Rajput kingdoms of north india punjab and Kabul


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1.Punjab and Kabul :- Shahi-dynasty was in power in Kabul and Punjab and bhatinda was the capital of that kingdom. Jaipal was the king of Punjab and Kabul at that time.
Sind :- A brahaman king Dahir

Mohd Ghaznavi – 1st Turkish ruler to adopt title of Sultan. A great military leader. He invaded India 17 times (1001 – 1025). He was lover of art and culture. His Persian poet Firdausi, who was a mathematician, wrote Shahnama. Alberuni (from khwarizm) another scholar wrote Tahkeek e hind (it depicts Indian people thought & custom) . 2 hindu poet Tilam, Sevandrai He didn’t rule in India.
Shihabudin (Mohd. Ghor)(1175 - 1206) ghor province lies b/w ghazni & herat. Ghori became ruler of ghor in 1163. He captured Multan in 1175, Sind in 1176, then he move towards Gujarata where he lost against Moolraja of Anhilwara in 1178. nalanda, vikramshila university were destroyed by a slave Bin Bakhtyar Khilji (1204). In 1203 Aibek defeated parmadi dev of bundelkhand.

Many bodh monasteries, libraries were destroyed & bodh end in India.monks fled to Tibet. After his death in 1206 his slaves became master. Nasir udin Kubacha in Sind, Taj uddin in Gazni, Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji in Bengal & Bihar, Aibek in Delhi.
Qutubuddin Aebik (1206 – 1210)

He was the slave of mohd. Ghori.

Title – Malik, Siphasalar, Quran Khan, Lacbuksh, Chandrma ka swami, Haatim II

Capital – Lahore

Court person – Hasan Nizami, Fakra – e – Mudabir.

Iltutmish (1210 - 1236) (son – in – law of Aibek)

Before becoming the ruler of Delhi he was the governor of Badaun.

title – Nasir – Amir – ul mumanin. First ruler of delhi sultanate to adopt the title of sultan. First turk ruler to issue purely arab coins.

Defeated Rajput rulers of Ujjain, Ranthambore, Malwa & brought north India up to Narmada valley under his control.

Started jagirdari system instead of cash salary. First to make tomb.

Court poet – Minhaz – e- Siraj wrote Tabqat – e – Nasiri. Ibn batuta

Ruqunnidin Firoz Shah (son) – noble person make him sat on the throne but was inefficient, revolt broke out, Bengal, Badaun became independent .

Razia Sultan (1236 – 1240) first Turkish lady to set on the throne of Delhi. She offended the nobles by preference for Abyssinian slave named Jamal uddin Yakut (superintendent of the stables). She abandoned pardah system & appeared before public in male dress, rode horses, led the armies in to battles.

Baharam Shah (1240 - 1242)(3rd son of Iltutmish)

He created a new post regent (naib – e – mamalaqat. Who was head of all officers. (turk officer new post for admin)

Nasir ud din Mahmud (1246 – 1266) – grandson of iltutmish. He was pious, learned, got married to d/o balban. Balban was actually ruling from behind.

Balban (1266 - 1286) (ulugh khan, leader of the nobles man). Title – Jille – ellahi. (shadow of god). First non Islamic tomb was built by balban of his own in Delhi.
KHILJI DYNASTY (1290 – 1320)

Jallaluddin khilji (1290 - 1296) – Kaiqubad was brutally murdered and nobles elected Firoz Shah of Khalji tribe by this name. He was mild and pious, forgave the rebellious nobles which led to lawlessness and revolts.

Alauddin khalji (1296 - 1316) (Ali Gurshasp)won over nobles to his side by bribing them with rich gifts. He murdered all relatives of Sultan. A brilliant general, a shrewd administrator.

Title – Yug ka vijata, Sikandar e Sani, Janta ka Charwaha, Yamin ul Khilafat(right hand of caliph), nasir amir ul mumanin (helper of caliph). Max. no. of mongol attack took place. Capital – Seeri (near Delhi)

Deeewan e Riyasat (economic matters), Deewan e Mustaqraj (land revenue), Bareed e mumaleek (emissary dep.)

Head of the market was Malik Kabul.

Court poet – gopal, Aamir Khusrao.

Max. no. of Mongol attacks took place.(5 times).

Qutubuddin Mubbark Shah Khilji (1316 - 1320)

He neglected the dignity of Khalifa.

