Report from the urc 2001 Table of Contents

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Pacific Languages Unit

Robert Early

a) Various Epi language materials (Vanuatu).

b) Volume of Paiwanese texts (Taiwan).

c) An edited collection of Vanuatu language sketch grammars.

John Lynch

a) Interrelationships between Vanuatu and New Caledonian languages.

b) Coordination in Oceanic languages.

c) The Proto Oceanic bilabials and labiovelars.
Hans Schmidt
a) Translating Arthur M. Hocart’s manuscript on Rotuman history, written in a mixture of b) Rotuman and English, into an English version and a Rotuman version.

c) Preparing the Nguna dictionary manuscript for publication (Vanuatu).

d) Doing a dialect survey of Maewo languages (Vanuatu).

e) Preparing a language survey of Gaua (Vanuatu).

Apolonia Tamata

A phonology and grammar sketch of the Nasarowaqa dialect of Fijian.

A Bua dialect dictionary.

Hannah Vari-Bogiri
The sociolinguistic situation of Araki, South West Santo (Vanuatu).

Raga dictionary (Vanuatu).

Early, R. Book review of The endangered peoples of Oceania: struggles to survive and thrive, ed. by Judith M. Fitzpatrick. To appear in the Journal of multilingual and multicultural development.
Early, R. “Accessible revelation: the genesis of a front-translation methodology” To appear in Notes on Translation, Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Lynch, J, Malcolm Ross & Terry Crowley. 2001. The Oceanic languages. London: Curzon Press.
Lynch, J, & Terry Crowley. In press. Languages of Vanuatu: A new survey and bibliography. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Lynch, J, & Philip Tepahae. 2001. Anejoü dictionary / Diksonari blong Anejoü / Nitasviitai a nijitas antas Anejoü. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, .

Lynch, J. 2001. The Linguistic history of Southern Vanuatu. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics,

Lynch, J. In press. The development of morphologically complex possessive markers in the Southern Vanuatu languages. In Joel Bradshaw & Kenneth L. Rehg (eds), Issues in Austronesian morphology: A focusschrift for Byron W. Bender. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Lynch, J. 2001. Passive and food possession in Oceanic languages. In Andrew Pawley, Malcolm Ross and Darrell Tryon (eds), The boy from Bundaberg: Studies in Melanesian linguistics in honour of Tom Dutton, 193-214. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Lynch, J, and Françoise Ozanne-Rivierre. 2001. Some shared developments in pronouns in languages of Southern Oceania. Oceanic Linguistics 40,1:33-66.
Lynch, J. In press. “Don’t take my word for it”: Two case studies of unexpected non-borrowing. In Paul Geraghty and Jan Tent, Borrowing: A Pacific perspective. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Lynch, J. 2001. Article accretion and article creation in Southern Oceanic. Oceanic Linguistics 40,2:224-246.
Lynch, J. 2001. Too much to swallow: On terms meaning ‘swallow’ in Proto-Oceanic. Oceanic Linguistics 40,2:336-341.
In addition, the volume The Oceanic languages (Lynch, Ross & Crowley – see above) contains the following grammar sketches authored, co-authored or abstracted by PLU staff:

Robert Early: Lamen (pp. 671-680), Niuafo’ou (pp. 848-864)

John Lynch: Anejoü (pp. 723-752), Cèmuhî (pp. 753-764), Iaai (pp. 776-791), Marquesan (pp. 865-876), Puluwatese (pp. 804-814), Ulithian (pp. 792-803), Xârâcùù (pp. 765-775)

John Lynch & Rex Horoi: Arosi (pp. 562-572)

John Lynch & Malcolm Ross:Banoni (pp. 440-455)

Bill Palmer: Kokota (pp. 498-524)

Hans Schmidt: Rotuman (pp. 815-832)

Robert Early
a) Consultation on Regional Malays, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 8-12 January 2001. Invited participant and resource person on “Translation strategies for multilingual communities”.
Jane Kanas
b) As part of her involvement with the Vanuatu Association of Women Graduates, Jane was asked to co-write a country paper on women and girls in Vanuatu and their involvement in distance education by using telecommunications for the Commonwealth of Learning. This paper was presented in Wellington in May.
Hans Schmidt
a) “Loanword Strata in Rotuman”, at the XVth International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Melbourne, 13-17 August (attendance funded by USP).
b) “The importance of the Rotuman language in the urban environment of Fiji”, speech at the meeting of the Itu’muta District Association in Suva, March 2001
Hannah Vari-Bogiri
Vanuatu representative at the UNESCO-organised workshop on the Preservation and Revitalisation of Endangered languages within the Melanesian States; Nadi, Fiji, 28-30 August

School of Law
Major Research Achievements
Two major research initiatives undertaken by the School as a whole in 2001 related to the Pacific Islands Law reporting project and the internet course development project. These have been the subject of comment above.

