Research Chemicals – Legal Highs – New synthetic substances Energy Control website info translation



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Research Chemicals – Legal Highs – New synthetic substances


Energy Control website info - translation

(more info on www.energycontrol.org)
“Research Chemicals”, RCs, Legal Highs or “New synthetic substances” are the names of a series of substances that are new to the general public.
They are substances of recent appearance or diffusion among the general public, that were synthesised in the last past decades, with investigation purposes, from which there is very few or inexistent data of clinical investigation either in humans or animals. We can find most information about them in the Web and its use (consumption) is generally among restricted social circles.
If you want to know more about the RC’s, their diversity of effects, their classification, how to reduce risks with RCs or simply take a look at a list of RCs, this is your section.
1- Introduction

2- Effects

3- Classification of the Research Chemicals

4- How to reduce risks with RCs
1 - Introduction
Research chemicals, RCs, Legal Highs or New synthetic substances are the names of a series of substances that are very new to the general public an that are characterized by:

1. Being substances synthesized in the past few decades.

2. Being accessible through the Internet.

3. Counting with few or inexistent data related to its clinical investigation on animals or in humans.

4. Having a lot of available information on Internet, of variable quality and unknown or unchecked sources.

5. Being generally distributed in restricted circles but with the possibility of popularization.

The name research chemicals (RCs) was given in the United States to name a series of chemical substances that actuate in the central nervous system but weren’t controlled. By naming them, the authorities could then apply the analogous law of substances of this country.

This name is also applied to substances that have only been investigated in vitro or in animal experiments, but never in clinical trials with humans.
That is a lot of literature in which they are called “new synthetic substances”. This doesn’t mean that they are new substances, some of them are, and others have been synthesized many years ago.
There is a lot more psychonaut literature and of self-experience than scientific one. For this reason, most of the risks of its use haven’t been studied or identified so far.
Another name that it’s frequently used with these drugs is “Legal Highs” because the majority are uncontrolled drugs. This happens because there isn’t a wide use of it in order to declare them substances of abuse and include them in the countries’ lists of controlled drugs.
Some of these drugs have been controlled in the past years because administrations have detected a more generalized use, especially among recreational environments. Probably some RCs will slowly be included in the lists of controlled substances as its use is going wider. Some have been included in the past 10 years. This means they should change their name of “Legal Highs”.
There is a lot of different types or chemical substances within this vast group of drugs, being the most abundant the ones that belong to the phenethylamines (mescaline, ecstasy, amphetamine, etc.) and tryptamines (psilocybian mushrooms, LSD, etc.).
The use of these substances has considerably increased in the past years: due to either a bigger popularization or the search of alternatives that can substitute the common used drugs (mdma, cocaine, speed, etc.) in moments of great adulterations.

This phenomenon of use increment is changing into an interesting business and causing dramatic changes in the way they are fabricated and sold. There are a lot of new laboratories that synthesize this drugs with cheap methods and with very few or inexistent quality controls.

In the past, when the first laboratories appeared, this synthesis seemed much more well made. A symptom of this situation is that in the past few years appeared amounts of substances that have many precursors, synthesis residues, metabolites, degradation, contamination by other substances, adulteration or even a totally different substance. It’s important to have this information if one is to use one of these substances, because RCs have passed from being very pure substances to not so pure ones, although they keep this fame of purity.
It’s essential that anyone that has the intention of using these substances analyzes them before using. This type of analysis can be made by risk reduction groups that have this type of services, like Energy Control, for example. By doing so, it allows people to obtain further information about these drugs and get some basic consumption recommendations to diminish risks.
As a starting point, to anyone that is thinking of using an RC, it’s extremely important that one first revise, explore and confirm all the information that one can find: publications, webs, Internet forums, personal and qualified advice, etc. in order to obtain the most gratifying and less risky effects possible. But always be aware that the majority of this drugs are very unknown and that there is a great uncertainty about the effects, especially in the medium to long term.

