Siegel’s CORRECTIONS TODAY, 2nd Edition The media resources mentioned in the supplements (Instructor’s Manual, Lesson Plans and Student Study Guide) have been extracted and compiled here to serves as a reference for students and instructors. They are organized by learning objective (LO) within each chapter. Some of the resources apply to multiple LOs, so the additional LOs they align with are noted in brackets at the end of the item.
The Correctional System
Understand the reasons why we punish.
When considering how corrections and punishment have evolved throughout the centuries, do you foresee restorative justice becoming the next major component of corrections? See link http://www.restorativejustice.org/ for up-to-date restorative justice news.
Discuss the theories of punishment.
Use CNN’s In the News Crime page (http://articles.cnn.com/keyword/crime) to examine cases and consider what correctional sanctions are appropriate for the offenders. Which punishment reason would your suggested sanction fall under?
Identify the ideas found within Enlightenment thinking and how they influenced corrections.
Define the early prison reformers and what they contributed.
“Correctional Photo Archives” The website from the Department of Corrections and Juvenile Justice Studies at Eastern Kentucky University provides a large number of historical photographs showing institutions, inmates, officials and tools used in corrections throughout the history of the United States. http://www.cpa.eku.edu/ (LO 5, 6)
Understand how the Pennsylvania and Auburn models differ from one another.
“Eastern State Penitentiary- History” A website sponsored by the Eastern State Penitentiary Historic Site, Inc. Viewers can learn the detailed history of the first prison in the United States. http://www.easternstate.org/learn/research-library/history
“The Pennsylvania Prison Society: Prison Reform in Pennsylvania” The website provides a brief historical overview of the evolution of prisons in the state of Pennsylvania. http://www.prisonsociety.org/about/history.shtml
Explain how reformatories contributed to the rehabilitation model.
Discuss the purpose of corrections.
“What types and levels of Certification are available?” Web link is to the American Correctional Association’s Certification Overview section. Click on the section entitled “What types and levels of Certification are available?” in the Certification Overview to read about the different types of professional certifications that are available https://www.aca.org/certification/CCP_overview.asp
Explain the relationship between corrections and the criminal justice system.
“Careers in Corrections” A document created by the Georgia Department of Corrections discussing careers, qualifications and application processes for corrections employment. http://www.gdcjob.com/pdf/CareersInCorrections.pdf
“Applicant Requirements” This link is to the Corrections.com homepage where you can search the Career Center for current job postings, paying particular attention to the applicant requirements for the various positions and how they differ from state to state. http://www.corrections.com/
“The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers” The report on the Vera Institute of Justice webpage discusses the financial costs associated with operations of a prison system in each state, highlighting both the costs that are and are not directly connected with specific services/activities and those that are borne by the state’s Department of Corrections and other agencies. http://www.vera.org/download?file=3495/the-price-of-prisons-updated.pdf (LO 1, 2, 7, 9)
Understand the extent and consequences of prison overcrowding.
“Correctional Population in the United States: 2010” is a report issued by the Bureau of Justice Statistics summarizing the U.S. correctional population in 2010. From this website, you can access incarceration, probation and parole rates broken down by ages, ethnicity, gender and location. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus10.pdf
“State Links” This page of Corrections.com links to all state correctional agencies. http://www.corrections.com/links/show/30
Check out this news story http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2011-10-20/prison-life-sentence-budget/50846828/1 to see the impact that budget cuts to corrections are having on states like California and Texas.
Sentencing and the Corrections Process
Explain the role of the court team in the sentencing process.
“The Role of a Prosecutor in a Court Trial” This is an online publication regarding the duties and responsibilities of a prosecutor, including procedures a prosecutor customarily follows when preparing for a criminal trial. http://www.ehow.com/info_7999103_roles-prosecutor-court-trial.html
Explain what is meant by indeterminate sentencing.
The advocacy group Families Against Mandatory Minimums (http://www.famm.org/) details their argument against the use of mandatory minimum sentences in criminal courts.
Understand the various forms of determinate sentencing.
“Determinate v Indeterminate Sentencing” Legal resource website that outlines four easy steps to identify determinate sentencing laws. http://www.sdap.org/downloads/research/criminal/sentence.pdf
Describe the role of sentencing guidelines.
“Concurrent v Consecutive Sentencing” Online news letter regarding sentencing guidelines in the state of New York. http://law.justia.com/codes/new-york/2006/
“Efforts to Reform Three Strikes Law” Article regarding a recent movement to reform the “Three Strikes Law.” http://www.threestrikes.org/fresbee_20.html
“Sentencing Policy News” The Sentencing Project is a research and advocacy organization that promotes reform in sentencing policy and works to bring attention to various trends and inequities in the criminal justice system. http://www.sentencingproject.org/template/page.cfm?id=92 [LO 1, 6]
“State Sentencing Information” FAMM (FAMM (Families Against Mandatory Minimums) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that advocates for proportionate sentencing laws, allowing judicial discretion while maintaining public safety. http://www.famm.org/
Check out the free sentencing calculator that uses mitigating factors to estimate a sentence length under the U.S. Federal Sentencing Guidelines to see how sentences are determined: http://www.sentencing.us/
Check out the NAACP’s stance on how mandatory-minimum sentencing is targeting African Americans and their efforts to reform this practice: http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-issues
View the video “How Does the Kansas Sentencing Grid Work?” on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCxq5lN3Uis) for an overview of how sentencing in a jurisdiction using a “grid” or guidelines operates
Know what is meant by “truth in sentencing.”