Title – al emam ul emam silapat ullah

Last ruler – Kusharav Shah
Note – rana kumbha built kirti pillar in chittor when he defeated mehmood khilji in 1440. Rana kumbha was a musician & scholar.

Tughlaq dynasty (1320 – 1414)

Founder – Ghyasudin Tughlaq(Ghazi Malik)- He do not want to see people beggar. He even banned harsh punishment.

Estb. Tughlaqabad. G.T. named Telangana as Sultanpur. (he sent his son Ulug khan to Warangal against hindu ruler rudradev of Kakatiya dynasty was ruling) He was the first Saltanate ruler who included southern state in his kingdom & first state was Warrangal. He went to Bengal & won it.

Hanuza Delhi Durasths’ statement was said by Nizamuddin Auliya to G.T. he died in 1325

Ziauddin Barani – occupied important posts under Khijli & Tughlaqs. His famous book is Tarikh – I – Firozshahi which is about religious bias & low opinion against common people.

Mohd. Bin Tughlaq (1325 – 1351)

He was also known as Zona Khan. (a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, physical science, lover of Persian iterature, poetry, calligraphy. But a contradictory nature. Wisest fool, a mad man, a visionary. MBT sent him to the court of Togan Timur (Chinese ruler). He also participated in the Hindu festival. He appointed Ratan to a senior post. Rana of Mewar recovered Ranthambore, chittor. Bengal & sind became free. He died in 1351 near Thatta (Gujarat)

Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351 – 1388) - was MBT’s cousin. Was a kind, justice loving, god fearing ruler. Remembered for his welfare schemes to improve economic condition of his subjects. Made army post hereditary. Reintroduced jagirdari system. abolished many taxes Established Jaunpur, Hisar, Firozabad cities. Built 1200 gardens around delhi. Opened Deewan – e – Bandgan (slave children), Deewan – e – Khairat (for donation of child, ladies), employment departments. Wrote a book Futehaat – e – Firozshai . he was kind liberal & known as Akbar of Saltanate period

Due to weak tughlaq rule timur lang invaded india as a final blow.

Note :- In 1369 Timur Lane became ruler of Samarkand in central Asia. He conquered Iran, Afghan, Iraq & in 1398 he invaded India looted Multan, Patna, Kaithal, Haridwar, Meerut, Jammu, went back with enormous wealth, appointing Khijra Khan his governor.

Lodhi Dynasty (1451 – 1526)

Founder – Bahlol Lodhi. 1st Afghan ruler. He gave a title of Masnad – e – Ali to his minister.

Sikander Lodhi (Nizam shah)– he estb. Agra city in 1504 A.D. & shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra. Translation of Ayruvedic book in persian.

Last ruler - Ibrahim Lodhi.he sent azam sherwani to Gwalior against raja vikramjit (son of raja man singh) & he won. Then he invaded Rana Sanga of Mewar but lost in battle of ghatoli Vs Rana Sanga, first battle of Panipat against Babur

The Vijaynagar Empire (1336 – 1565)

It was established during MBT by 2 brothes Harihara I & Bukka Raya I. Later these two brothers brought whole of south India under them as independent. it was divided into 4 dynasties.

Sangama dynasty (1336 – 1485)

There has been a clash of interests amongst the Raichur doab, Krishna – Godavari delta regions b/w both kingdoms. Capital – Anegondi.

Harihar I ruled from 1336 to 1356.

Bukka I restored harmony & sent an ambassador to china. Title – vedmargparthistapak. His son Harihar II was a devote of Shiva.
Harihar II – captured goa, belgaon, Ceylon.

Devrai I (3rd son of Harihar II) – he built dams & canals. Internal disturbance was prevalent at his time. An Italy visitor Nicolo de Conti visited his court.

Devraya II ( grandson of Devrai I) famous ruler.he added muslim into his army, gave permission to built masjid & later fought with Bahamani dynasty. Orrisa king gajpati fought to increase his empire against Devraya II but failed to do so. Devraya II set such empire that Burma, Malaya, Ceylon gave tax to him. Title – Gajbatkar, Imadidevrai (famous). A Persian ambassador Abdur Razzak visited his court.

