A. Cross-sectional research involves studying a variety of ages at a given point in time.
B. Longitudinal research follows the same group of subjects for many years.
C. In cohort-sequential research, several age groups are studied periodically. D. Historical research revolves around the particular historical circumstances of an era
IV. Prenatal development A. Physical development
1. Cephalocaudal (head to tail) development
2. Proximodistal (from the center outward) development
1. Genotype refers to the total genetic composition of a person.
2. Phenotype refers to the observable features of the person
C. Teratogens are disease agents, drugs, and other environmental agents that can cause birth defects during the prenatal period
A. Physical development
1. Growth rate declines throughout infancy but is faster than during any other postnatal period.
2. Maturation and learning combine to determine skill development and replace reflexes.
B. Social development
1. Harry Harlow's surrogate mother research with monkeys demonstrated the importance of contact comfort.
2. Attachment style
a. Secure attachment means the infant seeks proximity, contact, and interaction with the caregiver after separation.
b. Insecure attachment means the infant cannot be calmed or ignores the caregiver after separation.
3. Stranger anxiety peaks at about 6 months; separation anxiety peaks at about 18 months.
1. Infants show a preference for face-like patterns
2. Visual cliff experiments suggest that infants perceive depth by the time they are able to crawl.
Childhood and adolescence
1.more extensive neural networks continue to develop in the brain
2 . Growth rate continues to decline
B. Social development
1. Interaction with the environment provides a sense of gender identity.
2. A greater sense of independence develops as peer relationships begin to become more important.
Physical/ sexual development-puberty
B. Social development
1. Peer groups take on an increasingly important role.
2.Opposite-sex relationships gradually become less recreational and more intimate
C.. Cognitive development
1. Capability for logical, hypothetical, and introspective thinking develops
2. Growing awareness of one's own mental processes develops-metacognition.
Adolescent development relates to many important societal problems, such as suicide, teen pregnancy, and eating disorders.
Adult and later years I. Adulthood
A. Physical changes
1. Abilities peak and begin a gradual (1% a year) decline.
2. Women undergo menopause, with its hormonal and reproductive changes.
B. Social changes center around such issues as:
1. Mate selection
3. Career selection
C. Cognitive changes vary significantly with some people showing declines and others not.
1. Reaction time appears to decline.
2. Some adults show a decline in memory.
1, There is a general decline in muscle tone and sensory abilities
2.Senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease are two disorders that may develop.
Social issues include:
2. Social isolation, which may be caused by loss of spouse and others, lack of mobility and declining health C. Cognitive declines are likely to continue. .
Piaget and Kohlberg
I. Piaget's theory of cognitive development
A. Sensorimotor stage, birth to 18 months 1. Characteristics
a. Cognitive structures or schemaare the means by which humans acquire and apply knowledge about their world.
b. Assimilationis the use of available cognitive structures to gain new information.
c. Accommodationis the process of modifying cognitive structures in the face of
1- newly realized complexities in the environment.
2. Developmental achievements
a. Circular reactionsare repetitive motions babies engage in as they gradually learn to explore their environment nonreflexively.
:b. object perman.enceis the understanding that objects continue to exist even when --hidden from view.
B. Preoperational stage, 18 months to 6 years 1. Characteristics
a. Egocentrismis a limited ability to comprehend a situation from a perspective one has not experienced.
b. Animismis the tendency to attribute life to inanimate things.
c. Artificialismis the tendency to believe everything is the product of human action.
2. Developmental achievements
a. Symbolic representation and language
b. Readiness for operational thought
C. Concrete-operational stage, 6 years to early adolescence
a. Use of simple logic
b. Use of simple mental manipulations
2. Developmental achievements
a. Conservationis the principle that matter does not increase or decrease because of a change in form.
b. Reversibilityis the understanding that mathematical operations can be undone.
c. CIass inclusionis the ability to understand the hierarchical nature of classification groups.;
D. Formal-operations stage, adolescence and adulthood
a. Hypothetical and deductive reasoning.
b. Propositional logic
2.Developmental achievement indicates a readiness for adult intellectual tasks.
3. Not all adolescents or adults achieve formal operational reasoning ability.
E. Critique of Piaget
1. Development may be more gradual than Piaget's stages imply.
2.The nature of Piaget's tasks may have underestimated cognitive skills of children.