Article entitled “Truth in Sentencing and State Sentencing Practices” and the National Institute of Justice website: http://www.nij.gov/journals/252/sentencing.html
“Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons” is an article from The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), which is a comprehensive source for criminal justice statistics housed within the Office of Justice Programs. The Crime & Justice Electronic Data Abstracts link provides additional data as a series of spreadsheets by state. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=820
Identify the most serious issues in sentencing.
The Sentencing Project discusses racial disparity in criminal sentences (http://www.sentencingproject.org/template/page.cfm?id=122)_
CHAPTER 3 Community Corrections: Diversion and Probation
Explain what is meant by community-based corrections act.
“Community Corrections” Department of Corrections in Washington State is revamping their system in order to comply with a recent law that will mandate more active supervision of offenders in the community. Visit the website in order to determine the purpose and requirements of the recent law that has taken affect as of June 12, 2012. Identify the services that are proposed to be provided and how they will be implemented. Evaluate what could be some of the challenges in the initial implementation of servicing of felony offenders in the community. http://.doc.wa.gov/aboutdoc/communitycorrections.asp
Compare the main types of diversionary programs and identify the advantages and disadvantages of diversionary programs.
View the video Diversion Initiatives (http://www.diversioninitiatives.net/2009/09/short-video-on-bexar-county-jail.html) on the website for the Bexar County (San Antonio) Jail to learn about their program.
Understand the advantages of being placed on probation.
Visit the website of the American Probation and Parole Association (http://www.appa-net.org/eweb/) to find some of the issues currently being addressed in community corrections. [LO 1, 5]
Explain the risk assessment models and their current emphasis.
Review the report “The Proper and Improper Use of Risk Assessment in Corrections” (http://www.jfa-associates.com/publications/pcras/proper%20userand%20misuse%20of%20risk.pdf) from the JFA Institute.
Understand the various ways probation is administered.
“The Alameda County Model of Probation: Juvenile Supervision” Alameda County Probation Department is in Oakland, CA and serves both adult and juvenile probationers. This discusses the new Juvenile Supervision Model; paying particular attention to the risk and needs assessment tool and some of the other successful approaches. http://www.acgov.org/probation/documents/TheAlamedaCountyModelofProbation-JuvenileSupervision.pdf
“The Impact of Arizona’s Probation Reforms” This is a Pew Center on the States summary of the Safe Communities Act of 2008 which was the result of evidence based reforms to the Arizona probation system. http://www.acgov.org/probation/documents/PEWStudyonImpactofArizonaProbationReform.pdf
Understand the legal rights of probationers.
Evaluate the effectiveness of probation and identify some of the hopeful programs to program services.
“Juvenile Delinquency Probation Caseload, 2005 ” Publication from the US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice website which covers some of the issues surrounding juvenile probation and the demographics of juveniles on probation.. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/224536.pdf
Check out the Oregon Sexual Assault Task Force to see their process of handling sex offenders. http://oregonsatf.org/about-2/satf-membership/offender-management-committee/sex-offenders-in-the-community/
California’s Legislative Analyst’s Office report on “Achieving Better Outcomes For Adult Probation” to see if their findings could be adapted throughout the U.S. http://www.lao.ca.gov/2009/crim/Probation/probation_052909.aspx
Understand the benefits of intermediate sanctions
“Intermediate Sanctions and Sentencing Guidelines” from the National Institute of Justice (“Issues and Practices”/U.S. Department of Justice) allows you to identify acceptable programs that meet the guidelines for intermediate sanctions as sentencing alternatives to custody. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165043.pdf
Visit and review the website of the Interagency Council on Intermediate Sanctions from the state of Hawaii (http://hawaii.gov/icis/) to see the types of programs and various organizations that are partners in the effort. [LO 4, 7]
Identify the continuum of intermediate sanctions.
Watch the video (http://www.ovguide.com/intermediate-sanctions-9202a8c04000641f8000000000178701) about how a Re-Entry court uses intermediate sanctions to work with offenders and ensure that they comply with program requirements. [LO 1, 4, 7]
Identify the sanctions that stand alone and what they contribute to intermediate sanctions.
“King County Drug Court” is a short clip from the King County, Washington’s Drug Court at KingCountyTV. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cE6MYk4KVA
Identify the sanctions as an add-on to probation and what they contribute to intermediate sanctions.