Saluva dynasty (1486 – 1505)

Founder – Narsingh Suluv

Last ruler – Imadi Narsingh

Tuluva Dynasty (1505 – 1570)

Founder – Vira Narsimha

Krishnadeva raya – (Andhra bhoj) – title – yavanraj sthapnacharya, Abhinav bhoj. A telugu poet, Sanskrit scholar. Made friendly relations with Albuquerque (Portuguese governor) , they opened afactory in Bhatkal (KR). Ashtadiggajas (8 famous poets of Telugu) like Tenaliram(Pandurang Mahamatya) , Peddana (Manucharitam) , Bhattmurthi, Surona etc. lived in his court. He wrote a book on polity ‘Amuktamalyada’ & drama ‘Jambavati Kalyanam’. Golden time period of telugu literature. He was a contemporary of Babur. Portuguese travelers Domingo Paes came to his court. He banned Devdasi Tradition. He built famous temple of Hazara, Vithal Swami. Ram Navami was there famous festival. Abolished devdasi tradition under it poor hindu girls were married with gods to temples, but later priest exploit them due to which they started the profession of prostitution. He annexed raichur doab area even.

Achyuta deva raya (brother of Krishna dev raya) – Farnao Nunij, a Portuguese horse trader visited his court.

Last ruler – Sadashiv rav

Aravidu Dyansty (1570 – 1650)

Founder – Tirumala Raya

The empire slowly shrunk.

PM – maha pradhasi, province – mandal, valnadu – district, melgrams – village, army chief – dand nayak, shetty – business man.

Child marriage, polygamy, sati system, caste system were common. They employed muslims in their army, no discrimination b/w Christians, jews, muslim, hindus.

Abul bin Alaudin Hasan Bahaman Shah estb. It, who was a officer of MBT. He was kind, liberal, abolished jaziya. Bahamani kingdom has more hindus.

Bijapur –tomb of Mohd. Adilshah is called as gol gumbad. after the death of Adilshah his son Sikandar sat on throne. Later akbar in 1600 made them his samant & then in 1636 it was totally annexed.

Golcunda – Abul Hasan Qutubshah used to support rulers of Bijapur & Marathas, thus Aurangzeb felt necessary to annex it to suppress the power of Marathas. In 1685 Hyderabad & in 1687 was annexed.
Provincial kingdoms –

Bengal – broke away from delhi under the reign of MBT. In 1342 Ilyas khan founded a new dynasty. Famous sultan was Ghiyasuddin Azam who estb. Friendly relation with China for trade & commerce. This province was occupied by Sher Shah Suri in 1538.

Muslim invasion of India brought changes in society, its outcome was religious movements. Both Hindu & Mulsims affected each other & advocated the path of Bhakti the best for attaining spiritual goals.

There are 2 types of bhakti – Nirgun (formless god) & Sagun (Krishna & rama)
Shankaracharya (788 – 820 )- born at Kerala. After his death 4 maths were estb. At shringeri (KR), Dwarka, Puri, Badrinath.

In Hinduism there have been 3 path to attain moksha – gyan, karma, bhakti.

Kabir (1398 – 1518) – disciple of Ramanand . born to a widow brahamani, brought up by muslim weaver in Varanasi. Worked on social reformes, caste, superstitions, harmony, gave dohas, his disciple collected his dohas into Sakhi, Sabad, Raimaini, Bijak etc. estb. Dharmdasi community.

Ballabcharya (1479 – 1531) – born in Varanasi, parents were telugu. Father shri laxman bhatt Saw the court of krishnadevraya, went to vrindavan & resided their. Wrote in Sanskrit & brajbasha, love & service takes ones to attain moksha.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 – 1533) – old name vishamber. Born at Bengal. Estb godiya math.
Gyaneshwar (1271 – 1296) – wrote bavarth deepika called as gyaneshwari.
Namdev (1270 – 1350) – born at pandarpur famous in MH. Born to a tailor family. His guru was gyaneshwar. He was influenced with Islam.

Surdas (1483 – 1563)– was a saint not a social reformer. Disciple of vallabhacharya

Eknath (1533 – 99) – grandson of Brahman saint Bhanudas. Born at Aurangabad

Tukaram (1598 – 1650) – born at Poona to a farmer.

Ram das (1608 – 81) – for 12 years roam whole india & then lived near Krishna river. He was religious guru of Shivaji.

Dadu Dayal (1544 – 1603) – born at Ahmedabad.