Internet law reporting is a genuine research undertaking of the School. It is charting territory which has not previously been explored This project has opened up and purported to set about resolving a number of problems which are in many ways unique. These include such matters as the collection of reports and legislation from courts and government agencies respectively, the development of appropriate law reporting systems, the negotiation of official status for reporting provided, the development of search engines and the development of appropriate methods of citation for cases reported.

The course development project involves the School in the investigation of new methods of Internet-based delivery of law courses. The project has so far involved the School in the utilisation of new software for the purpose of enabling self assessment tasks and other computer assisted learning techniques to be made available to students. This has involved the employment of open source software called Zope which is set up on a LINUX operating system. The School in the past has used Microsoft Front Page for its course development but this has many limitations. Open source software has numerous advantages over “off the shelf” software systems.
There is the factor of added flexibility and the ability to stylise course presentation to meet the particular needs of the School. This is a far better alternative than becoming fully committed to those options which are made available by the software manufacturer who often has little idea or concern for the particular needs of end user. Furthermore the software comes with a very well established network of free support. The software itself, along with any updates or additions to it, is available for download free hence it avoids the user being locked into a licensing system which can be unilaterally varied by the supplier. Hence there are both user related and economic advantages to its use.
The School has attained an admirable record of research and publication since its inception. The activities of the academic staff of the School have started to fill the very noticeable gap in legal research related to the region. Activity in this area continued to prosper throughout the year 2001. A number of major texts and reports have been produced by staff members during that time and a number of consultancies and associated activities undertaken.
Publications by Staff Members
Ahmadu, Mohammed

Book (with Nand, N.) Judicial Review Applications in Fiji, IJALS, 2001

Book (with Hughes R.) Company Law in the South Pacific, IJALS Suva, 2001

Cordonnery, Dr. Laurence

Article (2001) La Convention sur la conservation et la gestion des espèces hautement migratoires du Pacifique centre-ouest, in Revue Générale de Droit International Public, N°3, pp. 559-580.


Book Review of Gilpin, A., Dictionary of Environmental Law, Edward Elgar, UK & USA, 2000, for Journal of South Pacific Law, 2001, Volume 5.


Review of article entitled Are Multilateral Development Banks subject to International Environmental Law? in Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volume 2 (2), October 2001.

Farran, Sue
Working Paper: What is the Matrimonial Property Regime in Vanuatu? (2001) 5 Journal of South Pacific Law.
Conference Paper The Law Experience and Reflections on Future Challenges, USP Regional Centres’ Conference on Multi-Modal Teaching and Flexible Delivery. April 2001, Suva, Fiji (delivered via satellite)
Conference Paper Domestic Violence, Chief Justice’s Law Conference, Vanuatu, July 2001

Fraser, Ian

Conference paper - Swarming Parliament: The Legitimacy of Violence and the Rule of Law, ALTA Annual Conference, Port Vila, July 2001        


November 2001: book chapter Human Rights vs. Custom in the Pacific: Struggle, Adaptation, or Game? in Newton-Cain & Jowitt, eds., Law, Society, Culture in the South pacific, IS, Suva, forthcoming

Hill, Ted

Book (with Powles, G.)  Magistrates Manual of Papua New Guinea, Law Book Company, Pyrmont, Australia


Book Chapter Mediation and the Ombudsman,  Opportunites, Challenges and Limitations in Vanuatu,  Volume 5 International Ombudsman Yearbook, Kluwer International Publications, The Hague, 2001

Book Chapter The Vanuatu Ombudsman, Chapter in Law Society and Change in the South Pacific, in press
Conference Paper - Mediation and the Ombudsman – paper presented at the 2001 Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference Port Vila, July 2001.