“Global Positioning System (GPS): Sex Offender Information” from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations website. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/serp.html
“Adult Drug Court Program” State of New Jersey Court System guidelines for drug court programs. http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/criminal/crdrgct.htm
“House Arrest Part 1” An in-depth look at how house arrest works using GPS monitoring bracelets from WLWT News 5 in Cincinnati, OH. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vznM3y8n9DA
Checkout the Congressional Research Service’s Drug Courts: Background, Effectiveness, and Policy Issues for Congress to see how drug courts began and what their effectiveness means for policy makers. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41448.pdf
Identify the sanctions that include incarceration and what they contribute to intermediate sanctions.
“LAPD's Boot Camp for Troubled Teens” is a short clip about the Los Angeles Police Department’s Juvenile Impact Program (JIP). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MNPmfjqn7s
View the video Richmond Jail Home Incarceration Program Expansion (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1v8hbIT90o8). [LO 1, 2, 5]
Understand the relationship between restorative justice and intermediate sanctions.
“What Future for “Public Safety” and “Restorative Justice” in Community Corrections?” A U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs publication entitled “Sentencing & Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century” discusses some of the conflicting ideas and challenges in resolving the conflicts between restorative justice and public safety. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/187773.pdf
See Restorative Justice: Implications for Organization Change to see what implications restorative justice being adopted on a large scale would lead to. http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/organizational-change/implications.htm
Evaluate the effectiveness and future of intermediate sanctions.
Checkout the National Reentry Resource Center’s research on the expansion of Evidence-Based Practices of Community Supervision to better inform your point-of-view http://www.nationalreentryresourcecenter.org/documents/0000/1217/11_10_11Final_EBP__Probation_11_10_11_Final.pdf
The Jail: Detention and Short-Term Confinement
Describe the purpose of the jail.
View the video “Beyond the Myths: The Jail in Your Community” from the website of the National Institute of Corrections. (http://nicic.gov/Assets/VideoPlayer.aspx?url=http://nicic.gov/Library/Files/018696.avi) This is a video that is provided for local communities and jail officials to use as a piece of public education. [LO 3,4, 6, 8]
Explain the bail process, pretrial release and preventive detention.
“Bail Enforcement and Bounty Hunter Training” California based training program for bail bond officers and bounty hunters. Employment opportunities listed in this rapidly growing industry. http://www.bountyhunterjobtraining.com
Check out Governor Christie (R) of New Jersey’s proposed bail reform to keep violent offenders off of the street before and during their trials to see how bail reform is still a focal point for today’s politicians. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFgBapMA_eI [LO 8]
Go to the website for the Brevard County (FL) Jail complex at or a little bit after 1:15 on a weekday or 9:30 a.m. (eastern time) on a Saturday or Sunday and watch the live streaming video from jail inmates making their initial court appearances. (http://www.livestream.com/brevardsheriffcourt).
Identify the makeup of the jail population.
Check out PBS Frontline’s overview of the incarceration of mentally ill inmates with up-to-date statistics and discussion. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/crime/jailed/
Discuss jail administration and structure.
“American Jail Association” A website of a national organization that sets standards and monitors compliance with the professional conduct of jail officers and operations across the country. http://www.aja.org/publications/exploringjailoperations.aspx
“Special Report: Peek Inside County Jail” A look inside the inside the Polk County jail from KCCI News in Des Moines, IA. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDIaA2e0BsU [LO 5]
Compare the New Generation jail from more traditional jails.
Compare the City of Denton Texas Jail Operations Mission Statement http://www.cityofdenton.com/index.aspx with the Los Angeles County Jails Mission Statement (www.lasdhq.org/lasd_sevices).
The website of the Corrections Center of Northwest Ohio (http://www.ccnoregionaljail.org/newgenerationjail.htm) has comments from the jail administrators about the advantages of their “new generation” (or, third generation) jail design. Also includes a Virtual Tour of the jail.
Describe jail based treatment and rehabilitation programs.
“Jail-Based Substance Abuse Treatment” links to the Iowa Department of Public Health’s report on their jail based treatment initiative (J-BT Project) which focuses on reducing both offender substance abuse and criminal behavior. http://www.idph.state.ia.us/bh/substance_abuse_jail.asp
Explain the legal and administrative issues of jail confinement.
Visit the website of the American Jail Association (http://www.aja.org/) and identify what the organization sees as the 5 most important issues facing jails in America today. [LO 3, 4,6, 8]
Discuss the future of the jail.
“What Trends Are Driving Jail Population Growth?” Link to the U.S. Department of Justice’s national Institute of Corrections “”jail Crowding: Understanding Jail Population Dynamics.” http://static.nicic.gov/Library/017209.pdf
Identify the extent to which prisons mirror the larger society.
Describe the age, gender and racial makeup of those sent to prison.
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations Website has information related to all aspects of the corrections operations in custody, community programs and services, annual statistical data, and more. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov Look at the demographic data specific to the inmate population of adult males in our California institutions. Refer to the Federal Bureau of Prisons website for information on multiple states. (http://www.bop.gov/)
Read the Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin on “Prisoners in 1999” at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/p99.pdf and compare them to the “Prisoners in 2009” statistics presented in your text.