II. Kohlberg's theory of moral development A. Preconventional level
1. Stage 1, characterized by avoidance of punishment
2. Stage 2, characterized by a desire to further one's own interests
B. Conventional level
1. Stage 3, characterized by living up to the expectations of others
2. Stage 4, characterized by a sense of conscience and "doing one's duty"
C. Postconventional level
1. Stage 5, characterized by an understanding that values and rules are relative but generally need to be upheld
2. Stage 6, characterized by universal ethical principles
D. Critique of Kohlberg
1. Development may be more gradual and less sequential than Kohlberg's stages imply.
2. Gilligan and others have criticized the theory for undervaluing traditional female traits, which focus on interpersonal issues.
Erikson's psychosocial theory of development I. Background
A. Erikson was trained in the Freudian tradition, and the first four stages borrow from Freud's psychosexual stages.
B. The developmental task of each stage involves resolving the tension between two opposite outcomes.
II. The stages
A Trust versus mistrust -infants
B. Autonomy versus shame and doubt -toddlers
C. Iniative versus guilt -young children
D. Industry versus inferiority -older children
E. Identity versus role confusion -adolescents
F. Intimacy versus isolation -young adults
G. Generativity versus stagnation -adults
H. Ego integrity versus despai r-elderly
III. Critique of Erikson
A. There is no agreed-upon set of measures for the various stages.
B. The stages imply a rigidity of development that may not exist.
C. The theory may not reflect differences in personality development between men and women.
Developmental Psychology- Study of the changes that occur in people from birth through
Cross sectional study- Method of studying developmental changes by examining groups
of subjects who are of different ages.
Cohort- Group of people born during the same period in historical time
Longitudinal study- Method of studying developmental changes by examining the same
group of subjects two or more times, as they grow older.
Biographical or retrospective study- Method of studying developmental changes by
reconstructing subject’s past through interviews and investigating the effects of events that occurred in the past on current behaviors.
Prenatal- Development from conception to birth
Embryo-Developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception
Fetus- Developing human between 3 months after conception and birth
Placenta- Organ by which an embryo or fetus is attached to its mother’s uterus and that
nourishes it during prenatal development.
Critical period- Time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on
development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect
Neonate - Newborn baby
Rooting reflex- Reflex that causes a newborn to turn its head toward something touching
its cheek and to grope around with its mouth
Swallowing reflex- Reflex that enables the newborn baby to swallow liquids without choking
Grasping reflex- Reflex that causes newborn babies to close their fists around anything
that is put in their hands
Stepping reflex- Reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
temperament- Term used by psychologists to describe the physical/emotional
characteristics of the newborn child and young infant; also referred to as personality
Maturation- Automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function
of the passage of time
Developmental norms-Ages by which an average child achieves various developmental milestones
Sensorimotor stage- In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between birth and 2 years of age, in which the indiv. Develops object permanence and acquires the ability to form mental representations
Object permanence -The concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight
Mental representation- Mental image or symbol used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event
Preoperational stage- In Piaget’s theory the stage of cognitive devel. Between 2 and 7, in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe remember and reason
Egocentric- Unable to see things from another’s point of view Formal operations- In Piaget’s theory, the state between 11 and 15, in which the indiv.becomes capable of abstract thought
Holophrase- One-word sentences, commonly used by children under 2
Language acquisition device- An internal mechanism for processing speech that is ‘wired In to’ all humans
Imprinting- Form of primitive bonding seen in some species of animals’ the newborn animal has a tendency to follow the first moving thing it sees after it is born or hatched
Attachment- Emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort
Autonomy- Sense of independence; desire not to be controlled by others
Socialization- Process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and their culture
solitary play- A child engaged in some activity alone; the earliest form of play
Parallel play- Two children playing side by side at the same activities, paying little or no Attention to each other; the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers
Cooperative play- Two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction
Sex role awareness- A little girl’s knowledge that she is a girl and a little boy’s knowledge that he is a boy
Gender constancy- The realization by a child that gender cannot be changed
Sex role awareness- Knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender
Sex-typed behavior- Socially prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls
Puberty- Onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development
Menarche- First menstrual period
Imaginary audience- Elkind’s term for adolescents; delusion that they are constantly being observed by others
Personal fable- Elkind’s term for adolescents; delusion that they are unique, very important and invulnerable
Identity formation- Erikson’s term for the development of a stable sense of self necessity
to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself
Identity crisis- Period of intense self-examination and decision making’ part of the process of identity formation
Peer group- A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another
emotional and social support
Clique- Group of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment Anorexia nervosa- A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body image Bulimia- An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self induced vomiting
midlife crisis- A time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle
Midlife transition- According to Levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and
formulate new goals for the future Menopause- Time in a woman’s life when menstruation ceases
Alzheimer’s disease- A disorder common in late adulthood that is characterized by progressive losses in memory and changes in personality. It is believed to be caused by a deterioration of the brain’s structure and function.