Hughes, Professor Bob

Major Review Report (with Finlayson C. and Webb C.) - Review of Professional Legal Training in New Zealand, Council for Legal Education of New Zealand December 2001
Book Trust Law in the South Pacific, IJALS Suva, 2001
Book (with M. Ahmadu) – Company Law in the South Pacific, IJALS Suva, 2001
Book chapter Corruption in Pacific States, in Newton Cain T. and Jowitt A. Law Society and Culture in the Pacific, IPS, Suva, forthcoming
Book chapter The problem of Identity in Pacific States, in Newton Cain T. and Jowitt A. Law Society and Culture in the Pacific, IPS, Suva, forthcoming
Article (with C. Lakshman) – Constitutional Developments in Fiji, Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, November 2001.
Article (with P. Tagini) Federated States of Micronesia, in Legal Systems of the World online series, December 2001
Article (with P. Tagini) Tuvalu, in Legal Systems of the World online series, December 2001
Public Lecture – The Problem of Identity in South Pacific Countries, Institute of Public Law, University of Wellington, New Zealand, 21st May 2001

Report – Legal Developments in Vanuatu, for Institute of Public Law, VUW, Wellington NZ, May 2001

Conference Paper - Mediation and the Ombudsman – paper presented at the 2001 Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference Port Vila, July 2001.
Staff Seminar – Law and Identity in the South Pacific Region, to School of Law, Waikato University, 16th April 2001
Conference Paper – The Failures of Constitutionalism in the South Pacific, ALTA Conference, Port Vila, 4th July 2001

Jowitt, Anita

 Article - Unemployment in Vanuatu (2001), Development Bulletin Vol 56 pp 55 - 57 
Article Migration, Unemployment and Urban Crime in Vanuatu, (2001) University of the South Pacific School of Law Occasional Papers Series, Volume 9

Article - with Newton-Cain, T. (2001) Law Reform in Fiji Islands: A Commentary on the Proposed Reforms Relating to Rape and HIV/AIDS, University of the South Pacific School of Law Occasional Papers Series, Volume 8

Article Vanuatu Political Review (2001) in The Contemporary Pacific: A Journal of Island Affairs Vol 13(2) pp 557 – 563
Conference Paper - Economic growth, urban crime and unemployment in developing economies: A case study from Vanuatu INFER 2001 Conference, Erfurt, Germany, September 2001
Conference Paper - OSH Regulation in the Pacific Islands: economic theory and empirical evidence, Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference, Port Vila, July 2001

Conference paper - Crime and unemployment in urban Vanuatu, Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference, Port Vila, July 2001

Shah, Krishn

Case Note on Beti v Aufui, unreported, High Court of Solomon Islands, Civil Case No. 170 of 1990, in Journal of South Pacific Law, 2001
Case Note on Fiji Development Bank v Raqona, (1984) 30 FLR 151, Supreme Court of Fiji in Journal of South Pacific Law, 2001
Review of Lal B. Fiji Before the Storm in Journal of South Pacific Law, 2001

Tomtavala, Yoli

Conference Paper - Legal Status ofJjudicial Decisions in Pacific Island States Presented at ALTA Conference, July 2001
Conference Paper Refugee Law and South Pacific States Today, presented at UNHCR’s “Refugee Law Workshop for South Pacific Nations”, Brisbane, Australia, October 2001
Article - Marshall Islands in Legal Systems of the World encyclopaedia. Forthcoming 2002


Professor Bob Hughes – Council for Legal Education of New Zealand – Review of Professional Legal Training in New Zealand, July-December 2001.
Professor Bob Hughes – Civics Awareness Workshop for Regional, Rights and Resources Trainers Suva Fiji, November 2001, DFID funded.
Sue Farran and Ted Hill - Governance and Accountability workshop for Wan Smol Bag radio writers, Vanuatu, February 2001
Sue Farran - Women in Education: Law and Rights for the Teaching Union, Vanuatu, February 2001
Sue Farran - Domestic Violence: the New Rules, Three workshops in Vanuatu funded by UNICEF & British High Commission, November/December 2001

Professor Don Paterson - Establishment of Land Tribunal for Vanuatu, NZODA funded.

In summary:

The School has undertaken two major School based projects in Internet based law reporting and course development. These projects are on-going.

Academic staff of the School have a very good record in research and publication

Academic staff have undertaken major consultancies and continue to develop areas of potential consultancy activity.

School of Pure and Applied Sciences
The Department’s research focus continued to be in the area of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Cytogenetics and Reproductive Biology, Ecology, Conservation Biology, Plant Physiology, Marine Biology and Animal Behaviour. New research projects were prepared and submitted for funding in the field of Conservation Biology, Plant Biology and Plant Molecular Genetics. Dr Craig Morley’s research project in Conservation Biology and Mr Gunnar Keppel’s research project in Plant Biology were approved. Research projects by Dr Anjeela Jokhan and Dr Anand Tyagi on Plant Molecular Genetics is still under consideration. The following postgraduate students completed their studies and their M.Sc theses were accepted for the award of the degree. The names of research supervisors are given in paronthesis :
Ms Subhashni Appana (Dr Robyn Cumming)

Mr Rajnesh Sant (Dr Anand Tyagi & Dr Mary Taylor)

Dr Anand Tyagi, Dr Robyn Cumming and Dr Anjeela Jokhan continued supervising postgraduate students in their M.Sc research projects.