“State Jurisdiction Comparison” This page of Corrections.com links to all state correctional agencies. http://www.corrections.com/links/show/30 [LO 4, 6]
Discuss the federal jurisdictions over prisons.
Visit the Bureau of Prisons website (http://www.bop.gov/) to see the prison types listed under Federal Prison Facilities. [LO 6]
Explain whether state jurisdictions are similar from one state to another.
“State of California Department of Corrections Code and Regulations - Title 15” California code of regulations and standards governing crime prevention and correctional operations which include parole and community services. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Regulations/Adult_Operations/docs
Know how many prisoners are housed in private facility and whether there is common agreement on the effectiveness of these facilities.
“Corrections Corporation of America” Links to the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) website which is a private correctional agency that designs, builds, manages and operates correctional facilities and detention centers on behalf of several federal agencies and state governments. http://www.cca.com/
Check out these frequently asked questions (and some answers) about the privatization of prison http://reason.org/news/show/corporate-corrections-frequent.
Visit and review the websites of both the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) (http://www.cca.com/) and the American Civil Liberties Union’s (ACLU) report Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration (http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/banking-bondage-private-prisons-and-mass-incarceration) to see both sides of the argument regarding the use and spread of private prisons in the U.S.
Understand the security types of correctional institutions.
“Images of Supermax Prison Colorado” Photo and animated images of the interior and exterior blueprint of Colorado’s supermax prisons.www.westword.com/slideshow/supermax-a-look-at-colorados[LO 7]
Listen to NPR’s All Things Considered discussing “Is the Use of Maximum Security Prisons Abused?” where they discuss the use of Supermax facilities: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=101602165
Describe what prisons look like.
Read the interview with Australian corrections executive Peter Severin (http://prisondesign.org/2012/04/29/peter-severin-on-the-latest-trends-in-prison-design-construction-rehabilitation/#more-557) about new ideas in how to design prisons [LO 6]
Define the basic responsibilities of a correctional administrator.
“How to become a Prison Warden” The website is a source for criminal justice programs and schools throughout the country and details the career requirements, duties, and job outlook of a prison wardenhttp://www.legal-criminal-justice-schools.com/Criminal-Justice-Careers/prison-warden.html
Explain the proactive management style.
The Prison Experience: Males
Understand the relationship between classification and institutional security.
Discuss the difficulties of confinement for male inmates.
A personal account of a transgendered inmate’s struggle to transition and live inside a Louisiana prison: http://louisianajusticeinstitute.blogspot.com/2012/04/isabellas-story-transgender-persons.html
This is a short, and explicit, video Alabama Prison Rape Sexual Assault Documentary (http://www.iviewtube.com/v/119893/alabama-prison-rape-sexual-assualt-documentary-video) in which an inmate explains in details the process by which many prison sexual assaults occur. [LO 4-6]
A short overview video about the famous Stanford Prison Experiment (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKW_MzREPp4). [LO 3, 5-7]
The Prison Art Project (http://www.prisonart.org/) to look through the various types of art created by prison inmates. [LO 3-5]
Review the characteristics, norms and language of “Big House” prisons of the past.
Consider the changing social structure of the prisons, including gangs, racial tensions, contraband, and sex in prison.
“Racial Integration of California’s Prisons” A news article outlining a lawsuit filed in 1995 by Garrison Johnson, an inmate in a California prison, claiming a violation of his constitutional rights after being segregated along racial lines upon entering prison. In 2005 the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiff. http://www.totalcriminaldefense.com/news/articles/supreme-court-decisions/california-prison-desegregation.aspx
“Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)” U.S. Department of Justice website listing of publications and statistics that document the epidemic occurrence and horrific outcomes of being a victim of rape while incarcerated in jail or prison. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/programs/prisonrapeelimination.htm
“Prison Gangs” Correctionsone.com is a website designed for correctional professionals, designed to provide news, training information, and relevant products and supplies. Articles on issues with prison gangs are uploaded frequently. http://www.correctionsone.com/prison-gangs/articles/ [LO 5]
“The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups in American Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings from the 2004 Prison Gang Survey” for an in-depth look at prison gangs: http://www.ngcrc.com/corr2006.html
A news story to see one way how Arizona is dealing with STG Prison Gangs: http://voices.yahoo.com/stg-prison-gangsone-way-ticket-hell-8056858.htm
Present the forms of violence that take place in prison settings.
“The American Prison and the Normalization of Torture” is a publication written by H. Bruce Franklin that strongly suggests that our American prisons are designed as a form of institutionalized system of torture. http://www.historiansagainstwar.org/resources/torture/brucefranklin.html
“Suicide Prevention in Corrections: Familiarity Breeds Contempt ” Article from Corrections.com on inmate suicide. http://www.corrections.com/news/article/30904-suicide-prevention-in-corrections-familiarity-breeds-contempt-
Offer explanations for why violence takes place.
“Lynching in America by the Numbers” A recent study in the spring of 2012 issue of Sociological Quarterly makes a connection between lychings and recent prison admissions. http://www.usprisonculture.com/blog/2012/04/27/lynchings-in-america-by-the-numbers/
Examine the changing roles, challenges, and job enrichment of correctional officers in men’s prisons.