2 - Effects
a-Effects of RCs in the Central Nervous System

b-Psychedelic effects (psychedelic, hallucinogenic or entheogenic)

c-Empathogens, entactogens and enhancers of emotions

d-Stimulant and euphoric effects

e-Dissociative effects

f-Analgesic effects

g-The IMAO effect

h-References

a-Effects of RCs in the Central Nervous System
What do these substances do in the brain?
Today we don’t known in detail how the brain works. On this basis, we do not fully understand the mechanisms of how drugs interact with the brain, producing such notable changes in the mind.
The main psychological effects of the various psychoactive substances can be divided in 4 major groups:
1. Stimulants

2. Antipsychotics

3. Depressants

4. Hallucinogens
The majority of substances reported here can be included within the stimulants, hallucinogens and entactogens (some authors say this effect in somewhere between the previous two).
There are a multitude of substances that cause many types of effects. Depending on the doses or on the psychoactive experience one is living, these effects can blend or appear in different moments.
The following describes the main effects that can occur with the consumption of different RCs.


b-Psychedelic effects (psychedelic, hallucinogenic or entheogenic)
To experience a very altered state of consciousness where one usually feels odd.
The psychedelic experience consists in a series of dramatic changes in the normal function of our mind that consists in:
1. Empowerment of the senses (for example to see brighter colours).

2. Alteration of perception (for example to see images with eyes closed), synesthesia (for example to smell colours).

3. Modification of the normal operating patterns of thought (eg. unusual associations of ideas and influx of ideas in the mind).

4. Disturbance of emotions (increase, decrease, etc.).

5. Feelings of merging with the whole dissolution of ego, depersonalization, death and rebirth experiences.

There are several substances that cause this effect, many are well known (LSD, psilocybian mushrooms, mescaline, cannabis, etc.) and others are not so well known, as a multitude of research chemicals.

It is known that the psychedelic effects of certain substances are related to the binding of these to the neurroreceptors of serotonin (a neurotransmitter), mainly 5HT1 and 5HT2a. There are drugs more affine to 5HT2a, others to 5HT1a and others have a similar affinity for both.
The stimulation of the 5HT2a by psychedelic drugs can create visual effects that occur in a psychedelic trance. These receptors are located mainly in the brain region of the "cortex. "
The stimulation by psychedelic drugs of the 5HT1a, housed in the brain region of “thalamus”, may cause a change in the emotional charge that is given by the stimuli of our senses. This way, stimuli of no apparent emotional charge can cause joy or sadness.


c-Empathogens, entactogens and enhancers of emotions
An empathogen is a susbstance that causes feelings of closeness and facilitates the intimacy with others.
An entactogen is a substance that causes feelings of well-being and self-acceptance.

The prototypic substance of these effects is MDMA (ecstasy).


Feelings of empathy and emotional disclosure are caused, at first, by a serotonin release and reuptake inhibition of it in the interneuronal or sinaptic spaces (where one neuron connects to another one).
This phenomenon causes the most amount of serotonin to remain longer in the interneuronal spaces, stimulating serotonin 5HT.

d-Stimulant and euphoric effects
These are characterized by feelings of well-being and joy along with the increase of physical and intellectual performance.
The inability to sleep, lack of desire to eat and a vasoconstriction phenomenon often accompany these states. The prototypes of this group of drugs are cocaine and amphetamine.

Stimulant and euphoric effects induced by drugs (especially some phenethylamines and tryptamines) have to do with the union of them with presynaptic norepinephrine and dopamine. The mechanism is as follows:

1. On one hand it generates a release of norepinephrine and dopamine.
2. On the other hand it prevents the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine.
3. By the two previous processes, a situation of abundant neurotransmitters in the synaptic space, promotes the rapid transmission of electrical impulses by the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neural network and therefore a stimulant and euphoric effect.

There are substances that have an activity that can be framed in two or three groups. For example, DPT is a psychedelic substance but DOB is a psychedelic and a stimulant at the same time.




e-Dissociative effects
The dissociation effect occurs when the individual feels isolated or disconnected from the world around him and himself.
Usually there are distortions of visual and hearing perceptions and may appear euphoric and psychedelic effects.
This effect is caused by drugs such as ketamine, PCP or even with large doses of psychedelic substances like LSD. Dissociative substances for excellence are the dissociative anesthetics: ketamine, PCP, etc.
Acting on NMDA receptor sites by inhibiting their activation by glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. They also act on GABA receptors and certain opioid receptors.

f-Analgesic effects
Analgesia is pain inhibition.
There are many types of substances that inhibit the pain, but the most powerful and most used in the history of mankind are the opiates, that besides avoiding the pain and suffer can also induce euphoria and dreamy trances.
Above all, its activity in the central nervous system is triggered by the biding of these drugs with opiates or endorphins neuroreceptors. Many cannabinoids may also be involved in these effects.


g-The IMAO effect
The inactivation of the MAOs is called IMAOs effect.