Dr Anand Tyagi travelled to Tokyo, Japan in July to attend and present a research paper in the International Symposium on Mangroves. He also chaired one session in that symposium. Dr Manju Prasad and Mr Rajesh Prasad attended the 10th Pacific Science Inter-Congress (from 1-6 June 2001) in Guam. They presented their research articles in that congress. Dr Robyn Cumming attended the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Southwest Pacific Node Coordinators Workshop as Coordinator for Fiji in August 2001. Mr Ravin Lal attended and presented a research paper in the Annual Conference of the American College of Clinical Pharmacology in Washington USA held on 23-25 September, 2001. Mr Rajesh Prasad participated and presented a research paper in the 3rd United Nations University – Ocean Research Institute Workshop on Marine Environment from 21-26 October, 2001 at Otsuchi in Japan. Dr Anjeela Jokhan attended Tissue Culture Workshop held at the South Pacific Community Secretariat in Suva in November, 2001.


  1. Dr Anand Tyagi is engaged in the following research projects.

  1. Determination of Genetic variation in some important Native Fijian Plant Species of evolutionary and Economic importance (Principal Researcher).

Funded by the University Research Committee (URC) (Principal Researcher).

  1. Seed viability in taro (colocasia esculenta) after storage at different temperatures with varying moisture contents with Dr Anjeela Jokhan (Principal Researcher).

Funded by the International Development consultants and Project Managers (ACIL Australia Pty Ltd.) (Principal Researcher).

  1. Dr Anjeela Jokhan is currently working on Taro seed viability; this work is continuing (with Dr Tyagi).

  1. The study of stomatal apertures using chinese cabbage epidermal peels is in progress to observe the effects of pH, abscissic acid and Ca2+.

  1. Dr Jane Rienks was working on a preliminary butterfly survey and Pandanus arboreal leaf litter fauna, both funded by the URC.


Unfortunately not many opportunities were provided in the year 2001 for consultancy work by Biology staff. However Dr Anand Tyagi and Dr Anjeela Jokhan are actively involved in various crop breeding and crop physiology activities at Koronivia Research Station, Suva, and Sugarcane Research Station, Lautoka. All these activities are unpaid consultancies.

Dr Anjeela Jokhan, Dr Anand Tyagi, Dr Manju Prasad and Dr Jane Rienks were involved in BIF02 and BIF03 Examination paper moderation, and the sample evaluation of final examination scripts from USP Extension. Dr Anjeela Jokhan also moderated FIT Examination papers, and is also a member of the Implementation Committee of the Fiji College of Agriculture revised curriculum.

Comai, L., Tyagi, A.P., Winter, K ., Holmes-Davis, R. Reynolds, S.H., Yvonne, S. and Byers, B. 2000. Phenotypic instability and rapid gene silencing in new formed Arabidopsis allotetraploids. The Plant Cell. 12: 1-18.
Cumming, R.L., Toskano, E.R., Lovell, B.A., Carlson, N.K., Dulvy, A., Hughes, J.F., Koven, N.J., Quinn, H.R., Sykes, O.J.S., Taylor and D. Vaughan. 2001. Mas Coral bleaching in Fiji Islands, 2000. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia. International Society for Reef Studies (In press).
Lal, R., 2001 Physiological and Pharmacological properties of natural products extracted from the marine sponge, Xestospongia. Paper presented in the Annual Conference of the American College of Clinical Pharmacology. 23-25 September, 2001, Washington, D.C., USA.
Prasad, M. 2001. Insect-plant interaction: counter-adaptive strategy of Epilachna cucurbitae to overcome host chemical defence. Paper presented in the 10th Pacific Science Inter-Congress, 1-6 June 2001, Guam.
Prasad, R. 2001. Aquaculture potential in Fiji and other Pacific Islands. Paper presented in the 10th Pacific Science Inter-Congress, 1-6 June, 2001, Guam.

Prasad, R. 2001. Biology and Aquaculture of bivalves in the Tropical Pacific Region. Paper presented in the 3rd United Nations University – Ocean Research Institute Workshop of Marine Environment. 21-26 October, 2001, Otsuchi, Japan.

