. They had spent all day searching for a trace of the jewels. Their only clue had been the footprints of a large dog. Joe shut his eyes. He could imagine the headlines: ‘PRICELESS JEWELS FOUND BY SCHOOLBOY DETECTIVES. And there was a reward too!
From Treetops ‘Storywriter’ CD Rom – Oxford University Press.
Suspense paragraphs.


  • The more examples the better.

  • Collect other examples from reading.

  • It is not just a grammar spotting game.

A door banged. Claire jumped. What was that? It wasn’t Mr Jakes because she could hear him whistling at the other end of the playground. Out of the silence, she heard steps. Somebody was coming closer. Somebody or something was coming down the corridor. Nearer. She stood still, so still that even the tables and chairs froze with her. Carefully, she peered round the edge of the door. A shadow slipped, quick as a knife, into the next room. Claire clenched her fist around the pen, her heart racing.


Shaz blew on her hands to keep them warm. She stared up the street and stamped her feet impatiently, hoping that the bus would not be too long. Already the road was getting darker and the shadows lengthening. Shaz glanced at her watch – it was late! At that moment she heard a noise from the behind the shelter. Something was scratching, scraping on the back wall. Shaz froze. Her mind raced. What could it be? Anxiously, she peered up the street again, just in time to see a figure running towards her….

The Writing Journal.
I suspect many writers read books the way mechanics look at cars, with an eye to what is going on under the bonnet.’

Paul Muldoon, The Sunday Times, 4 October 1998.
The journal acts as a storehouse of all the useful things that they have been taught that might be referred to when writing – it is a writing thesaurus. Divide the journal into sections for different types of writing. Some of the information can be included as a reminder sheet written by the teacher – but the children should also collect words, invent sentences add further examples so that they have ownership. For each non-fiction text type have;


  • A model of the text type;

  • Who might read this and why - purpose and audience;

  • A writing toolkit showing:

    • the basic structure;

    • language features;




Toolkit

Example

‘How to’ title

How to make a puppet.

Introduction

  • use a question

  • make it sound worth doing

Have you ever wanted to entertain your friends? If so, read these instructions and soon you will be able to put on a puppet show for them.

What you need

  • use :

  • use , in a list

You will need: a piece of felt, pins, marker pens, large needles, coloured thread, ribbons, buttons, wool and a pair of scissors.

What you do


  • in order

  • bossy verbs

  • short, clear sentences

  • numbers, alphabet or bullet points

  • diagrams if needed

What to do

  1. Fold the felt in half.

  2. Draw the shape of your puppet on the felt.

  3. Cut it out carefully.

  4. Put in some pins to stop it moving.

  5. Sew round the edges but leave the bottom open for your hand

  6. Draw on a face.

  7. Decorate the body.

Final comment

  • Address reader – ‘you’

  • ‘Wow’! point

Now you are ready to perform for your friends. Why not make a cast of characters and write a play? Have fun!


  • use above grid as a checklist for to drive demonstration, shared and independent writing plus - self evaluation

  • Collect other ‘writerly’ tips or reminders, e.g. how to create suspense.

  • Sentence reminders – with examples.

  • Useful word lists, e.g. connectives, bossy verbs, persuasive tactics, etc.

There could be various ‘general reference sections’, e.g.

  • Punctuation reminders

  • The most common spellings I often get wrong

  • Targets…


Stella’s Year 2 Writing Folders.

    • story toolkits, e.g. Billy Goats Gruff

    • adverbs/my adverbs

    • openers

    • extra openers

    • fairy tale characters

    • fairy tale settings

    • fairy tale master toolkit

    • my ambitious adjectives
    • powerful verbs


    • where – prepositions

    • punctuation pyramid

    • question words

    • said toolkit

    • useful openers y2

    • useful openers y3/4



TARGETS.


  • Look for these in reading – notice use and discuss effect.

  • Show examples on literacy wall and in journals – practice on white boards and write up for future use.

  • Demonstrate when modelling writing.

  • Focus children on using in shared writing;

  • Expect in independent writing – be clear, read examples, pause and check.

  • Check for in self-evaluation, marking and editing.

  • Writing certificates for progress.

Appendices.

Reception Story Making Language Bank
Model language in everyday class activities using emphasis and actions.

Introduce
Once upon a time

Early one morning

And

Then


Next

Until/till

But

So

Finally


…..happily ever after
….. who …..
‘Run’ (he walked and he walked …..)
Description – a lean cat, a mean cat …..
Alliteration
Adverbs: Luckily/unfortunately
Prepositions: down, into, over, out, onto.