The MAOs (monoamine oxidase) are some enzymes present in the body. They are responsible for metabolizing monoamines ingested in food, such as the tyramine.

They are also responsible for removing catecholamine neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine). There are two types, the MAO-A and MAO-B.
There are a series of compounds that inactivate the MAO, some are reversible (that don’t last longer) and others irreversible (last a lot of time).
Tryptamine-like substances that are psychoactive are inactivated by the MAO, that’s the case of DMT, which is not active if ingested. If you disable the MAO, these substances can be active if ingested, which is the case of Ayahuasca brews that have IMAOs and DMT.
This inactivation can be dangerous if certain compounds have been ingested with food, which, not being metabolized, can cause power surges and other disorders, particularly tyramine. Some type of phenethylamine drugs (MBDB, 4FMP, etc.) can be very dangerous consumed with MAO inhibitors because they may cause the so-called serotonin syndrome, which depending on its intensity can be very dangerous.
Some IMAOs have been used as antidepressants, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, L-deprenyl, moclobemide, etc. Today the use of these drugs as antidepressants is not very frequent.
Other IMAOs, like the ones in Ayahuasca (harmine, harmaline, tetrahydroharmine, etc.) are used to activate DMT and other tryptamines, to be psychoactive when ingested.
h-References


  • Abanades S, Farré M. “¿Qué hace la LSD en tu cerebro?”. LSD: 71-83. Amargord. 2006.

  • Boyer EW, Shannon M. "The serotonin syndrome". N Engl J Med 2005;352:1112-20.

  • Caudevilla F. “Éxtasis”. Amargord. 2005.

  • Hare MLC (1928) Tyramine oxidase. I. A new enzyme system in liver. Biochem J 22:968Y979.
  • Nadal X. Comunicación oral. Conferencia sobre farmacología de los Rcs, Asociación Eleusis. Junio 2010.


  • Organización de las Naciones Unidas: UNDCP. Amphetamine-Type Stimulants - A Global Review. Disponible en: http://www.unodc.org/pdf/technical_series_1996-01-01_1.pdf

  • Robin M et al. Cannabis, the mind and society: the hash realities. Neuroscience. Volume 8: 885-895. November 2007.

  • Wilens T. et al. The Stimulants. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1992; 15: 191-222.-

  • http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoaminooxidasa

  • http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/maois/maois_info3.shtml [contraindicaciones de los

  • IMAOs].

  • http://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/pharmacology/pharmacology_article2.shtml#puttingitalltogether[para saber cómo y dónde actúan estas drogas en el cerebro. Un artículo muy bueno, en inglés, que explica lo que sabe la ciencia sobre alucinógenos].



3 - Classification of the Research Chemicals
Aiming to guide the people that want to consult each one of these substances, they’ve been classified in a series of groups or families based on their chemical nature. This type of classification can help people at the time of inferring effects or get more information.
Chemical families:
a - Phenethylamine

b - Tryptamines

c - Piperazines

d - Synthetic cannabinoids

e - Arylcyclohexylamines

f - AL (local anesthetic)

g - Piperidines

e - References

The first two families are the most important ones in the universe of the RCs due to the large amount and high diversity of substances.

Within these families, there has been made a number of subdivisions based on:
1. Its effects: psychedelic, entactogens and stimulating.

2. Depending on the duration of their activity: short, medium and long term.






A - Phenethylamines
Also called PEAS, phenetilamines, etc.
Compounds derived from the phenethylamine molecule (phenylethan-2-amine).
Within this large group of chemical compounds are well known and used drugs by the general public, for some time: amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDEA, MDMA, or ecstasy, and mescaline. Most of these drugs were discovered by Alexander Shulgin and are described in the book "Pihkal: a chemical love story. "
Since the 90's a number of researchers led by D.E. Nichols, at Purdue University, are synthesizing new phenethylamines to create new tools for research in neurobiology.
To subdivide this group we have considered mainly the type of effect that causes and duration of this effect.