Shankaracharya – Advaitwad (smriti) – 9th

Ramanuja – vishishtdvaitwad (shree0 12th

Madhavacharya – dvaitwad (brahma) 13th

Nimbakacharya – dvaitdvaitwad (sanak) 12th

Ballabhcharya – shudhdvaitwad (rudra) 15th
Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) – Founder of Sikhism born at Talwandi (Nanakana) father was a patwari. He worked at a granary store of Daulat Khan Lodhi but left it & wandered whole India, central Asia, Arab countries. Sikh = disciple, 5 sacred symbols of Sikhism i.e. Kesa(hair), Kanga, shorts, Kirpan, Kara.

Guru Angad (1539 – 1552) – Gurumukhi

Guru Amar Das (1552 – 1574) – langar

Guru Ram Das (1574 – 1581) - Amritsar

Guru Arjan (1581 – 1606) – adi granth

Guru Har Gobind (1606 – 1644) – defeated Mughal army, estb. Akal Takhta & held court on secular matters.

Guru Har Rai (1644 – 1661)

Guru Har Krishan (1661 – 1664)

Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 – 1675)

Guru Gobind Singh (1675 – 1708) – khalsa panth was estb.

Sufi Sect - (sufi = purity) – pure in thought, word, deed, discards religious rituals, renunciation from worldly life, religious tolerance, firm faith in peace, love for all humanity. (pir = guru,

Sufism was divided into 12 sect or silsilas like Chisti, Suharwadi, Kadri, Firdausi, etc. they were also of 2 shades one free from Islamic laws, other who belives in Islam.

Chisti Silsila – Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti at the end of 12 th century at Ajmer. Believe in yoga & music.

Suharwadi Silsila – Shahabin Suharwardi & Hamiduddin Nagori

Qadri - Abdul Qadri Al Jilani of Iraq.

Naqshbandi – Ahamad Ata Yasvi –

Firdausi – Saifuddin Bakharji of central asia
MUGHALS (1526 – 1857)

Babur (1526 – 1530)– Zahir – ud – din Mohd. Babur (tiger) born on 14 Feb. 1483 in Fargana (Central Asia). He was son of Umersheikh Mirza, ruler of fargana, son of Abu said Mirza, gran son of Miran shah, who himself son of Timur lang. Mother – Qutulug Nigar Khanam. Great- 4 d/o of Chingez khan.

Title – Baadshah in 1507. A brilliant general, poet, writer, musician, a great scholar, lover of literature. A sunni muslim. Conquered Kabul in 1504. He invaded India several times

After the battle of Khanwa Babur adopted the title of Gazi (preacher). For canons were used for the first time. He introduced a unit of measurement called Gaz – e – bari. His autobiography was translated into Persia by Abdur Rahim Khankhana. Deewan (collection of poem written in Mumbeyan style of poetry by Babur. Babur was from mongol tribe which has embraced him Turkish & Persian culture.

1530 – he died & first buried in Nur – e – Afghan Bagh in Agra, later in Kabul.

All babur’s books are written in Turkish language rest all his successors books are in Persian language.

Humayun or Naziruddin Mehmud Himayun (1530 – 1539), (1555 – 1556) ( his brothers – Kamran, Askari, Hindal) he lack political wisdom, military foresight, not firm, qualities to hold such vast empire. But was a learned man well versed in maths, philosophy, astronomy. Believe in jyotish vidhya, wear different color of cloth 7 days. He called 2 painters from Iran – Meer Sayad Ali, Abdus Samad. He marched against Bahadur Shah in Gujarat & Malwa ; captured it but later lost when he heard that SSS captured Bengal, Bihar he went there & in his absence Bahadur Shah returned.

Wife – Hamida Bano Begum

Mother – maham sultana

In 1531 he made a compromise with pratap rudra dev of Kalinjar.

1532 - Battle of Dohria (UP) against Mehmood Lodhi (humayun won)

NOTE ; - Chunar was occupied by SSS & thus Humayun regained it from him in 1532.