Year 1 Story Making Language Bank
Model language in everyday class activities using emphasis and actions.



Consolidate

Introduce

Once upon a time

Early one morning

And

Then


Next

Until/till

But

So

Finally



After/after that

One day


At that moment

Soon/ as soon as

Because

Suddenly


By the next morning

To his amazement

In the end

First


when Now

….. who …..


….. that …..

…. or ….


…. so that ….

….. when …..

….. where …..


  • ‘Run’ (he walked and he walked …..)

  • Description – a lean cat …..

  • Alliteration

  • Adverbs: Luckily/unfortunately

  • Prepositions: down, into, over, out, onto

  • …. happily ever after

Repetition for effect
Adjectives to describe

Simile – using ‘as’

Adverbs: Suddenly, immediately

Prepositions: Inside, towards




Year 2 Story Making Language Bank
Model language in everyday class activities using emphasis and actions.



Consolidate

Introduce

Once upon a time

Early one morning

To his amazement

Suddenly

One day After/after that

And


So

First


By the next morning

Next


Then when

Now


Until/till

Soon/ as soon as

But

In the end


Because

Finally


At that moment

After a while

A moment later

The next day

However


Meanwhile

When it was all over…





….. who …. .….. when …..

….. that …. .….. where …..

…. or …. …. happily ever after

…. so that ….



….. to …..

  • ‘Run’ (he walked and he walked …..)

  • Description – a lean cat …..

  • Alliteration

  • Simile – using ‘as’

  • Adjectives to describe

  • Adverbs: Luckily/unfortunately, suddenly, immediately

  • Prepositions: down, into, over, out, onto, inside, towards

Repetition for effect

Adjectives to describe

Adverbs: eventually, unluckily

Prepositions

Simile using ‘like’

Sentence of 3 for description, e.g. He wore a red cloak, shiny shoes and a tall hat.







Year 3/4 Story Making Language Bank


Consolidate

Introduce

Once upon a time

One day


Early one morning

First


Next

After/a while

Before

And


As

But


At that moment

Suddenly


Immediately

Although


However

So

Soon/as soon as


Then

….. until/till

While/meanwhile

In the end

Finally


later

whenever

without warning

eventually





Consolidate

….. who …..

….. while …..

….. when …..

….. that …..

….. to …..

….. or …..


  • ‘Run’ (he walked and he walked …..)

  • Description, eg a lean, grey cat

  • ‘How’ starter, eg Slowly, …

  • ‘Where’ starter, eg At the end of the lane …..

  • Alliteration and similes

  • sentence of 3 for description, e.g. He wore a red cloak, shiny shoes and a tall hat.


Introduce

  • ‘ing’ clause starter, eg Running along, Tim tripped over.

  • drop in – ‘ing’ clause, eg Tim, running along, tripped over.

  • drop in ‘who’ clause, eg Tim, who was late, tripped over.

  • short sentences, questions, exclamations

  • “” plus speech verb/adverb

Year 5/6/7 Story Making Language Bank


Consolidate

Introduce

Once upon a time

One day


Early one morning

First


Next

After/a while

Before

But


At that moment

Suddenly

Immediately

Without warning

Although


However

Later


So

As/Soon/as soon as

Then

….. until/till



While/meanwhile/When/whenever

Eventually/Finally/In the end



Elaborate, eg Early one frosty morning

although

if



Consolidate

….. who ….. ….. while …..

….. when ….. ….. that …..

….. to …..….. or …..




  • ‘Run’ (he walked and he walked …..)

  • Description, eg a lean, grey cat

  • ‘How’ starter, eg Slowly,

  • ‘Where’ starter, eg At the end of the lane …..

  • ‘ing’ clause starter, eg Running along, Tim tripped over.

  • drop in – ‘ing’ clause, eg Tim, running along, tripped over.

  • drop in ‘who’ clause, eg Tim, who was late, tripped over.

  • short sentences, questions, exclamations, sentence of 3 for description.

  • “” plus speech verb/adverb

  • Alliteration and similes


Introduce

* ‘ed’ clause starter, eg Exhausted, Tom ran home.

*drop in ‘ed’ clause, eg Tim, exhausted by so much effort, ran home.

*sentence of 3 for action, eg Tim ran home, sat down and drank his tea.

*speech plus stage direction ‘ing’ clause, “Stop,” he whispered, picking up his tea.

*Personification



The Little Red Hen.
Once upon a time there was a little red hen who lived on a farm.

Early one morning she woke up and went outside. There she found some corn.
Who will help me plant the corn?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –

and so she did!