Tyagi, A.P., Comai, L. and Byers, B. 2000. Re-synthesis of Arabidopsis suecica, an allotetraploid hybrid between A. thaliana and cardaminopsis arenosa. SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics. 32: 95-103.
Tyagi, A.P. 2001. A comparison of flowering and propagule setting in Mangroves of Fiji in a normal and a drought year. Paper presented in the International Symposium on Mangroves. 9-12 July, Tokyo, Japan.
Other Publications
Jokhan, A.D. 2001. Basic Science. A revision Guide (Book). Pacific Educational Resources (Fiji) Ltd., Lautoka.
Lal, P. 2000. Lime x Tester Analysis for combining ability in sugarcane. M.Sc Thesis.
Lal, R. 2001. Comparison of cardiac structure and function in runners and weight trainers. Oceania sports and Information Center, USP Library.
Lal, R. 2001. Physiological and Pharmacological Properties of natural product extracted from the marine sponge, Xestospongia. M.Sc. Thesis.
Rigamoto, R. 2002. A Floristic Survey of the coastal Littoral Vegetation of Rotuma. M.Sc Thesis.
Sant, R. 2001. Cryopreservation of Taro (colocaria esculenta var. esculenta. M.Sc. Thesis).


As in previous years, research was focussed in the areas of terrestrial and marine natural product chemistry; food chemistry; analytical chemistry; polymer chemistry; and environmental chemistry related to the atmosphere, inland, coastal and marine water bodies.

Staff members continued to supervise comparatively a large number of research students. Students graduating with an MSc in Chemistry in 2001 were (names of supervisors are given in parenthesis):

Randhir Prakash Deo (Drs Maika Vuki and Matakite Maata)

Emma Mario (Drs Maika Vuki and Matakite Maata)

Upma Dutt (Associate Professor Koshy and Dr Maika Vuki)

James Prasad (Professor Aalbersberg and Dr Sadaquat Ali)

Narendra Prasad (Professors Sotheeswaran and South)
Terrestrial and Marine Natural Product Chemistry
Professor Sotheeswaran continued to lead the Marine Natural Product research team in the Chemistry Department in collaboration with the USP’s Marine Studies Programme, Marine Natural Product Groups at the University of Melbourne and the University of New Caledonia. Other team members at USP are Drs Sadaquat Ali, Tevita Voro, Mani Naiker, and Saroja Wijewardene. The group has an active collaboration with the Microbiologists from the USP’s Biology Department (Dr G. Srinivasan and Ms Dhana Rao). The research work is partly funded by the Wellcome Trust Fund (UK), the French Embassy in Suva and partly by the USP’s University Research Committee.
Various members of this research group are jointly supervising the MSc research of five postgraduate students: Ruth Amos, Shilpa Kumar, Narendra Prasad, Reena Singh and Sachin Singh. During the year, Professsor Sotheeswaran also examined the M.Sc thesis of another postgraduate student enrolled at USP (marine natural products) as the internal examiner. He also checked the thesis revision of this student and recommended approval of the revised thesis for the award of the M.Sc degree.

Food Chemistry

Professor Sotheeswaran is involved in a project on Glycemic Index of cooked Fiji foods in collaboration with the Department of Food and Textiles at USP. Funding for this project has been obtained from the University Research Committee (URC) and the clinical trials are being conducted at the Army Barracks in Suva.

Dr Matakite Maata was similarly awarded funds from the URC to conduct chemical studies on an edible species of algae from Kiribati. Nutrient content has already been determined and further work is in progress.

Dr Maika Vuki was awarded funds from the French Embassy to conduct pesticide residue analysis in foods, particularly vegetables and fruits. A postgraduate student is funded under this grant and he has started gathering information. Some preliminary instrumentation exercise has also been conducted. Dr Vuki will be visiting IRD in Noumea in January 2002 as part of the collaboration exercise under this funding.
Mr Shailesh Kumar is developing suitable methods for the analysis of PCB’s in food samples.
Analytical Chemistry

Projects in this area are related to the development of low-cost analytical techniques for the detection and measurement of parameters of environmental importance. These include fibre optic chemical sensors for heavy metals, under the direction of Dr Philomena Gangaiya and Professor Sotheeswaran; kinetic methods of analysis, under the direction of Dr Surendra Prasad; and electrochemical sensors in which Dr Maika Vuki is collaborating with Professor Joseph Wang from New Mexico State University in the USA.

In recognition of the achievements in the area of fibre optic chemical sensors, Dr Philomena Gangaiya was invited to present a paper on this technique at the Conference on Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment, held in Adelaide, Australia in November 2001.