1555 – Battle of Macchiwada (near Sutlej) against Subedar of Punjab & won

1555 – Battle Sirhind against Jalal Khan

1556 – he died. Tomb in Delhi.
Sher Shah Suri (1540 – 1555)

His childhood name was Fareed. Son of Hasan Khan, a jagirdar os Sasaram. He joined Babur army & learnt warfare techniques. Later estb. his authority in Bihar & Bengal, malwa, multan, sind, Punjab. Governor of bihar, Bahar Khan Lohani gave him a name Sher Khan. He belong to Sur dynasty & 2nd Afghan ruler in India. First to use the term Mansab. He was very active. Title – Hazrat e allah. Constructed Sadak e Ajam (G.T. road) 2413 km. Sarais (rest houses, dak chaukis), wells were made at regular intervals for travelers. Hindus were appointed to high posts (raja todar mal began his career under him) The silver coin called Rupia was issued by him. His court person -

Abbas Khan Sherwani, Malik Mohd. Jaysi ( wrote Padmavat in avathi).

Diwan e vizarat ( finance ), diwan e ariz (army), diwan e rasalat (foreign)

Province was called as Suba (Iqta) headed by Fauzdar. Suba was divided into Sarkar provided with Shiqdar e Shiqdaran ( a military officer), Munsif e munsifan (civil officer). Sarkar was divided into Pargana headed by Shiqdar, Munsif. Village official was called patwaris. Jagir system was discouraged & system of patta / qubuliat was introduced. He built old fort at Delhi, Kabul gate.

Died in 1545 in Kalinjar attack. Tomb – Sasaram.
Akbar (Baddruddin – born on full night moon, then renamed Jalaluddin Mohd) (1556 – 1605) – born in Amarkot (Sindh) on 15 Oct. 1542 in the palace of King Beersal.

Wazeer – Behram Khan called Khan – e- khan

1556 – became king in Kalanor (Punjab) & fought 2nd Battle of Panipat against Hemu. (PM of Adilshah).

Conquer Malwa (led by adham khan) against Baz Bahadur, afghan king.

Gondwana – queen Durgawati fought courageously.

Wife – d/o bharmal harkhabai (mariam uzmani).

Enterend matrimonial alliances with rajputs like raja Amber but rana of Mewar, Uday Singh refused to submit. Mughals marched against him but he fled to hills & lost chittor, Ranthambore, later he made Udaipur their capital. After his death rana pratap lead rajputs. He organized an army & fought battle of Haldighati in 1576. Raja man singh defeated him.

Conquer gujarata, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, kandhar, Baluchistan, bijapur, Golconda, ahmadnagar etc.

Held regular meetings with senior officers in Diwan I khas, petitions in Diwan I aam.

He introduced mansabdari system with a mansab officer (not hereditary) having 7000 horsemen. Issued a gold coin ‘mohur’

1560 – End of Behram khan

1562 – End of slave system

1563 – end of prilgrimage tax

1564 – end of Jazia tax

1571 – estb. Fatehpur Sikri

1574 – Mansabdari system

1575 - Ibbadat Khana was estb.

1576 – battle of Haldighati against Maharana Pratap & Man Singh.

1578 – Ibadat Khana opened for all religion.

1579 – Majharnama was started. (which gave him power to choose between different interpretation of Islamic law.

1582 – Deen – e – Ellahi was started.(moral conduct)

1583 – Illahi Samvat was started.

Prohibited sati, child marriage, legalized widow remarriage. Built panch mahal, buland darwaza, agra fort

Title – Saltanat – e – Adil, Samrat

Draft of Majharnama was prepared by Sheikh Mubarak, father of Abul Fazar, Fazzi (mathematician & poet).

Abul Fazal became his mansabdar, wrote Akbarnama in 3 parts, third part is called Ain I Akbari (admin.)

Beerbal (Mahesh das) adopted Din e ellahi religion. Akbar gave the title to

Harivijay Suri - Yug Pradhan

Zinchandrasuri - Jagatguru

Birbal – Kaviraj, Raja.

Todarmal – Deewan e Asaf. (introduced bandobast - average produced over past 10 years was calculated & 1/3 of produced was kings share.

Tansen (Makran pandey) – Kanthabharanvanivilas

Mulla do pyaza (cunning), hakim hamam(physician), Raja Man Singh etc.

First Jesus Mission came to India under the leadership of Father Ekkabiba, Manserat.

Dahsala system was started by Todarmal.