Who will help me water the corn?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –


and so she did!
Who will help me cut the corn?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –

and so she did!
Who will help me carry the corn to the mill?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –

and so she did!
Who will help me grind the corn?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –

and so she did!
Who will help me knead the bread?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –

and so she did!
Who will help me bake the bread?” said the little red hen.

Not I,” said the bull.

Not I,” said the cat.

Not I,” said the rat.

Oh very well, I’ll do it myself,” said the little red hen –

and so she did!
Who will help me eat the bread?” said the little red hen.

I will,” said the bull.

I will,” said the cat.

I will,” said the rat.

Oh no you won’t,” said the little red hen, “I’ll eat it myself -

and so she did!

Once upon a time there was a little boy called Charlie who lived on the edge of a big city.

Early one morning he woke up and his Mumma said, “Take this bag of goodies to your Grandma’s.” Into the bag she put – a slice of cheese, a loaf of bread and a square of chocolate.

Next he walked, and he walked and he walked till he came to a bridge. There he met a cat – a lean cat, a mean cat.

“I’m hungry,” said the cat. “What have you got in your bag?”

“I’ve got a slice of cheese, a loaf of bread – but he kept the chocolate hidden!”

“I’ll have the cheese please,” said the cat. So Charlie gave the cheese to the cat and it ate it all up.


Next he walked, and he walked and he walked till he came to a pond. There he met a duck – a snowy white duck.

“I’m hungry,” said the duck. “What have you got in your bag?”

“I’ve got a loaf of bread – but he kept the chocolate hidden!”

“I’ll have the bread please,” said the cat. So Charlie gave the bread to the duck and it ate it all up.


Next he walked, and he walked and he walked till he came to a tall town clock – tick tock, tick tock, tick tock. There he met not one, not two but three scruffy pigeons.

“We’re hungry,” said the pigeons. “What have you got in your bag?”



Unfortunately, there was only the chocolate – Luckily, Charlie found some crumbs. So he scattered them on the ground and the pigeons ate them all up.
Next he walked, and he walked and he walked till he came to a crossroads. There he met a …. Nobody.

“Mmmm, I’m hungry ,” said Charlie. “What have I got in my bag?”

“Mmmmmm, chocolate!” So, he ate it all up!
Next he walked, and he walked and he walked till he came to Grandma’s house. There he Grandma.

“I’m hungry ,” said the Grandma. “What have you got in your bag?”



Unfortunately, there was only the chocolate wrapper – Luckily, grandma had pizza and chips for tea.


The Papaya that spoke.

Once upon a time there was farmer who lived in a village. One day he felt hungry so he went out to pick a papaya. To his amazement, the papaya spoke, “Hands off!”

The farmer looked at his dog. “Did you say that?” said the farmer.

“No,” said the dog, “it was the papaya!”

“Aaaaargh!” screamed the farmer. As fast as his legs could carry him, he ran and he ran and he ran till he came to a market where he met a fisherman selling fish.
“Why are you running so fast when the sun is shining so bright?” asked the fisherman.

“First a papaya spoke to me and next my dog!” replied the farmer.

“That’s impossible,” said the fisherman.

“Oh no it isn’t,” said one of the fish.


“Aaaaargh!” screamed the farmer. As fast as his legs could carry him, he ran and he ran and he ran till he came to a field where he met a shepherd with his goats.
“Why are you running so fast when the sun is shining so bright?” asked the shepherd.

“First a papaya spoke to me, next my dog and after that a fish!” replied the farmer.

“That’s impossible,” said the fisherman.

“Oh no it isn’t,” bleated one of the goats.


“Aaaaargh!” screamed the farmer. As fast as his legs could carry him, he ran and he ran and he ran till he came to the village where he met the King sitting on his old wooden rocking chair.
“Why are you running so fast when the sun is shining so bright?” asked the King.

“First a papaya spoke to me, next my dog, after that a fish and finally a goat!”



“That’s impossible,” said the King. “Get out of here you foolish man.” So the poor farmer walked home with his head hung down. The King rocked back and forth, back and forth, back and forth. “How silly of him to imagine that things could talk.” There was a long silence – and then suddenly – the chair spoke! “Quite so – whoever heard of a talking papaya?”

Monkey see – monkey do!
Once upon a time there was a hat seller. My, he had a hat for every occasion - fancy hats for weddings and broad-brimmed hats to keep the sun from your head.

One day he was travelling through the forest when his cart hit a stone in the road.