Psychedelic phenethylamines:

1. Average duration (4-15 hours).

2. Long duration (14-72 hours).

Stimulant and entactogens phenethylamines (Cathinone included)

Psychedelic phenethylamines

Its main effect is psychedelic although some may produce further empathogens or stimulating effect.


Of medium duration (4-15 hours):
NeBoMe-Mescaline, proscaline, TMA, TMA-2, TMA-6, 2CC, 2CD, 2CE, 2CF, 2CG, 2CP, 2CT2, 2CT4, 2CT7, 2CT21, 2CBfly.

Long term (14-72 hours): These phenethylamines have a great psychedelic power and very marked amphetamine effects. In fact they can be referred to as psychedelic amphetamines.

Bromo Dragonfly, DOB, DOC, DOI, DOET, Ganesa.
Empathogens and stimulant phenethylamines

Here we include the phenethylamines that mainly have these effects. Some may also cause a psychedelic effect combined with the above effects.


MBDB, MDAI, MDMAI, MDAT, 2CN, 4FMP, 5-IAI.
Some substances are clearly a mix between psychedelic and entactogens very similar chemically to the MDA.
4APB Y 4PDB.
Cathinone or β-ketones

The group of stimulant and empathogen phenethylamines is characterized by having an oxygen group linked by a double bond en the β position of the phenethylamine molecule.


Its effects are mainly stimulant and entactogens.
Its generic name is that of cathinone because the first molecule described was the "cathinone" which is the active ingredient of Khat, a stimulant plant used in Africa. There are also legal drugs of this family (Bupropion).
The following are classified as RCs:
Butylone, Buphedrone, ethylone, Flephedrone, MDPV, mephedrone, methedrone, Methylone, Naphyrone, 4-MEC.

b - Tryptamines
Compounds derived from tryptamine "2 - (1H-indole-3-yl) ethanamine ". They have an indole ring linked to an amino group.
There are many that have become popular tryptamines (LSD, DMT, etc.) and in many cases are active substances of many plants used in rituals based in the ingestion of plants that modify the consciousness (DMT, psilocin, psilocybin, ibogaine, harmaline, etc.).
Its effects are mainly psychedelic although some cases they’re stimulants or with IMAO effects. This can have therapeutic actions or induce toxicity.

Most RC tryptamines were discovered by Alexander Shulgin and are described in the book “THIKAL: the continuation”.

Tryptamines can be classified into three major groups:
1. Short term tryptamines (less than half an hour)

2. Medium term tryptamines (1-8 hours)

3. Long term tryptamines (10-43 hours) and stimulant effects.

Short term tryptamines:
Effects last half an hour maxim.
5-Meo-DMT

Medim term trypatamines:
Last between 1-8 hours.
DIPT, DPT, EIPT, MET, MIPT.

A series of compounds having a radical "hydroxy" or "acetoxy" at position 4 of the indole ring; this modification causes considerable increase in the power and makes it orally active (very similar to psilocybin mushrooms).


4-Ho-DET, 4-Aco-DET, 4-Ho-DIPT, 4-Aco-DIPT, 4-Aco-DMT, 4-Ho-MET, 4-Ho-MIPT, 4-Aco-MIPT.
The addition of a group "methoxy" in position 5 of the indole ring results in increased power and greater affinity for the receptor, 5HT1A instead of the 5HT2A, from serotonin. This causes the psychedelic effects to be very deep but not visual.
5-Meo-DALT, 5-Meo-DIPT, 5-Meo-DPT, 5-Meo-MIPT.
Some substances have more types of radical addictions much less studied.
2,N,N-TMT, 4-Meo-DALT, 4-Meo-MET, 4-Meo-MIPT.

Long term tryptamines:
Last 10-43 hours.
Main effect stimulant.
When we eliminate two groups “methyl” from the group “amino” and add a “methyl” or an “ethyl” in the position α (alpha) we have compounds with stimulant action (like the amphetamines).
αET (AET), αMT (AMT).
It is suspected that these compounds may have an IMAO action.