Tansen used to sing 3 raagas :

a) Miya ki Malhar b) Miya ki Todi

c) Miya ki Kaneri

Jahangir (Nur uddin mohd. Jahangir) (1605 – 1627) – born in 1569 in Agra. Mother a rajput princes of Amer. His childhood name ‘Sheikh Baba’, Salem. Wife – Manbai (d/o of Raja Bhagwan das, king of Ajmer) & Jagat Gossain (shahjahan was her son). He married to Nur Jahan, the widow of a Persian nobleman Sher Afghan. Giyasbeg - father of Noorjahan , Ashmat Begum - mother of Nur Jahan, who invented perfume. Jahangir called noorjaha – Mehroonisa, Noormahal, Badshah Begum. His time was golden time period of painting. He issued 14 ordinance. He gave title to Mansoor (painter) – Nadir ul asar, Abul Hasan – Nadir al jama. Revolt of Guru Arjun Dev was held at his time period because he helped the eldest son of Jahangir ‘ Prince Khusrau’. Chain of justice is related to him. He sent Prince Khurram to recapture the fort of Ahamadnagar & after his winning he gave him a name Shah Jahan. Sir Thomas Roe visited his court. His tomb is in Shahadra (Lahore).
Shahjahan (1627 – 1658) (Khurram)–

Mother – Jagatgosai (d/o fo Marwar king Udai singh). Wife – Arjuman Bano Begum (Mumtaj Mahal). Mumtaj Mahal was d/o of Nur jahan’s brother Asaf Khan. He banned Irani tradition of sijda & paibos whichwas started by Balban. French traveler Travenier (a jeweler), Bernier Peter Mundi, an Italy traveler Nicolo Manuchi (book – Stareo Mogaro) came to India (he ran away from venice at 14 & through iran came to India then he worked under Dara Sikoh as a canon assistant, later he took medicine as a profession). Revolt of Guru Hargovind took place at his time. his 4 sons Dara Sikoh (first muslim to study hindu literature, he was educated, writer & translated hindu granth into Irani language. Shuja, Murad, Aurangzeb fought battle of successor.

1658 – war of Bahadurpur near Banaras.

Battle of dharmath near Ujjain was fought in 1658 b/w Aurangzeb & Dara Sikoh. (raja jaswant singh of jodhpur helped Dara sikoh & Murad helped Aurangzeb)

1658 – war of Sumugarh near Agra.

1658 – war Kahjua near Allahabad

His 4 sons Dara Sikoh, Shuja, Aurangzeb, Murad. He built Peacock throne which took years to cpmplete & was taken to Persia by Nadir Shah in 1739. Moti masjid of agra, shahjahanabad city (old delhi), red fort, jama masjid. Tomb – Agra.
Aurangzeb (Abul Muzaffar Muhyuddin Mohd. Aurangzeb Alamgeer I, Zinda Peer, Shahi Darvesh) – he was simple, pious, sharp, a great musician & extraordinary. He was governor of Deccan.

Wife – Dilras Bano Begm (rabia bibi). Tomb of rabia bibi is in Aurangabad (tajmahal ki bakwas nakal) First to banned Nauroj festival, Jarokha darshan, alcohol, singing (max. no. of books on music was written at his time), gamble, slavery, sati. Started Jazia tax in 1679. No use of royal fund, earn through weaving namazees caps. He stopped writing kalma (la illah el allah) on the coins. Also reversed akbar policy. His motto was to change Darul ul herb into darul ul islam. Revolts of Maratha, sikh, Jat (1669 by Gokla) , Satnami (1672 in Mathura), Rajput, etc started at his time.

Guru Tegh Bahadur was killed by Aurangzeb. Khalsa panth was estb. by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. Francois Bernier was his personal physician & traveler.

His 3 sons were Muzzam, Kambaksh, Azam. Tomb – Daulatabad (devgiri).

Bahadur Shah I (Muzzam,shahe bekhabar, shah alam I) (1707 – 12) – ascended the throne after a war of succession among his brothers and got the title of Shah Alam I. he released shahuji. & adopted liberal policy with Rajputs, Marathas.