1. Some researchers consider developmental psychology an applied research topic because
it is more easily applied to people’s lives than research such as behaviorism.
Researchers apply findings and theories from other areas of psychology to the specific topic of human development
It is more commonly studied by a graduate student rather than an undergraduate because of the applications for other research.
Doing original research in this area is difficult, so most of the research is about application.
Pure research is difficult to gain support for, especially when a researcher needs to recruit children as participants.
2. You read in your philosophy class textbook that humans are born “Tabula Rasa” or “blank slates.” As a student of psychology, which of the following responses would you have?
The statement is incorrect. Humans may be bon without reflexes and instincts, but we are born with the ability to learn them.
The statement is correct. Humans are born without instincts or other mechanisms in place to help us survive.
The statement is correct. Humans are born with a certain number of neurons, but most develop later as we learn.
The statement is incorrect. Humans are born with a set of reflexes that help us survive.
The statement is impossible to prove since we cannot infer what babies know or do not know due to their lack of language.
3. Which of the following statements is most true about how a newborn’s senses function?
A newborn’s senses function the same as an adult’s since the sensory apparatus develops in the womb.
All of our senses function normally when we are newborns except taste due to lack of stimulation in the womb.
All of our senses function normally when we are newborns except touch due to lack of stimulation in the womb.
A newborn’s senses function at a very low level but develop very quickly with experience.
Most senses function normally, but sight develops slowly with experience.
Parents’ level of education about fetal development.
Family history of mental illness.
Operant conditioning occurring before birth.
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MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Darwin’s theory of natural selection caused many psychologists to try and explain all human behaviors through instincts, most agree that our behavior is motivated by other biological and psychological factors.
Drive reduction theory – behavior is motivated by biological needs. A need is one of our requirements for survival, a drive is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need
Homeostasis- balanced internal state
Drives are primary and secondary-
Primary- biological needs like thirst and hunger
Secondary – learned drives like money
Drive reduction theory cannot explain all our motivations.
Arousal Theory- states that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal, most of us perform best with an optimum level of arousal.
Yerkes-Dobson law –high level of arousal may cause us to perform well at easy tasks but poorly on difficult tasks.
Incentive Theory – sometimes behavior is pulled by a desire, incentives are stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow pointed out that not all needs are created equal
Hunger Motivation – Why do we become hungry
Biological Basis – There are several biological factors
- Stomach sensation of being full
- Hypothalamus, specifically the lateral and ventomedial parts if destroyed or stimulated determine hunger
- Set-point theory, says hypothalamus wants to maintain a certain optimum body weight
- external cues, attractiveness or availability of food
Garcia effect, learned taste aversions -
Culture and background
Eating Disorders – different cultures have drastically different rates of eating disorders, rates are highest in the U.S. The three most common are:
Bulimia – Bulimics eat large amounts of food in a short period of time and then get rid of the food by vomiting, excessive exercise, or the use of laxatives. (Binge then Purge) Bulimics are obsessed with food and their weight, the majority of bulimics are women
Anorexia Nervosa - Anorexics starve themselves to below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight, the vast majority are women
Obesity – People with diagnosed obesity are severely overweight, often over 100 pounds, and the excess weight threatens their health. Obese people typically have unhealthy eating habits rather than the food obsessions of the other two disorders. Some people may also be genetically predisposed to obesity
Social Motivation –
Achievement Motivation – Humans seem to be motivated to figure out our world
and master skills, sometimes regardless of the benefits of the skills or knowledge. Studies involve looking at differences in how people set and meet personal goals and go about acquiring new knowledge or skills.