When you add a group "methoxy" in position 5 of the indole ring, there is a large increase in the duration and potency of the effect.

5-Meo-αMT (5-Meo-AMT).

c - Piperazines
Are a large group of organic compounds derived from the piperazine, a ring-shaped compound with two opposing nitrogen atoms.
The piperazines are used to make plastics, resins, pesticides, brake fluid and other industrial materials.
On the other hand, they have many applications in medicine as antiparasitic anthelmintics, antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, analgesics and other drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra).
There are a number of piperazines which are used as recreational drugs for their effects very similar to those of amphetamines and ecstasy. Some have been sold as legal alternatives, "party pills ", in some countries like New Zealand.
mCPP has been frequently used as an adulterant of tablets sold as ecstasy.
In this chemical family, there are new substances emerging that could be included within the "research chemicals " or "legal highs”.
BZP, DBZP, MDBZP, MeoPP, PFPP, TFMPP, 2-CB-BZP.

d - Cannabinoids
Compounds that act as agonists of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in the body.
Synthetic cannabinoids can be divided into 7 chemical groups, but are considered 4, for being the most represented in the world of RCs.
Alkylamides: the chemical family to which belong the endogenous cannabinoids like the anandamide. A substance that is being sold as RC is:
ACEA.
Dibenzopyrans: this group includes classical cannabinoids CBD, CBN, THC, etc.
HU-210
Ciclohexylphenols: are bicyclic or tricyclic analogous to the previous cannabinoids.

CP-47497 y CP-55940.

Aminoalkylindols (N-alkyl-naftoindols) are compounds with a completely different chemical structure from the previous ones but with a very potent cannabinoid action.
AM-694, JWH-19, JWH-72, JWH-81, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-250, WIN-55212-2.

e - Arylcyclohexylamines
Is the chemical group of various substances used as dissociative anesthetics, such as PCP or ketamine.
3-Meo-PCP, 4-Meo-PCP and the methoxetamine.

f - LA (Local Anesthetic)
Group of chemical compounds with mainly a local anesthetic action, like lidocaine, but like a strong stimulant and euphoric substance as cocaine.
Dimethocaine y la pFBT.

d - Piperedines
There are several compounds of this family with pharmacological action, some very well known as methylphenidate or pipradol.
Desoxypipradrol , diphenylprolinol and the ethylfenidate.


e - References

-Carlos J.M. De, Viamonte M.A, Farmacología de los anestésicos locales, Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra Vol. 2, Suplemento 2, , abril 1999, disponible en: http://www.cfnavarra.es/salud/anales/textos/vol22/suple2/suple2.html

-Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Piperazin". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.

-European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. “Synthetic cannabinoic and Spice”. Disponible: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/thematic-papers/spice

-Mustata C. et al. Spice drugs: los cannabinoides como nuevas drogas de diseño, ADICCIONES, 2009; VOL. 21 NÚM.3; PÁGS: 181-186.

-Sheridan, J., & Butler, R. “They're legal so they're safe, right?” What did the legal status of BZP-party pills mean to young people in New Zeland? International Journal of Drug Policy (2009), doi: http://10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.02.002

-Shulgin, Alexander; Ann Shulgin (September 1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley, California: Transform Press.

-Shulgin, Alexander; Ann Shulgin (September 1997). TiHKAL: The Continuation. Berkeley, California: Transform Press.

-Wikipedia, arilcilohexilaminas: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arylcyclohexylamines

-Wikipedia, piperazines: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piperazine

-Wikipedia, piperidine: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piperidine

4 - How to reduce risks with RCs
When someone is interested in using RCs it’s fundamental to be permanently updated.

It’s important one seeks several sources of information and try to be as informed as possible.


Many times, lacking scientific information, one must resort to what other users say about wanted or unexpected effects, inadequate doses, problems that came up, etc.

It’s convenient to be aware of the following, regarding RCs:


1. Chemical purity

2. Similitude with other substances

3. Doses and ways of administration

4. Calculating doses

5. Side effects.

6. Long term effects.

7. Mixtures with other drugs

8. Physical and psychological state.

9. Environment/place where one consumes.

10. Legal problems.

11. References

1. Chemical purity
Substances almost always labelled as “Not for human consumption, only investigation”, but the truth is they are used by humans and they don’t have any type of quality controls.
According to several analyses with different RCs, it has been found:
-Residues of synthesis

-Substances of degradation

-Another substance different from the one offered

-Adulterants added


That is to say that its a-legal condition doesn’t guarantee a pure product free from adulterants and other substances.