Polymer Chemistry

Research in this area is being conducted under the direction of Dr Jagjit Khurma. Mr David Rohindra is also involved in this work. The focus of the research is in the areas of polymer blends, biodegradable polymers, polymers from the waste materials and plastic recycling. Ms Vikashni Pal is continuing her M.Sc. work on the blends of chitin and chitosan with other polymers. At present she is at Auckland University conducting some studies on blends she prepared earlier. Ms Preeti started an M.Sc. project during the year on biodegradation of poly(caprolactone) and its blends under different environmental conditions. Efforts are being made to set up collaborations with researchers in the other parts of the region carrying out similar research work. As a part of this activity Assoc. Prof. Allan Easteal of Auckland University visited the department from August 7 to the 28th.

Environmental Chemistry

Associate Professor Koshy and Dr Matakite Maata continued with their project on monitoring the levels of atmospheric ozone. This is a long-term project in collaboration with NASA in the USA. A research student associated with this project, Mr Gopal Sami completed his Masters in 2000 and another student, Mr Anand Chandra has been identified to continue research in the same area in 2002.

The above researchers are also involved in a greenhouse gas study in collaboration with NIWA in New Zealand in which measurements of gases like methane, carbon isotopes, non-methane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are being made. The greenhouse project has one research student, Mr Francis Mani who is enrolled for an MSc degree. A NIWA Research Technician, Mr Gordon Brailsford, visited the department in May to set up the instrumentation for the measurement of methane and other related gases.
Another project of this research group is wet precipitation and aerosol chemistry studies. One student, Ms Upma Dutt completed her MSc studies whilst another, Mr Sushendra Singh is writing up his thesis.
Another prominent area in Environmental Chemistry is research related to heavy metal contamination of inland, coastal, and marine environments. Researchers are Drs Philomena Gangaiya, Matakite Maata, Culwick Togamana, and Maika Vuki. Projects include heavy metal contamination from the Lami rubbish dump (with MSc student Mr Shaneel Chandra), copper, chromium and arsenic contamination from timber treatment facilities (with MSc student, Mr Tasleem Hassan) and monitoring of roadside lead deposits.

Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and their impact on coastal marine environments are also an important area of study. Dr Philomena Gangaiya is collaborating with Dr Renaud Fichez and others from IRD, New Caledonia in looking at the nutrient status of the Suva lagoon. She is also co-supervisor of Mrs Milika Sobey who is enrolled for a PhD degree at the University of Essex, UK and is investigating the importance of denitrification in controlling nitrogen input to the Suva lagoon.

Dr Maika Vuki is part of the USP researchers on the 5th Joint Research Cruise with the National Fisheries University of Japan. This exercise is conducted on the Koyo Maru Fisheries Research vessel. The determination of the nutrient and trace metal levels in deep sea water samples from transects along South Eastern and Western parts of Viti Levu is a major part of the exercise.
Professor Sotheeswaran was involved in a number of consultancy activities during the year. One of them was a feasibility study of Kava extraction plant in Fiji. This involved a visit by Mr Anil Phadnis, a Technical Consultant in the commercial extraction of traditional medicines from medicinal plants in Mumbai, India. Steps are being taken to set up commercial manufacture of anti-depressant Kava pills and anti-diabetic Karela pills in Fiji in collaboration with a local industrialist.
Other activities of Professor Sotheeswaran included a number of assignments for the University of Peradeniya in Sri Lanka. He was External Examiner for the B.Sc (Honours) Organic Chemistry courses for the period 2001-2002 and moderated final examination papers and did a second marking of the final examination answer scripts for a third year and fourth year honours organic chemistry courses.

Whilst there, he acted as a Resource Person for the Workshop on Mass Spectrometry (January, 23-25, 2001) and was also External Examiner for an M.Phil thesis in the area of Bioactivity Studies of Some Sri Lankan ferns submitted by a postgraduate student from the Open University of Sri Lanka. He also conducted an evaluation of the research work of an associate professor of chemistry at the University of Peradeniya to assess his research and creative work and dissemination of knowledge in respect of his application for a merit promotion to the grade of professor at that University. This was done at the invitation of the Vice Chancellor of the University of Peradeniya.