“Addressing Correctional Office Stress: Programs and Strategies” is a U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs publication. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/183474.pdf [LO 5, 6]
The Prison Experience: Females
Identify the main reasons for the rise in the imprisonment of women.
A short video “Life Inside a Women’s Prison” (http://www.oprah.com/world/Life-Inside-a-Womens-Prison-Video) and consider how the prison, inmates and activities that are found in a women’s prison are and are not different from what you would find in a men’s prison. [LO 3, 4]
Identify the findings of the classic studies of social structure in women’s prisons
Discus the contemporary studies of women doing time in prison.
“California’s Institution for Women (CIW)” The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations website allows you to research and identify the trends that have occurred in various areas of CIW’s prison operations over the past several years. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Adult_Operations/FOPS/index.html
“Prison Rape: Myths and Realities” Prison Law Blog; USC law professor Kim Shayo Buchanan has an article about sexual violence behind bars. http://prisonlaw.wordpress.com/tag/sexual-abuse/
“Women Prisoners: No Right to be a Mother presented by the Clayman Institute” A presentation from Stanford University's Clayman Institute on the issues of women prisoners which includes a panel discussion with former inmates. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9_opzjbWqw
Article “Giving Birth in Chains: The Shackling of Incarcerated Women During Labor and Delivery” (http://www.rhrealitycheck.org/blog/2009/07/06/giving-birth-chains-the-shackling-incarcerated-women-during-labor-and-delivery [LO 5]
Understand that providing sufficient programs for incarcerated women with children is critical.
“Female Offender Programs and Services (FOP)” California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations website lists the different programs available. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Adult_Operations/FOPS/index.html
“Sheriff Dart Opens New Jail Space for Pregnant Women” A look into the new program at the Cook County Jail that houses pregnant women awaiting trial. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQTa638m9iY
The Galilean Home based in Kentucky that provides women inmates care for their children while they are incarcerated http://www.galileanhome.org
Identify the serious issue of health care in women’s prisons
A report on sexual abuse allegations of female inmates in Ohio from Stop Prison Rape. http://www.justdetention.org/pdf/sexabuseohio.pdf
Identify why professionalism is important in women’s prisons.
“Correctional Officer Ethical Standards of Conduct ” A link to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement’s homepage which outlines the state correctional officer requirements.http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/CJST/Menu/Officer-Requirements-Main-Page/CO-Ethical-Standards-of-Conduct.aspx
Visit the website of the Association of Women Executives in Corrections (http://www.awec.us/). Browse through the website and see what the goals are of the organization, what activities they do to pursue their goals, and how they determine how effective they are.
Understand what is meant by the term “prisoners’ rights”
“Prisoner’s Rights” American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU): Document outlining the organizations role and function in advocating and protecting prisoner’s rights. http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights
Visit and browse through the Prison Legal News website (http://www.prisonlegalnews.org) to see which “big issues” regarding inmates’ rights that are being argued in the courts presently. [LO 3-5]
Discuss the foundation of prisoners’ rights
“About Incarceration Rights” Online legal information regarding both federal and state constitutional laws that dictate rights of those who have been incarcerated. http://www.ehow.com/about_5545143_incarceration-rights.html [LO 3, 4]
Online report “The Main Areas of Inmate Litigation in the 21st Century” (http://www.corrections.com/news/article/29607-the-main-areas-of-inmate-litigation-in-the-21st-century-) compare the issues that are the most common in inmate lawsuits in recent years to the issues that were at the foundation of the prisoner’s rights movement. [LO 3,5]
Identify the First, Fourth, Eighth and Fourteenth Amendment substantive rights that the courts have awarded inmates
“Prisoner’s 1st Amendment Rights” The First Amendment Center is an educational organization that is affiliated with Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN. http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/tag/prisoners-rights
Checkout this news story of Ohio Muslim inmates suing over their meal preparation because they claim it violates their religious practices. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/10/03/ohio-muslim-inmates-sue-over-meal-preparation/
A short video Religious Rights: Wiccan and Neopagan Prison Inmates (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQML-ZYaFH80
Understand the legal services that are available to inmates
“About the Innocence Project” This is a link to the Innocence Project homepage. http://www.innocenceproject.org/about/
Understand the rights that have not been given inmates
“Prisoner’s Rights Violation in the U.S” A 2012 report from the Russian radio broadcast the “Voice O Russia” regarding the widespread problem of prisoner’s right s violations in the U.S. penal system. This includes a petition filed by prisoners in a California prison directed to the United Nations. http://english.ruvr.ru/2012_08_25/Prisoners-rights-violation-in-the-US/
“Continuing the Fight for Civil Rights and Prisoners' Rights” An article from the American Civil Liberties Union website on inmate civil rights. http://www.aclu.org/blog/racial-justice-criminal-law-reform/continuing-fight-civil-rights-and-prisoners-rights
Checkout this news story about inmates in Florida suing over mail restrictions and having difficulties under the PLRA. http://www2.highlandstoday.com/news/highlands-news/2011/jan/19/LANEWSO1-prisoners-sue-jails-for-various-reasons-ar-308278/
Correctional Programs and Services