It’s important to analyse the substances one is going to take. Energy Control offers a weekly service of analysis where one can test the substances that bought. For more information visit our web: http://energycontrol.org/analisis-de-sustancias/descripcion.html .

In the case that the substance is pure, one should know that they aren’t more or less dangerous than other drugs – legal or illegal.


2. Similitude with other substances
The analogy between effects with other regular substances shouldn’t constitute a reference at the time of using an RC.
One should be very informed about doses, concrete effects and side effects before using a specific substance.

3. The dosage and ways of administration
When using an RC one should act prudently in what concerns doses and frequency of use.
Some of these substances often have very narrow safety margin between the active dose and a very powerful dose.
The doses’ margins generally are not well established. One should take into account the different sensibilities of different people to the various substances. Some people are hypersensitive and others more tolerant.
It’s convenient to:
1. Make several proofs with some doses and observe how it behaves in our organism.

2. Take some time between consumptions in order not to develop tolerance.

3. Make sure to know about the doses.

4. Consult all information one can find, for example in http://www.energycontrol.org or in http://www.erowid.org.


On the other hand, it’s very important to take under consideration the way of administration and use the less risky.
Ways of administration:
The oral route is usually the least dangerous, because the effects appear more gradually. Within this type of consumption one should pay attention to the sublingual absorption– here, unlike the direct ingestion, the effects appear more suddenly, much more powerful, with different activity and last less.

2. Inhalation (smoked or snorted) is one of the most used ways of administration along with the oral way. It generally causes more intense and sudden effects and of different quality, therefore the doses should be smaller. The feeling of burning of the nose is very frequent on these substances. The majority of cases of compulsive use, overdoses and deaths were with this type of administration

3. Rectal can be more powerful than the oral way but not as risky as sniffing, although it may have other inconvenients depending on the substance and the person.
4. The injection is the most risky way of administration. This type of use should be avoided and one should be well advised on how to proceed.
Some substances aren’t active orally (like DMT or 5Meo-DMT which are only active if smoked, snorted or injected).
Generally, it’s recommended to always use the oral way and not try others or reduce its frequency.
A clear example is mephedrone in which major problems are more associated to snorting than to oral administration (Winstock, 2010).

4. Calculating doses
It’s very important to measure very well the doses – this is especially important in very powerful doses.
There are two good methods:
1. High precision scale.

2. Fraction volumes in liquid.


Many of these doses are used in amounts of 1mg, 10mg, 20mg, etc.
To measure these doses one should use high precision scales, very expensive to obtain, especially when this substances are acquired in powder or crystal in large amounts (100 milligrams to 1 gram).
A good method is to dissolve them in water and divide volumes instead of weights. It’s more precise to divide100 mg in 8 parts, dissolved in one litre of water, than to divide more or less a line of 100mg in 8 smaller lines.

5. Side effects
Because many side effects are unknown, because it’s a new substance, one should take small doses on their first consumptions.
It’s important to observe on the first consumptions:

Body temperature.

Blood pressure.

Heart rate.

Allergic reaction.

Any odd reaction.

This way adverse reactions can be detected.
If, in small doses, an adverse effect occurs, it should be more manageable and less risky than with a high dose, and one can be alert to what may happen if he keeps increasing the doses.

6. Long term effects
Long term consequences of these substances are unknown because they’re substances that haven’t been used for enough people during enough years, nor have they been tested on humans.
The fact is that these substances make us guinea pigs.

7. The mixtures with other drugs
It’s preferable not to mix something that one hasn’t tried before.
There isn’t enough information about the substances themselves, let alone about their combination with other compounds.
If one decides to mix it with other substances, than should take under consideration:
1. The sum of the effects of a drug used in combination with another drug increase much more the risks than if it’s consumed alone.
2. Two mixed substances can cause a synergy an increase, considerably, the activity and require the use of much lees dosage (2C-T2 used with MDMA increases considerably its potency). Therefore low doses are recommended.
3. It’s crucial to know the effects of each substance, by separate.
4. Be aware of mixing substances like IMAOs, they can be very dangerous in combination with stimulants and entactogens. On the other hand, there are substances that are only orally active when consumed with IMAOs and others that increase considerably its potency.