Dr Surendra Prasad continued to be Editorial Referee for the international journal “TALANTA” and has also recently started similar duties for the South Pacific Journal of Natural Science.
SECTION A : Books, and Chapters in Books
Sotheeswaran, S., Monograph on Environmental Organic Chemistry, accepted for publication (2001) by the Institute of Chemistry, Sri Lanka.
Sotheeswaran, S., and Sreekumar, K., P., Plants of Fiji showing antimycotic potential, accepted (2001) for publication in Plant Derived Antimycotics published by the Haworth Press, Inc., Binhamton, NY, USA
SECTION B : Refereed Papers in International and Regional Journals
Ali, S., Sotheeswaran, S., Tuiwawa, M., and Smith, R.M., Composition of Essential Oils of Fijian Plants (Part 1 : Alpinia and Hedychium species), Journal of Essential Oil Research, accepted (2001) for publication.
Gangaiya, P., Tabudravu, J., South, R., and Sotheeswaran, S. (2001). Heavy Metal Contamination of the Lami Coastal Environment, Fiji, South Pacific Journal of Natural Sciences, 19, 24-29.
Maata, M. and Koshy, K. (2001). A study of tributyltin (tbt) contamination of marine sediments in the major ports of Fiji. South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, 19, 1-4.
Mahendra, N., Gangaiya, P., Sotheeswaran, S., and Narayanswamy, R., Investigation of an optical fiber Cu(II) sensor using Fast Sulphon Black F (FSBF) immobilised onto XAD-7, Sensors and Actuators (Chemical) (in press).

Morrison, R.J., Narayan, S.P. and Gangaiya, P. (2001). Trace metal studies in Laucala Bay, Suva, Fiji, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 397-404.

Naiker, M. (2001). Damascenone yielding precursor(s) from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, 19, 11-17.
Prasad, S. Development and validation of a catalytic spectrophotometric method for trace determination of ruthenium (III). Asian J. Chem. (in press).
Tabudravu, J., Gangaiya, P., Sotheeswaran, S., and South, R., Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta: Ulvales) – Evaluation as an indicator of heavy metal contamination in a tropical estuary. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (in press).

SECTION C: Technical Reports, Newsletters, etc

Koshy, K. New Educational Centre for the Pacific Koshy Tiempo: Global Warming and the Third world; Issue 40/41 Sep 2001, Pub Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden and the International Institute for Environment and Development UK.

Koshy, K. Chemistry at USP Journal of the Royal Australian Chemical Society. In press for publication in the Jan 2002.
Kumar, S., Aalbersberg, W., English, R. and Ravi, P. (2001), Pacific Island Foods – Volume 2. Nutrient Composition of Some Pacific Island Foods and the Effect of Earth Oven Cooking. IAS Technical Report.
Kumar, S. and Aalbersberg, W. (2001). Nutritional value of traditional cooking compared to modern cooking methods. Pacific Island Nutrition Newsletter (in press).
Prasad, S (2001). Origin of bad smell (halitosis) which emanates from the mouth, especially after sleeping. Newsletter of the Chemical Society of the South Pacific (in press).

Prasad, S (2001). Small streams as a remedy of water pollution. Newsletter of the Chemical Society of the South Pacific (in press).

Prasad, S (2001). Propylene oxide: cleaner, greener industrial chemical. Newsletter of the Chemical Society of the South Pacific (in press).
SECTION D: Conference Proceedings
Ali, S., Voro, T., Sharma, R., and Sotheeswaran, S., Anticancer Cembranolides from a Fijian Collection of Sinularis flexibilis, 10th International Symposium on Marine Natural Products, Nago, Okinawa, Japan, June 24-29, 2001, abstracts page P.74.
Gangaiya, P. and Mahendra, N., Application of fibre optic chemical sensors for heavy metal monitoring in contaminated environments, Workshop on Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment (18 – 20 November, 2001). Book of Abstracts, p. 61.
Prasad, S., Role of kinetics of oxidation reactions on Analytical Chemistry, 88th Indian Science Congress Proceedings (3-7 January, 2001), p. 80
Sotheeswaran, S., Enantioselective Synthesis of Kawain, World Chemistry Congress Journal (Brisbane, Australia), 1-6 July 2001, PFD 23.
Sotheeswaran, S., Phytomedicines from the South Pacific, World Chemistry Congress Journal (Brisbane, Australia), 1-6 July 2001, OFD 4.
SECTION E: Papers Presented (and Attendance at Conferences, Workshops, and Seminars)
Gangaiya, P. and Mahendra, N., Application of fibre optic chemical sensors for heavy metal monitoring in contaminated environments, presented at Workshop on Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment (Adelaide, Australia), 18 – 20 November, 2001.