Identify the role of treatment and services in prisons today
“CCDR OFFICE OF CORRECTIONAL EDUCATION” California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitations website. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov
Browse through the website for the Correctional Education Association (http://www.ceanational.org/index2.htm) to read about what the organization does to promote and support educational programs in prisons (and jails), but also how educational programs connect with and reinforce other types of correctional programs. [LO 3-5, 8]
Discuss classification for treatment
“The Inmate Classification Score System Study” California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation website. The noted study was completed as of December 2011. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov
Understand the individual level treatment programs
“Prison Program Comparison” This page of Corrections.com links to all state correctional agencies so you can compare programs available in various states. http://www.corrections.com/links/show/30 [LO 4]
“BOP Substance Abuse Treatment” Links to the BOP website and information on the current substance abuse treatment strategy. http://www.bop.gov/inmate_programs/substance.jsp
Visit the website of the Center for Evidence Based Corrections (http://ucicorrections.seweb.uci.edu/) and identify how the researchers at the center determine that prison based programs are effective or not. (LO 3, 5-8)
Watch the short online video Stillwater Prison Industries (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BrVsc2sB-E) that overviews the history of prison industries in one Minnesota prison. [LO 1, 6]
Discuss inmate self-help programs
Evaluate the quality of prison programs for inmates
“The State of California Prison Industry Authority” State of California’s Prison Industry Authority website. To see the various industries that correction’s train inmates to participate in, and that prisons institutions provide services to. http://www.pia.ca.gov/
Checkout this story about California’s inmates’ healthcare: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/04/10/california-inmates-get-better-health-care-than-regular-citizens.html
A USA today article on increased accessibility to educational materials potentially helping inmates: http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2011-05-04-inmate-higher-education_n.htm
Evaluate the quality of prison services for inmates
“Inmate Programs” Links to a clip showing some of the Arizona Department of Corrections inmate programs. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yUh_TAag3qc&feature=related [LO 6]
Understand how treatment in prison can become more effective
Watch the online video Correctional Healthcare (http://www.kpbs.org/news/envision/prisons/) to explore the reasons, advantages and disadvantages of providing long-term and chronic health care to inmates in specialized prisons. [LO 1, 2, 7]
Parole and Release to the Community
Understand parole practices today
“Division of Adult Parole Operations (DAPO)” California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation adult parole and community services website provides information on Operation Guardian, which focused on parolees with ties to gangs. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Parole/
“New Sex Offender Information Page” from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation adult parole and community services website details some of the programs and procedures resulting from Jessica’s law. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Parole/
“Federal Parole Bill Passed” The New York Times website and online article on the significance of there being the opportunity for convicted felons under federal jurisdiction to be considered for early release on parole. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html
Review the website for the Association of Paroling Authorities, International (http://www.apaintl.org/) to learn the newest legal, political and practical developments in parole and parole decision-making processes. [LO 2-4]
Know how the parole board functions
“The Board of Parole Hearings (BOPH)” California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation BOPH website details the purpose and function of the BOPH. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/BOPH/index.html
“State Parole Boards” This is The American Probation and Parole Association’s homepage - which is an international association involved with probation, parole and community-based corrections, in both adult and juvenile sectors. http://www.appa-net.org/eweb/DynamicPage.aspx?Webcode=VB_Directory
“California’s Parolee Conditions” Links to the California Department of Corrections and Rehab. http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Parole/Parolee_Conditions/index.html
A news article about a parole officer using his position of power for sexual abuse: http://www.kval.com/news/local/125779103.html
Understand the procedures involved in the revocation of parole
Be able to identify why people fail on parole
“Hard Time: Life After Prison” An episode of National Geographic’s series “Hard Time” that follows four offenders as they are released from prison. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ih9kEIe4y2k&feature=relmfu
Identify some of the rights that ex-offenders have lost
“Reentry & Employment in St. Louis: A Model for Business, Community, and Workers” Center for Community Corrections is a non-profit agency that takes on projects that promote the improvement of community-based sanctions. http://centerforcommunitycorrections.org/wp-content/reentry-and-employment-in-st-louis.pdf
A CNN article on a job fair for convicted felons: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-03-04/living/job.fair.ex.felons_1_employment-fair-job-seekers-felons?_s=PM:LIVING
Review the website of The Sentencing Project on felon disenfranchisement (http://www.sentencingproject.org/template/page.cfm?id=133) to learn the reasons provided for why convicted felons should be, and should not be, prohibited from voting.
Special Prison Populations
Understand the problems of inmates with a substance –involved history.
Be aware what challenges and problems sex offenders bring to the prison.