Unfortunately, all the hats tipped onto the road. As soon as the monkeys in the trees saw the hats, they swung down and picked them up them as quick as a click.
First the hat seller yelled at the monkeys but all that the monkeys did was to jabber back because - what a monkey sees, then a monkey does! That made the hat seller really cross!
Next the hat seller shook his fist at the monkeys but all that the monkeys did was to shake their fists back because - what a monkey sees, then a monkey does! That made the hat seller even crosser!
After that the hat seller picked up a branch and threw it at the monkeys but all that the monkeys did was to throw sticks back because - what a monkey sees, then a monkey does! The hat seller realised that he would never get his hats back!
Sadly, he rubbed his eyes and began to cry but all that the monkeys did was to rub their eyes and cry because - what a monkey sees, then a monkey does!
Eventually, The hat seller was so fed up that he threw his own hat onto the ground and stamped on it!
Then he began to push his cart back towards the city - but as he disappeared up the track, all that the monkeys did was to throw their hats onto the ground because - what a monkey sees, then a monkey does!
Luckily, the hat seller looked behind him and to his amazement all his hats were scattered back on the ground.
He looked up into the trees but there was not a monkey to be seen.

Adventure at Sandy Cove - possible process.

1. Get to know the story well.
Listen to news bulletin about robbery… Bring in the box!
Read model through and box it up into 5 basic scenes + draw map.
Comprehension – discussion, questions, etc.
Listen to and reread story as many times as possible.
Hot seat characters.
Interview on t.v. – writing in role newspaper report

Characters writing in role – diary entry, letter…..

In pairs - retell.

2. Make a toolkit.
Create writing toolkit section by section – text marking and annotation.


3. Prepare to write.
Photo local place where adventure could take place – annotate.
Use the toolkit to model planning – simple story mountain or map.
Tell and retell own story.
Shared writing - section by section – over a week + independent writing section by section – taking note of teacher’s feedback.



  1. Polish, publish or perform.

Demonstrate how to improve writing – response partnering.


Make little story books or video story telling/reading

Underpinning: Daily practice of spelling and sentence work on mini whiteboards.

Checklist for an Adventure based on ‘Adventure at Sandy Cove’.
a. Basic Plot Pattern.


Opening

Finding something precious.

Build up

Chased by a villain.

Problem

Hiding from the villain.

Resolution

Escaping.

Ending

Reward!


b. Paragraph Toolkit.
Story Opening

  • Open with one character speaking

  • Two friends in a setting

  • They find something precious

  • Adverb starter, e.g. Anxiously,….
  • Question, e.g. what was it?


  • Exclamation – it was full of money!


Build up.

  • Dramatic connective, e.g. Just then, at that moment…

  • Bring on a villain

  • In chase – use powerful verbs, e.g. rushed, leaped, dashed, pounded, thudded…
Problem

  • Hide your characters

  • Show how they feel, e.g. she froze!

  • Use dramatic connectives, e.g. unfortunately, suddenly…

  • Use powerful verbs for hiding, e.g. crouch, duck down, squeeze into…
Resolution

  • Dramatic connectives – at that moment, all at once…

  • Get rid of villain

  • Escape – use powerful verbs, e.g. rushed, leaped, dashed, pounded, thudded…


Ending.

  • Ending connective, e.g. finally, in the end, later on…

  • Show how the characters feel.


Suggested Story Bank


Reception


  • Peter and the Wolf

  • Little Daisy

  • Greedy Jack

  • Little Red Hen

  • Billy Goats Gruff

  • The Enormous Turnip

  • Gingerbread man

Year 1


  • Princess and the Pea

  • 3 Wishes

  • Little Jack

  • Rumplestiltskin

  • Magic Porridge Pot

  • 3 Bears + Bear Hunt

  • How tortoise got his shell

Year 2
  • Little Charlie


  • 3 Pigs

  • The Smallest Tree

  • How the world was made

  • The unluckiest man

  • Red Riding Hood

Year 3

  • Papaya

  • Magic Brush

  • Jack and the Beanstalk

  • Elves and the Shoemakers

  • The Boy Who Cried Wolf

  • Hare and tortoise




Year 4

  • Why Spider has small waist

  • Mr Fox and His Bag

  • King of the Fishes

  • Stone Soup

  • Mouse and the Lion

  • Hobyahs

Year 5

  • Skillywidden

  • Fox and the Raven

  • The Highwayman

  • Beowulf

  • Visitor

  • Theseus and Minotaur

Year 6

  • Beddgelert

  • Secrets

  • Blue Fish (Cinderella)

  • Unluckiest Man

  • Giant’s Necklace

  • Jabberwocky





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