8. Physical and psychological condition
One should be extremely cautious, see a doctor, and seek information about the effects of the substance in the following cases:

-People who are suffering from any disorder or physical illness.

-If someone has a psychological disorder.

-Individuals with a family history of mental illness, it is known that some substances may precipitate or contribute to latent psychological and mental problems.

-When you are going through a bad moment.

-In the case of developing the following disorders: cardiac arrhythmias, glaucoma, and hypertension; also if you have a previous history of aneurysm or stroke.

-If you have liver disease or kidney disease, diabetes or hypoglycemia.

-With children, pregnancy and lactation. You should not consume any drugs.

-When you are driving heavy and dangerous machinery as changes occur on attention, visual acuity, concentration and body coordination.

In cases of emergency, doctors in hospitals will have a lot of hard time to treat it because they don’t have protocols for substances of unknown use.


9. The place o consumption
Sometimes, the decision to use a particular substance occurs at the time that someone offers it, without any previous planning to do so.
In what concerns RCs, its best recommended not to take the decision of using a substance in a rush way and dedicate it some previous time to seek information, in order to make a good decision.
It is advisable to choose an appropriate environment for the substance to be consumed, so that:
- It’s not recommended to get into great psychonaut experiences (high doses) in environments with strong sensorial stimulation (crowded spaces, excessive music and noise and many lights).
- For these experiences its best to seek a calm place with trusting people. By doing so one avoids bad trips going worst and is able to keep out stimuli that could interfere in a truly full psychedelic trip.
- In recreational uses (with recreational doses, much lower than the psychonauts’ ones), each one should know the environment that most suits and the type of substance more appropriated for that environment and for their idiosyncrasy.
- Not all places are suitable for taking this types of drugs, but as for tastes there’s nothing written.


10. Legal problems
Must be taken into account, to prevent trouble with the law, that a substance that is legal today may soon pass not, when reviewing their legal status.

The legal status of a substance, in Spain, is described in Royal Decree 2829/1977 of 6 October, regulating psychotropic substances and products. There are several RCs which are controlled substances in Spain.

To learn more about legislation in other countries, you can get information on the National Drug Plan of the Ministry of Health or the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

In the United States and Denmark, there is the so-called "law of analogous ', by which prohibits the use of all chemical compounds similar to controlled drugs as such.
In other countries there are no such laws. However, what usually happens is that, if it’s detected by the authorities a widespread use of a substance, or there has been a number of emergencies in hospitals, it can turn to the list of controlled substances in that country.
In the EU there is an early warning system of new synthetic drugs entitled "Joint Action", in which various actors involved: EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction), EDU (Europol Drugs Unit, etc.). This system has been created to identify new substances’ consumption outside the medical and professional field, and to alert member states on emerging substances of abuse in order to take sanitary and legal actions.


11. References


- Bluelight. Essential reading. Gran revisión de Rcs. Disponible en el siguiente enlace.

- Drugs-Forum. Research Chemicals. Página web que recoge muchísima información sobre RCs. Disponible en el siguiente enlace.

- Energy Control. Drogas: los nuevos consumos recreativos. INFONOVA, nº16, 2009, pags. 3-5 disponible en: http://www.dianova.es/docs/infonova/Infonova16.pdf.

- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. “Early Warnig System”.  http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/themes/new-drugs/early-warning

- Fornís I. Entrevista. INFONOVA, nº16, 2009, pags. 7 disponible en: http://www.dianova.es/docs/infonova/Infonova16.pdf.

- Sheridan, J., & Butler, R. “They're legal so they're safe, right?” What did the legal status of BZP-party pills mean to young people in New Zeland? International Journal of Drug Policy (2009), doi: http://10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.02.002.

-http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=11648 [documento, en inglés, que a rasgos generales comenta los riesgos y las precauciones a tener en cuenta sobre el consumo de los Rcs].



- Winstock A. et al. RESEARCH REPORT: Mephedrone, new kid for the chop? Addiction. Agosto 2010.



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