“Sex Offender Treatment in Prison” Department of Corrections Washington States website details the kind of treatment programs the Washington State correctional administration has implemented to ensure the treatment needs of offenders, as well as address concerns of public safety. http://www.doc.wa.gov/community/sexoffenders/prisontreatment.asp
Inmate blog entry “Road to Ruin: Sex Offenders in Prison” (http://x-con.hubpages.com/hub/The-Road-to-Ruin-Pt-14-Child-Offenders-in-Prison).
Know some of the issues terrorists present to the correctional system.
“Terrorist in American Prisons” Online news article that discloses concerns of local prisons housing domestic and international terrorist. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/war_stories/2009/05
Former Guantánamo prisoners regarding the use of torture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18ekzKewA7c
Training material article “Terrorists in Prison: The Challenge Facing Corrections” (http://www.icpa.ca/tools/download/622/Terrorists_in_Prison.pdf).
Understand the prison experience of HIV inmates
Online article “Prisons, Prisoners and HIV/AIDS” (http://www.avert.org/prisons-hiv-aids.htm).
Identify the world faced by chronic mentally ill inmates while they are in prison.
“How Do You Hold Mentally Ill Offenders Accountable?” A National Public Radio story from December 2011 on violence at California’s psychiatric hospitals. http://www.npr.org/2011/12/21/143859695/how-do-you-hold-mentally-ill-offenders-accountable
An article by the Prison Policy Initiative on incarcerating mentally ill offenders: http://www.prisonpolicy.org/articles/massdissent040100.html
A CBS News report on mentally ill offenders and jails (http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-18563_162-7273149.html).
Understand the plight of the elderly inmates while incarcerated
“Caring for the Elderly Behind Bars” Online article regarding this growing issue in corrections. http://www.corrections.com/news/article/11566
“Target 5: Elderly Inmates ” From Ohio’s WLWT Target 5 news report on the expense of elderly inmates. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnsB92HegIg
A television news story video on elderly inmates in Ohio prisons (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnsB92HegIg).
Understand the problems faced by illegal immigrants in U.S. prisons
“Texas Kicks Illegal Alien Convicts Out of the Country” From KVII-TV Pronews 7 Amarillo news report on the deportation of illegal immigrants. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mk54_hJKcrk
Capital Punishment and the Death Row Inmate
Describe what public opinion is concerning the death penalty.
“Public Opinion about the Death Penalty” Online Death Penalty Information Center has 2011 public poll information regarding the death penalty and information on the controversial issues that are being politically addressed. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/public-opinion-about-death-penalty
“Worldwide Report of Executions for the Current Month” Capital Punishment UK homepage details the verified executions carried out each month around the world, with details about the offender’s crime and method and execution. http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/world.html
“History of Lethal Injection” Civil Liberties News issues and monthly articles covers the origin and application of lethal injection during the death penalty execution process. http://civilliberty.about.com/od/capitalpunishment/ig/Types-of-Executions/Lethal-Injections.htm
“Death Penalty” Links to the Gallup site which provides statistics on human nature and behavior and identifies and monitors behavioral economic indicators worldwide. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1606/death-penalty.aspx
The results of several decades worth of public opinion polls regarding the death penalty on the website of the Clark County (IN) Prosecutor’s Office (http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/death/opinion.htm).
History of the Death Penalty and Recent Developments from the University of Alaska Anchorage (http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/death/history.html). [LO 1, 3, 4]
Discuss the position of the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the death penalty.
A documentary giving an overview of what happens on execution day: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1htDY230jx4&feature=related [LO 7]
Identify the position of the Supreme Court concerning the importance of race and the death penalty.
Discuss the Supreme Court and its rulings on the execution of mentally impaired inmates and juveniles.
“Sentence reductions involving mental illness” Death Penalty Reduction Center is a national non-profit organization serving the media and the public with analysis and information on issues concerning capital punishment. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/mental-illness-and-death-penalty#reduction
U.S. Department of Justice’s article “Juveniles and the Death Penalty”: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf
Describe how correctional officers working on death row regard their jobs.
“Q & A: Retiring San Quentin death-row officer” Correctionsone.com is a website designed for correctional professionals, designed to provide news, training information, and relevant products and supplies. http://www.correctionsone.com/communications/articles/1879637-Q-A-Retiring-San-Quentin-death-row-officer/
PBS Frontline’s Angel on Death Row for insider accounts of working with death row inmates: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/angel/
Identify how inmates on death row adjust to their situation.
Online National Geographic video Death Row Texas (http://natgeotv.com/uk/death-row-texas/videos/death-row-texas [LO 1, 6, 8]
A list of Texas death row inmates’ last meal requests (http://web.archive.org/web/20031202214318/http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/finalmeals.htm).
Evaluate whether the death penalty deters murder
The Juvenile Offender
Identify the early developments of juvenile justice.