Koshy, K., attended the 6th Asia Pacific Network (APN) Scientific Planning Group (SPG) and Intergovernmental Meeting, 19-23 March, 2001, in Jeju Island, Korea

Koshy, K., attended SPREP Regional Climate Change Meeting, 11-15 June 2001, Mocambo Hotel, Nadi
Koshy, K., attended the 3rd START-Oceania Regional Committee Meeting, 18-19 June 2001, Mocambo Hotel Nadi
Koshy, K., attended the Pacific Region Multi-stakeholder Consultation: 5-7 September 2001, Apia, represented USP as a CROP member,
Koshy, K., attended the 12th SPREP Annual Intergovernmental Meeting: 10-14 September, Apia, represented USP as a CROP agency
Koshy, K., attended the 15th START-SSC (START Scientific Steering Committee) Washington DC, USA
Koshy, K., attended the International Planning WS on ENSO Impacts on Sugar, 29-30 FMS, Nadi
Prasad, S., Role of kinetics of oxidation reactions on Analytical Chemistry, presented at the 88th Indian Science Congress (IARI, New Delhi, India), 3-7 January, 2001.
Sotheeswaran, S., Enantioselective Synthesis of Kawain, presented at the World Chemistry Congress (Brisbane, Australia), 1-6 July 2001.
Sotheeswaran, S., Phytomedicines from the South Pacific, presented at the World Chemistry Congress (Brisbane, Australia), 1-6 July 2001.
Sotheeswaran, S., Commercial Utilisation of Kava (Piper methysticum) and Noni (Morinda citrifolia),presented at the Sri Lanka Association of Advancement of Science (Section on Chemical Sciences) and the Chemical Society of the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 2001.

Sotheeswaran, S., Phytomedicines from South Pacific plants, Presented at the Pharmaceutical Research Institute named AstraZeneca based at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia, Visiting Scientist’s Seminar in February 2001.

Sotheeswaran, S., Introduction to Mass Specectroscopy, presented Workshop on Mass Spectrometry (23-25, Jan, 2001) – Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Vuki, M., Heavy Metal Pollution in Rewa River, Presented at the 10th Pacific Science Inter-congress, University of Guam, June 2001.
Vuki, M., Mario E., Maata M., and Tabudravu J., The Combined Effect of pH and Eh on Nutrients and Heavy Metals in the Rewa River, Poster presented at the 10th Pacific Science Inter-Congress, University of Guam, June 2001.
Vuki, M., Vuki V., and Zann L., The Development of Community Based System of Marine Protected Areas for Coastal Reef Conservation in Ono-I-Lau, Southern Lau, Fiji, Presented at the 10th Pacific Science Inter-congress, University of Guam, June 2001.
A research project titled “Development of micro-controller based technologies: drilling machine” was approved by the University Research Committee to a tune of F$8,404.97. Professor Godfrey Onwubolu, Messrs. Ravinesh Singh, Hamendra Reddy, and Mahendra Prasad jointly worked on this research project, which will continue until toward the end of 2002. Dr. Sam Aborhey was part of the research before his resignation and exit from USP. This joint research work is the realisation of the goal of the department to harness the interdisciplinary expertise available to boost research effort.

Mr. Sagaitu Manueli and Dr. Alfred Liligeto continued with their research work on Engineering Education in the Pacific Region, while Mr. Sam Tukana continued his research work on Alternative Sources of Energy. Mr. Praneel Chand continued his research work on Digital Control, and it is hoped that this will mature in 2002. Mr. Robert Kennedy was involved with the Renewable Energy Team with some colleagues from the Department of Physics. Professor Godfrey Onwubolu continued with his research work in Intelligent Manufacturing.


International Journals/Books/Refereed Conference Proceedings
Publications in 2001 were meagre. The USP Publications 2001 compiled by Pacific Information Centre lists the following for the department of Engineering:
Manueli, Sagaitu, 2001, TE102: Engineering Drawing: Introduction and Assignment, Revised, Course Material, The University of the South Pacific, 140p.
Onwubolu, Godfrey C. And Mutingi, M, 2001, A genetic algorithm approach to cellular manufacturing systems, Computers in Industrial Engineering, 39, 125-144.
Onwubolu, Godfrey C., 2001, Determination of AGV-based material handling systems unit-load sizes and vehicle requirements using tabu search heuristic, CDROM Proceedings, Institute of Industrial Engineers Annual Conference, Dallas, Texas, USA, May 2001, 20-22.
(ii) Technical Reports

  • Onwubolu, Godfrey, 2001, Optimisation using Differential Evolution Algorithm, Department of Engineering, Institute of Applied Sciences Technical Report No. 2001/05, The University of the South Pacific, October 2001, 18 pages.

Food and Textiles
Jimaima Lako continued with her research work in the following two areas :
 “Glyceamic Index (GI) of 5 commonly consumed South Pacific Foods”. This is a collaborative research between the Departments of Food & Textiles, Chemistry, Biology and the CWM Hospital funded by URC.

 USPNet Action Research in “Comparing the two modes of teaching FT213”. The aim of this action research is to improve the teaching of FT213 through flexible learning mode.

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