Jahandar Shah (Unizuddin) ( 1712 – 13 ) – won in the war of successor b/w 4 sons of Bahadur shah with the help of Zulfiqar khan, the most powerful noble man of the time. Now ambitious nobles became direct contenders for power and used princes as mere pawns to capture the seats of authority. Zulfiqar khan reversed the policies of Aurangzeb, abolished jaziah, jai singh of amber was made governor of Malwa, ajit singh of mewar governor of Gujarat. Made friendly relation with rajputs, Marathas, banda bahadur, Sikhs. He was defeated by his nephew

Farukshiyar ( 1713 – 19 ) ( son of Azimal shan, brother of bahadur shah). Actual power rested with his PM Abdulla Khan & saiyyad brothers. But he didn’t want to give authority to Sayyid brothers. He himself was killed by Sayyid brothers, the king makers (Abdullah khan (wazir) , Hussain Ali Khan( mir bakshi) ), and made

Mohd. Shah (1719 – 48)(Roshan aqtar, Rangeela badshah, he was the son of Khujista Akhtar (4th son of Bahadur Shah)) the king. He patronize urdu language. He became fed up with saiyyad brothers & with the help of chinklich khan, sadat khan he killed them. Thus chinklich khan adopted title of Nizamul mulk and estb. Dynasty at Hyderabad. Sadat khan estb. In Oudh. Daud khan at Ruhelkhand.

Nadir Shah, napoleon of Iran, invaded India during his time period.

Nadir Shah came & looted Delhi, took away Mayur throne with Kohinoor diamond. He stayed in delhi for 57 days & looted 70 laks from public, Badshah. Later he re enthroned M. Shah as Delhi Sultan. But took away Thatta, Sindh, Kashmir from him. This invasion opened a way for Ahmad Shah Abdali. He saw the weakness of Mughals, he captured Lahore, Sirhind but later on lost it. he invaded India several times. 1748 Punjab ; 1749 ; 1751 lahore, multan ; 1756 sirhind ; 1757 & occupied Delhi ; but later mughal emperor called Raghunath Rao for help and recaptured Delhi from Afghans. Thus Abdali took revenge from Marathas in

3rd Battle of Panipat 1761.
Ahmad Shah (1748 – 1754) – son of mohd. Shah. He gave Punjab & Multan to Abdali & saved his empire.

His wazir blinded him & placed :

Alamgir II (1754 – 59) to the throne. Grandson of Jahandar Shah.

Aligohar (Shah alam II) (1759 – 1806) – he was son of Alamgir II. But at the time of his throne he was in Bihar in meanwhile son of Kambaksh – Muhir ul miller set on throne with name Shahjahan II for 12 years. Later Shahalam II reached Delhi with the help of Marathas. Battle of Buxar ;

Akbar II (1806 – 1837) – son of Shahalam II. conferred the title of Raja to Ram Mohan Roy.

Bahadur Shah II (1837 – 1862) – deported to Rangoon in 1858. Died in 1862
Mughal administration

Wakil I mutlak – next to emperor / wazir

Mir bakshi – military head

Diwan – head of royal treasure

Chief qazi – judicial officer

Muhatsib – officer to observe conduct of people

Mir aatish – incharge of royal artillery

Subedar – head of army in province

Fauzdar – head of army in district
Tahkeek e hind, kitabul hind – Alberuni

Tabkate nasiri – minhal us siraj

Tarikh e firozshahi, Fatwa e jahandari – ziyauddin berni

Tughlaqnama – amir khusro

Tarikh e mubarakshahi – yahiyabin ahmad sirhindi

Chachnama – ali ahmed

Tajul ul masir – khwaja sud nizami

Dargah muinuddin chisti – iltutmish – ajmer

Aktreen kin ka darwaja – iltutmish – nagaur

Iltutmish tomb – razia – delhi

Seeri ki kila, alai darwaza, jamat khan masjid – alaudin khilji - delhi

Giyasuddin tomb, fort of adilabad, barakhamba mahal, japanaha nagar – MBT – delhi

Charminar – Quli qutubshah

Vijay stambh – rana kumbha – chittor

Moth masjid – Miya Bhuva (pm of sikandar lodhi) – delhi

Kabulibagh – babur – panipat

Old delhi fort, kila e kuhana - SSS - delhi

Humayun tomb – akbar – delhi

Agra fort, jahangiri mahal, akbari mahal, diwan e khas, diwan e aam, panchmahal, mariam mahal, jama masjid, buland darwaza, – akbar – Agra (Fatehpur Sikri)

Aitmadullah tomb – Jahangir –

Jahangir tomb – Lahore (shahadra)

Shajahanabad, red fort – shahajahan – delhi

(in red fort moti mahal, diwan e khas, diwan e aam, were made of white marble)

Rabia durani tomb – Aurangzeb – Aurangabad

Badshahi masjid – Aurangzeb – Lahore

Moti masjid – Aurangzeb – delhi


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