“Juvenile Justice System: Contemporary Juvenile Justice System and Juvenile Detention Alternatives” Online publication which addresses the past and present structure and processes that account for our juvenile justice system in America. http://www.answers.com/topic/juvenile-justice-system-contemporary-juvenile-justice-system-and-juvenile-detention-alternatives [LO 3-4]
Sanford Fox’s article “The Early History of the Court” (http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/06_03_01.pdf) describes the legal and social developments that influenced the creation and early functioning of the first juvenile court in the United States. [LO 3-4]
Understand the disposition of probation, including how it is administered and by whom and recent trends in its use
Some articles on restorative justice programs and issues for juvenile offenders: http://www.restorativejustice.org/programme-place/02practiceissues/juveniles-1/ [LO 3]
Listing and descriptions of Model Programs in Juvenile Justice from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/progTypesCorrectional.aspx). [LO 3, 4]
Distinguish between community treatment and institutional treatment for juvenile offenders.
“Community Based Juvenile Rehabilitation” A clip from Outreach House in New York which is a residential diversion program for juveniles. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUc2KZDCkBQ&feature=related
An Ohio Judge admitted to taking money to place more offenders in a privatized juvenile facility: http://www.inquisitr.com/211740/u-s-judges-admit-to-jailing-children-for-money/
Know the nature of aftercare for juvenile offenders and comment on recent innovations in juvenile aftercare and reentry programs
“San Francisco's Juvenile Reentry Court” A look at the San Francisco's Youth Guidance Center’s Juvenile Reentry Court. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mi8LMqWB1l8&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL2023B04A1B2D2DAE
Understand how the juvenile is transferred and tried in adult court
“Juvenile Justice Hearings” The Superior Court of California Santa Clara County Juvenile court website details the practices and procedures involved in juvenile “Fitness Hearings” where it is determined whether juveniles will be held to answer for their crimes in adult versus juvenile court. http://www.scscourt.org/self_help/juvenile/jjustice/process.shtml
Be able to identify the plight faced by juveniles sent to adult prisons
“Roper v. Simmons: Can Juveniles Offenders Be Executed?” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online article discusses elements of the landmark case involving the death penalty and juveniles. http://www.jaapl.org/content/33/4/547.full
“Young Kids, Hard Time” (Director’s Cut) Links to a MSNBC/Calamari Production video about juveniles serving adult sentences in Indiana. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3lw6PMjj40&feature=youtu.be
A short YouTube video Juveniles in Adult Prisons (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpLdjcT3JOA)
Today’s Corrections Professional:
Characteristics, Challenges, and Opportunities
Know how far professionalism has brought corrections
“The Emerging Professionalism of the Correctional Officer” Sage Journals Crime and Delinquency website article regarding the push for more professionalism in the field of corrections. This article discusses the increasing emphasis on professionalism in correctional work and relates this trend to the expanding roles of the correctional officer. In many ways the correctional officer is the most influential employee in the correctional institution, and yet the training he receives is brief and almost exclusively focused on custodial skills. http://cad.sagepub.com/content/12/3/272.abstract [LO 2, 4]
“How to Become a Correctional Officer” Links to the Unites States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistic’s job description for a Correctional Officers. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Protective-Service/Correctional-officers.htm#tab-1
Be able to define professionalism and the need of it
“NJDOC Training Academy Class 219” A New Jersey Department of Corrections Academy clip showing field training for new recruits. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-SxggEkgqzY&feature=relmfu [LO 4]
“From a Correctional Officers Point of View” A look into the daily lives of California’s correctional officers working at maximum security facilities. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpGYBPobFEc&feature=related [LO 3-4]
“How to Become a Correctional Officer” from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Protective-Service/Correctional-officers.htm#tab-4
Identify how correctional administrators can foster professionalism
Review the process, criteria and expectations for becoming a Certified Corrections Executive from the American Correctional Association. (http://www.aca.org/certification1/). [LO 2, 4]
Read Humphrey’s online article “Respectable Leadership and the Future of Corrections” (http://www.corrections.com/news/article/29132-respectable-leadership-and-the-future-of-corrections). [LO 6]
Know the present challenges for advancement in professionalism
Read the Federal Probation article “Beyond Correctional Quackery – Professionalism and the Possibility of Effective Treatment” (http://www.studentcenter.ccj.pdx.edu/ccjo/CourseMirror/Wi11/CCJ410OrgChangeinCriminalJustice-Sundt/Quackery_Latessa.pdf). [LO 1-3, 5]
Define the major challenges facing corrections in the present
“Prison Overcrowding: The Problem” This article from the American Legislative Exchange Council websites information center addresses the questions of what, why, and what next as it relates to the epidemic problem and immediate concern of overcrowding in jails and prisons across the nation. http://www.alec.org/initiatives/prison-overcrowding/
“Lt. Patrick Logan on Prison Overcrowding” From KPBS San Diego, Lt. Logan for the Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility in San Diego discusses how the institution is dealing with overcrowding. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lvzkmPfujk
Identify whether punishment or reform will dominate the future landscape of corrections
Read about the new Biometric Management System for managing corrections facilities: http://www.correctionsone.com/police-technology/investigation/biometrics-identification/articles/2189110-Biometric-prison-management-Technology-of-the-future/ [LO 5]
Read about a Denver woman’s experience with restorative justice after her son was murdered: http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_21040065